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研究生:黃天科
研究生(外文):Huang, Tien-Ke
論文名稱:ABit-StuffingAlgorithmforCrosstalkAvoidanceinHighSpeedBuses
論文名稱(外文):高速匯流排中避免串擾之位元填充演算法
指導教授:鄭傑鄭傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Jay
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:位元填充匯流排編碼串擾避免禁制轉變通道禁制轉變碼禁制重疊碼高速匯流排高速交換機能量消耗
外文關鍵詞:bit stuffingbus encodingcrosstalk avoidanceforbidden transition channelsforbidden transition codesforbidden overlap codeshigh speed buseshigh speed switchingenergy consumption
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Motivated by the design of high speed switching fabrics, in this thesis we propose a bit-stuffing algorithm for generating forbidden transition codes that avoid opposite transitions on any two adjacent wires in order to mitigate the crosstalk effect between adjacent wires in long on-chip buses. We first model a bus under the constraint that there are no opposite transitions on any two adjacent wires of the bus as a forbidden transition channel, and derive the Shannon capacity of such a channel which serves as the fundamental limit on the coding rate of any forbidden transition code. Then we perform a worst-case analysis and a probabilistic analysis for the bit-stuffing algorithm. We show by both theoretic analysis and simulations that the coding rate of the bit-stuffing encoding scheme for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Bernoulli input data traffic is quite close to the Shannon capacity, and hence is much better than those of the existing forbidden transition codes in the literature, including the Fibonacci representation. Furthermore, we extend the bit-stuffing encoding scheme for generating forbidden overlap codes that avoid the two transition patterns“010→101”and“101→010”on any three adjacent wires. Finally, we derive energy consumption analyses for several bus encoding schemes, including the bit-stuffing encoding scheme, the bus-invert coding scheme, and forbidden pattern codes, based on a bus energy consumption model for deep submicron technology. Our analyses show that the bit-stuffing encoding scheme also achieves good energy efficiency.
因應高速交換核心的設計需求,在這篇論文中我們提出一個位元填充演算法用以產生一個禁制轉變碼 (forbidden transition codes),將資料在晶片內高速匯流排中傳送前編碼,以減低資料傳送時鄰近導線之間的串擾效應 (crosstalk effect)。禁制轉變碼乃藉由避免相鄰兩條導線同時產生相反方向的信號轉變,進而達到減低串擾的效果。在相鄰兩條導線不可出現相反方向的信號轉變的限制條件之下,我們首先將高速匯流排轉化為一個禁制轉變通道模型,並推導出其Shannon通道容量,而該通道容量即為所有可能的禁制轉變碼的編碼率之理論最佳值。接著我們針對所提出的位元填充演算法進行最壞情況 (worst-case) 分析及機率分析。透過理論分析及模擬結果,我們證明位元填充編碼架構對於獨立且同分佈的伯努利輸入資料,其編碼率相當接近Shannon通道容量,同時也遠超過文獻中的其他禁制轉變碼之編碼架構,包括費伯納西表示法 (Fibonacci representation)。此外,我們將位元填充編碼架構延伸並用於產生禁制重疊碼 (forbidden overlap codes),藉由避免相鄰三條導線產生010→101及101→010的信號轉變,進而達到減低串擾的效果。最後,我們基於一個考慮深次微米製程的匯流排能量消耗模型,針對幾種匯流排編碼架構進行能量消耗分析,其中包括位元填充編碼架構、匯流排反相 (bus-invert) 編碼架構、及禁制樣型碼 (forbidden pattern codes)。透過理論分析,我們證明位元填充編碼架構從能量消耗的觀點來看也具有良好的效率。
中文摘要 i
致謝辭 iii
Abstract v
Contents vii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Contributions and Outline of the Thesis . . . . . . 3
2 Forbidden Transition Codes 7
2.1 Forbidden Transition Channels . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 The Bit-Stuffing Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.1 Worst-Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.2 Probabilistic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.3 An Approximate Probabilistic Analysis . . . . . . 22
3 Forbidden Overlap Codes 25
3.1 Forbidden Overlap Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 The Bit-Stuffing Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.2.1 Worst Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2.2 Probabilistic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.2.3 Approximate Probabilistic Analysis . . . . . . . 43
4 Energy Consumption Analysis 47
4.1 Uncoded Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.2 Bit-Stuffing Encoding Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.3 Bus-Invert Coding Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.4 Forbidden Pattern Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5 Conclusion 69
Appendix A Proofs of Lemmas and Theorems in Chapter 2 73
A.1 Proof of Lemma 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
A.2 Proof of Lemma 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
A.3 Proof of Lemma 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
A.4 Proof of Theorem 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
A.5 Proof of Theorem 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Appendix B Proofs of Lemmas and Theorems in Chapter 3 81
B.1 Proof of Lemma 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
B.2 Proof of Lemma 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
B.3 Proof of Lemma 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
B.4 Proof of Theorem 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
B.5 Proof of Theorem 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Appendix C Proofs of Lemmas and Theorems in Chapter 4 97
C.1 Proof of Theorem 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
C.2 Proof of Lemma 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
C.3 Proof of Theorem 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Bibliography 113
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