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研究生:方慧林
研究生(外文):Fang, Huilin
論文名稱:漢語「有」字句的動詞分析
論文名稱(外文):The Mandarin Existential Construction: A Verbal Analysis of you
指導教授:林宗宏林宗宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Tzong-Hong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:漢語句法存在句形式語法
外文關鍵詞:Mandarin Chinese syntaxexistential sentenceformal syntax
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本篇文章探討的是中文的一種存在句型,「有」字句的結構,並先著重討論把「有」放在句首的「有」字句句型。此句型的基本結構為[有 NP XP]。XP是個有尚爭議的詞組。在過去的文獻中對句首的「有」的分析,主要分為兩大類。一類視「有」為一動詞,其詞類和其他的存在動詞相同。另一類理論將「有」視為一個功能詞類,或為一曲折詞組的中心語,或為一情態助動詞。將「有」視為動詞的分析中,「有」後的名詞組是「有」的賓語,而XP則為一個附加語。在將「有」視為功能詞的分析中,「有」後的名詞組則被視為一個謂語內部的主語,而XP是主要謂語。
本文提供了幾個佐證,證明「有」為一個動詞成分,而非一個功能詞。這些證據包含情態助動詞與「有」的相對位置、「有」與句子中的左緣結構(left periphery)成分的位置關係、「有」與句中的知識模態詞(epistemic modal)之間的修飾範域的相互作用,以及特定的時間副詞在句中的位置。這些證據證明了「有」為一動詞,則緊跟著「有」的名詞組勢必為「有」的賓語,而XP則為一個附加語。
在本文的第二個部分中,則討論其他兩種「有」字句句型和句首的「有」字句句型之間的異同。另外兩種「有」字句分別為以時間詞為主語的「有」字句和以位置詞做為主語的「有」字句。這三種「有」字句的結構中含有兩類輕動詞,一類是表發生的輕動詞(OCCUR),一類則是表存在的輕動詞(EXIST)。在以時間詞做為主語的「有」字句中,主語是由表發生的輕動詞所選擇的;反之,以位置詞做為主語的「有」字句和「有」位於句首的「有」字句的主語,則可以由表存在和表發生的輕動詞來選擇。這兩種輕動詞的差異可以由「有」的賓語和副加語XP的選擇上顯現出來。表發生的輕動詞必須要有一個事件性(eventivity)的成分,而表存在的輕動詞則無此限制。
This work starts with the discussion on the existential sentence formed by you, literally meaning ‘have’, in Mandarin Chinese, especially on the type of sentence in which you is at the sentence-initial position. This type of you construction is called the sentence-initial you, which has the basic structure [you NP XP]. XP is a phrase that whose syntactic status is questionable. In the previous studies, you is regarded as either a verbal element or a “functional” category. According to the verbal analysis, you is an existential verb. The post-you NP is the object, and the XP is an adjunct. According to the “functional” analysis, on the other hand, you is a functional head. The post-you NP is a predicate-internal subject, and the XP is the main predicate.
From the evidence provided in this work, I propose that you is a verb. These pieces of evidence include modal constructions, sentences with elements in the left periphery under Rizzi’s definition (Rizzi 2004), and the position of some of the temporal adverbs, such as xian ‘first’, in Mandarin. Since you is a verb, the XP is not the main predicate of the sentence, and thereby an adjunct.
In the second part of this work, I discuss other two types of you along with the sentence-initial you, the locative you and the temporal you, both are regarded as verb. The locative you takes a locative subject, and the temporal you takes a temporal subject. Following the theory of Lin (2001) that subjects in Mandarin Chinese are selected by different light verbs, I propose that the differences can be explained by the light verbs that you take. There are two light verbs involved, the light verb EXIST and the light verb OCCUR. EXIST describes a relatively static event, and OCCUR a relatively non-static one. OCCUR is thus required to take an “eventive” element in the sentence, which can be either an eventive object or an XP with non-static reading. On the other hand, EXIST does not have this restriction. The temporal subject of the temporal you can be selected only by OCCUR. The locative subject of the locative you construction and the empty subject of the sentence-initial you construction can be selected by either OCCUR and EXIST. That the light verb projection exists in these you constructions indicates that the sentence-initial you, along with the locative you and the temporal you, are all verbs, not spell-out of an existential quantifier.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 III
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 PREVIOUS STUDIES ON THE YOU CONSTRUCTIONS IN MANDARIN CHINESE 5
2.1 THE CLASSIFICATION OF YOU CONSTRUCTIONS IN MANDARIN CHINESE 5
2.2 SENTENCE-INITIAL YOU IN EXISTENTIAL CONSTRUCTIONS 10
2.2.1 You as an Auxiliary 19
2.2.2 You as the head of IP 20
2.2.3 You as a modal 23
2.3 YOU AS PART OF DP 29
2.4 AMBIGUITY OF THE SENTENCE-INITIAL YOU 33
2.5 SUMMARY 35
CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF THE SENTENCE-INITIAL YOU 37
3.1 INTRODUCTION 37
3.2 THE VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF THE SENTENCE-INITIAL YOU 37
3.2.1 General features 37
3.2.3 Aspect Markers 41
3.3 THE STATUS OF XP: CP 44
3.3.1 The left periphery 44
3.3.2 Temporal adverbs 50
3.4 THE EPISTEMIC CONTAINMENT PRINCIPLE 52
3.5 THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE OF XP 55
3.5.1 Against the complement analysis 56
3.5.2 The post-you NP and XP do not form a constituent 59
3.5.3 The operator-binding analysis 63
3.5.4 Left-adjunction of XP 64
3.6 CONCLUSION 70
CHAPTER 4 LIGHT VERBS AND THE SUBCATEGORIZATION OF YOU 71
4.1 SUBCATEGORIZATION OF THE YOU CONSTRUCTIONS 71
4.2 THE UNACCUSATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTENTIAL VERBS IN MANDARIN CHINESE 71
4.2.1 The unaccusative analysis 71
4.2.2 Problems of the unaccusative analysis 75
4.2.3 The sentence-final locative phrase as a CP adjunct 76
4.2.4 The subject of the sentence-initial you 78
4.3 LIGHT VERB SYNTAX AND SUBJECT SELECTION IN THE YOU CONSTRUCTIONS 80
4.3.1 The temporal you and the locative you constructions 80
4.3.2 The sentence-initial you constructions 82
4.3.3 Informativeness 83
4.3.4 Eventivity and dynamicity 86
4.3.5 Light verbs in Mandarin Chinese 87
4.3.6 Eventivity of NP 90
4.3.7 Parsons (1990) 90
4.3.8 Larson (1998) 92
4.3.9 Eventivity and classifiers in Mandarin Chinese 94
4.3.10 Eventive vs. non-eventive NPs in locative and temporal you constructions 97
4.3.11 Eventive vs. non-eventive object in the sentence-initial you construction 99
4.3.12 The dynamicity of the XP 102
4.3.13 OCCUR and EXIST in the sentence-initial you construction 103
4.4 CONCLUSION 106
REFERENCE 108

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