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研究生:許彥智
研究生(外文):Hsu, Yen-Chih
論文名稱:三階中性點箝位轉換器空間向量調變技術與電壓平衡控制之開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of Space Vector Modulation Techniques and Voltage Balancing Control for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Converters
指導教授:鄭博泰
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Po-Tai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:三階中性點箝位轉換器空間向量調變技術中性點電壓平衡控制零序注入電壓空白時間補償
外文關鍵詞:Three-level neutral-point-clamped convertersSpace vector modulation techniquesNeutral-point voltage balacing controlZero-sequence injection voltageDead-time compensation
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三階中性點箝位轉換器常被用來做為高功率應用例如馬達驅動之轉換器。與二階轉換器相比,三階中性點箝位轉換器之開關元件跨壓,在相同的直流鏈電壓下只有二階轉換器的一半。三階中性點箝位轉換器可輸出三個等級的相電壓,與五個等級的線對線電壓。故能夠有效降低輸出電壓與電流的諧波成份。

三階中性點箝位轉換器的操作效能與其脈寬調變的方式有很大的關係。在常見的脈寬調變技術有兩大分類:弦波-三角波調變法以及空間向量調變法。本文選擇了弦波-三角波調變法中的相位配置脈寬調變法,較空間向量調變法簡單且易於控制器中實現,並能減少控制器運算量。利用三相電壓命令計算適當的零序注入電壓,便可以得到等效於空間向量調變法之控制應用,能提升直流鏈電壓利用率,並有效減少轉換器輸出電壓與電流的諧波失真。

中性點電位的浮動問題是三階中性點箝位轉換器的重要議題之一。在一些不平衡的負載或是非常態的切換方式下,中性點電壓可能會持續變動或是漂移到不受控制的準位。導致輸出性能的降低,甚至引起開關元件過壓而損壞。本文以空間向量調變法中的多餘切換狀態分析中性點電流,並提出以載波調變技術為基礎加入零序注入電壓控制多餘切換狀態的控制法。能依照直流鏈電容分壓的資訊選擇適當的多餘切換狀態對電容充放電,達到中性點電位控制的效果。本文所提出之控制法能透過模擬與實驗的結果驗證。

Three-level neutral-point-clamped converters are usually chosen for high-power applications as motor drive. Comparing with two-level converts, three-level neutral-point-clamped converters have half the voltage stress on switching device for the same DC-link voltage. The three-level neutral-point-clamped converters are able to output 3 level-step-shaped phase voltage and 5 level-step-shaped line-to-line voltage. So it can reduce harmonics in the output voltage and current.

The performance of a three-level neutral-point-clamped converters depends on its PWM modulation. In the two classic PWM : sine-triangle modulation and space-vector modulation, this thesis chooses phase disposition PWM of sine-triangle modulation in terms of simple and easy implementation by adding zero-sequence injection voltage for different control.

The neutral point potential fluctuation is an important problem for three-level neutral-point-clamped converters. Under certain conditions like unbalanced load or non-uniform switching, the neutral point potential can fluctuate or continuously drift to uncontrollable levels. The output performance will become lower and the switching device may fail due to overvoltage stress. In this thesis the neutral current is analyzed through redundant switching states of space vector PWM. Then a voltage balancing control technique is presented by adding a zero-sequence voltage to carrier based modulation. This method utilizes suitable redundant switching states to charge or discharge the capacitors, and controls the neutral point potential. The proposed method is validated by simulation and experimental results.

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 簡介 1
1.2 研究方向 2
1.3 論文架構 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 簡介 3
2.2三階中性點箝位轉換器之弦波─三角波調變技術 4
2.3三階中性點箝位轉換器之空間向量調變法 8
2.4電容中性點電位控制 17
2.4.1 以載波調變技術實現中性點電位控制 17
2.4.2 以空間向量法實現中性點電位控制 20
2.5 結論 23
第三章 操作原理與控制理論 24
3.1 簡介 24
3.2以載波調變技術為基礎之三階空間向量調變法 25
3.3以載波調變技術為基礎之電容中性點電位控制 32
3.4具空白時間補償功能之三階整合式脈寬調變器 41
3.4.1 三階中性點箝位轉換器空白時間製造 41
3.4.2 三階中性點箝位轉換器之空白時間補償器 45
第四章 模擬結果 52
4.1 簡介 52
4.2三階空間向量調變法之模擬波形 54
4.2.1三階空間向量調變法之開迴路模擬波形 54
4.2.2三階空間向量調變法之閉迴路模擬波形 58
4.3電容中性點電位控制模擬波形 65
4.3.1電容中性點電位控制法之開迴路模擬波形 66
4.3.2 電容中性點電位控制法之閉迴路模擬波形 70
4.3.3 不同功率因數與工作點之中性點電位控制波形 72
4.3.4 與傳統PI控制器中性點電控制法的比較 74
4.4 結論 77
第五章 實驗結果與分析 78
5.1 簡介 78
5.2三階空間向量調變法之實驗波形 81
5.2.1三階空間向量調變法之開迴路量測波形 82
5.2.2三階空間向量調變法之閉迴路量測波形 85
5.3電容中性點電位控制實驗波形 89
5.3.1 電容中性點電位控制法之開迴路量測波形 90
5.3.2 電容中性點電位控制法之閉迴路量測波形 95
5.3.3 不同的電壓誤差容忍範圍量測波形 99
5.4 結論 105
第六章 總結與未來工作 106
6.1 總結 106
6.2 未來工作 107
參考文獻 108

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[2] G. Carrara, S. Gardella, M. Marchesoni, R. Salutari and G. Sciutto, “A New Multilevel PWM Method A Theoretical Analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 7, NO. 3, July 1992, pp.497-505.

[3] Agelidis and M. Calais, “Application Specific Harmonic Performance Evaluation of Multicarrier PWM Techniques”, in Conf. Rec. 1998 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 172-178.

[4] B. P. McGrath and D. G. Holmes, “A comparison of multicarrier PWM strategies for cascaded and neutral point clamped multilevel inverters,” in Proc. Conf. IEEE PESC Meeting, 2000, pp. 674–679.

[5] F. Wang, “Sine-triangle vs. space vector modulation for three-level PWM voltage source inverters,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, 2000, pp. 2482–2488.

[6] B. P. McGrath, D. G. Holmes, and T. A. Lipo, “Optimized space vector switching sequences for multilevel inverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 6, Nov. 2003, pp. 1293–1301.

[7] T. Br¨uckner and D. G. Holmes, “Optimal pulse width modulation for three-level inverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 1,, Jan. 2005, pp. 82–89.

[8] S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, “A vector control system using a neutral-point-clamped voltage source PWM inverter,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, 1991, pp. 422–427.

[9] S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, “Analysis of variation of neutral point potential in neutral point clamped voltage source PWM inverters,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting, 1993, pp. 965–970.

[10] C. Newton and M. Sumner, “Neutral Point Control for Multi-level Inverters: theory, design and operational limitations,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting,1997, pp 1336-1343.

[11] O. Ojo and S. Konduru, “A discontinuous carrier-based PWM modulation method for the control of neutral point voltage of three-phase three-level diode clamped converters,” in Proc. IEEE 36th Annu. PESC, Recife, Brazil, Jun. 2005, pp. 1652–1658.

[12] R. M. Tallam, R. Naik, and T. A. Nondahl, “A carrier-based PWM scheme for neutral-point voltage balancing in three-level inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 6 , Nov./Dec. 2005, pp. 1734–1743

[13] H. Akagi and T Hatada, “Voltage balancing control for a three-level diode clamped converter in a medium-voltage transformerless hybrid active filter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, Mar. 2009, pp. 571–579.

[14] K. Yamanaka, A. M. Hava, H. Kirino, Y. Tanaka, N. Koga, and T. Kume, “A novel neutral point potential stabilization technique using the information of output current polarities and voltage vector,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,vol. 38, no. 6, Nov./Dec. 2002, pp. 1572–1580.

[15] N. Celanovic and D. Borojevic, “A comprehensive study of neutral-point voltage balancing problem in three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage source PWM inverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15,, Mar. 2000, pp. 242–249.

[16] H. D. T. Mouton, “Natural balancing of three-level neutral-point-clamped PWM inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 5 , Oct. 2002, pp. 1017–1024.

[17] A. K. Gupta and A. M. Khambadkone, “A simple space vector PWM scheme to operate a three-level NPC inverter at high modulation index including over modulation region, with neutral point balancing,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 43, no. 3, May./Jun. 2007, pp. 751–760.

[18] J. Holtz and N. Oiknomous, “Neutral point potential balancing algorithm at low modulation index for three-level inverter medium-voltage drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 43, no. 3, May./Jun. 2007, pp. 761–768.

[19] S. Busquets-Monge, S. Alepuz, J. Bordonau, and J. Peracaula, “Voltage balancing control of diode clamped multilevel converters with passive front-ends,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 4, Jul. 2008, pp. 1751–1758.

[20] S. Jeong and M. Park, “The analysis and compensation of dead-time effects in PWM inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 38, Apr. 1991, pp. 108–114.

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