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研究生:林仕岳
研究生(外文):Lin, Shi-Yue Jeff
論文名稱:漢語反身性質與反身述語
論文名稱(外文):On Reflexivity and Reflexive Predicate in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:蔡維天蔡維天引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Wei-tien Dylan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:反身性質反身述語論旨角色反身指示詞
外文關鍵詞:reflexivityreflexive predicatetheta-roleanaphora
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本文將焦點放在中文的自—動詞結構並探討漢語中的反身性質與反身述語,自—動詞結構在文中被分為兩類,分別是論元性質與修飾語性質。
論元性質的自—動詞結構指的是帶有反身語義的反身述語,其特性則列在下方:

(1). 論元性質的自—動詞結構:

a. 特性一:該結構具有反身語義
b. 特性二:自的前行語必須是近程的
c. 特性三:自在刪略結構中並不具有歧異現象
d. 特性四:自只有純反身語義(pure-reflexivity),沒有近似反身語義(near-reflexivity)
e. 特性五:自—動詞在漢語中屬於封閉的一類,其創造性(productivity)有限

論元性質的自—動詞結構的特性顯示自應該有不同於自己的分析,我在文中採納Reinhart and Reuland (1993)的看法並且主張自應該分析為反身標記(reflexive-mark)述語的詞彙功能(lexical function)符號,換句話說,自的功能為綁束一詞彙中的論旨特徵(theta feature) (Reinhart 2002).,這個分析能提供論元性質的自—動詞結構一個較為自然的解釋,另外在文中也探討關於反身述語的語言類型學,我根據Reinhart and Siloni (2005)的詞彙—句法變數(lexicon-syntax parameter)提出漢語應該歸類為詞彙語言(lexicon language)。
另一方面,我提出修飾語性質的自—動詞結構的特性,並且認為該結構在語義部門中仍然包含語義上的反身述語。

(2). 修飾語性質的自—動詞結構:

a. 特性一:修飾語性質的自—動詞結構可以帶一個內論元角色(internal argument)
b. 特性二:兩種解讀:非致使性(anti-causativity)與非同伴性(anti-comitativity)
c. 特性三:該結構並不具創造性
d. 特性四:假反身例格結構(quasi-reflexive ECM)的空主語與前行語必須為近程關係
e. 特性五:該結構的論元具有不可分關係以及自—動詞的封鎖效應(blocking effect)

本文的分析提出修飾語性質的自—動詞結構的兩種解讀是與論旨特徵結合後所帶出的,此外,我主張修飾語性質的自—動詞結構中的包孕子句事實上包含了一個空主語PRO,而該空主語與主要子句的主語則由λ運符建立連結關係,最後,該分析補足了詞彙—句法變數不足之處與問題,換言之,一個詞彙語言,例如漢語,也可能出現類似反身例格結構的假反身例格結構。


This thesis provides an investigation to the notion of reflexivity and reflexive predicate, and focus on the two types of zi—‘self’—constructions: argumental type and adverbial type.
The argumental zi-construction refers to the reflexive predicate which expresses the meaning of reflexive. Firstly, the properties of the argumental zi-construction are provided.

(1). Argumental zi-construction:

a. Property I: the argumental zi-construction is reflexive.
b. Property II: the antecedent of zi must be local.
c. Propert III: zi is unambiguous in VP ellipsis construction.
d. Propert IV: near-reflexivity is prohibited in the argumental zi-construction.
e. Propert V: the set of zi-verbs is opaque and unproductive.

The properties indicate that zi should be analyzed differently from the bare reflexive ziji ‘self’. I follow Reinhart and Reuland (1993) to argue that zi is a marker of lexical function which reflexive-marks a given predicate. Furthermore, the detail of the process of reflexive-marking is provided. Specifically, zi plays the role of being an arity operation which reflexive bundles the theta features in a given lexical entry (Reinhart 2002). The analysis would provide a natural account to the properties of the argumental zi-construction and the divergence between zi and ziji. Besides, the typological issues about reflexive predicate is discussed, and I propose that Mandarin Chinese should be set to the lexicon language according to Reinhart and Reuland’s (2005) lexicon-syntax parameter.
The properties of the adverbial zi-construction are demontrated here, and I argue that the adverbial zi-construction conveys a reflexive predicate in the semantic component.

(2). Adverbial zi-construction:

a. Property I: The adverbial zi-construction can take an internal argument.
b. Property II: the interpretation is twofold: anti-causativity and anti-comitativity.
c. Property III: the adverbial zi-construction is unproductive.
d. Property IV: the empty subject in the quasi-reflexive ECM is locally bound.
e. Property V: inalienable possession and the zi-verb blocking effect.

The analysis shows that the reflexive semantic predicate of the adverbial zi-construction combines with the theta features to bring out the anti-causativity reading and anti-comitativity reading (Tsai 2005, 2006), respectively. In addition, I propose that the adverbial zi-construction which takes a CP as an internal argument in fact involves a λ-operator and a PRO in the embedded clause (Chierchia 1989). Finally, the analysis complement the deficiency of the lexicon-syntax parameter about the problem of reflexive ECM construction. That is, a lexicon language may allow a quasi-reflexive ECM construction which contains a PRO as the empty subject.


CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2. ARGUMENTAL ZI-CONSTRUCTION 7
2.1. Setting the Stage 7
2.2. Literature Review 15
2.2.1. Cliticization 15
2.2.2. Lexical Operation 23
2.2.3. Unaccusative Hypothesis 26
2.3. Argumental Zi-Construction and Its Analysis 34
2.3.1. The First Component: Predicate-Centered Binding Theory 34
2.3.2. The Second Component: The Theta System 38
2.3.3. The Third Component: An Arity Operation 42
2.4. Explanation of Properties and Some Remarks on Typology 45
2.4.1. Explaining the Properties of the Argumental Zi-Construction 46
2.4.2. Some Remarks on Typology 51
2.5. Summary 57
CHAPTER 3. ADVERBIAL ZI-CONSTRUCTION 59
3.1. Setting the Stage 59
3.2. Literature Review 69
3.2.1. Correspondence between Syntax and Morphology 69
3.2.2. Reflexive Adverbial Ziji and Only 74
3.3. Adverbial Zi-Construction and Its Analysis 81
3.3.1. Predicate-Centered Binding Theory 82
3.3.2. Properties of the Adverbial Zi-Construction 87
3.4. Summary 101
CHAPTER 4. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FURTHER CONSEQUENCES 102
REFERENCES 103



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