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研究生:趙龜來
研究生(外文):Gurae Cho
論文名稱:韓國牛浦濕地權益關係者對生態旅遊發展認知之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study on the Stakeholder’s Perception of EcotourismDevelopment in Upo Wetland, South Korea
指導教授:薛怡珍薛怡珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Chen Hsueh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:生態旅遊研究所碩士班
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:生態旅遊牛浦濕地權益關係者社區參與認知
外文關鍵詞:Community ParticipationStakeholdersUpo WetlandEcotourismPerception
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當19世紀旅遊被視為是無煙囪工業的同時,也忽略旅遊所為環境帶來的負面衝擊。然而,大眾旅遊因開始對生態及社經文化產生衝擊而飽受批評,因此一個稱之為永續發展的新典範「生態旅遊」崛起。人們開始討論及尋求如何可以讓環境永續利用的替代性旅遊機制,因此生態旅遊因應而生,也開始逐漸受到歡迎及變成一種旅遊風潮。自80年代生態旅遊出現開始,一些問題也開始產生,舉凡如缺乏經濟利益的考量、沒有足夠的當地社區居民參與、環境因旅遊活動造成衝擊、政府是否有相對的配套措施等議題都面臨被討論及被批評的情況。理想中的生態旅遊會跟在地居民如何共處、資源如何保存、以及旅遊業者如何看待旅遊資源有著密切的關係,也會產生互相有利的關係。但是這個關係不會自動發生!長期來看成功的生態旅遊,是需要政府部門、非政府部門、和當地居民等權益關係者的密切合作,他們需要成為一體。因此,彼此間的關係,在沒有建立共存機制的情況下而貿然開發旅遊目的地,可能很快就會損壞自然資源和鄉土文化。

這個研究的目的是希望透過理想的生態旅遊操作模式,來達到保護生態和增加居民利益。這個觀念是從牛浦濕地的權益關係者來的。這個伙伴關係權益者的組成,包括三個不同鄉村的居民、各鄉村的村長、以及以前住這地區但現在在外地工作的人們、政府官員,還有牛浦濕地的環境NGO成員。本研究以拉姆薩公約所公告的南韓牛浦濕地作為研究基地,從2009年1-7月間進行相關調查,包括調查及分析當地發展生態旅遊的可行性、保育的狀況、當地居民的生活經濟利益等,而深度訪談對象包括當地NGO團體、居民、居民代表、相關政府機構等。本研究透過當地環境現勘及深度訪談調查結果發現:受訪者對於環境保育的議題持正面的看法,但是居民認為其生活經濟利益有被忽略的現象,而曾經到過當地、或曾經住過當地的受訪者都想要再回到此地居住。

儘管牛浦濕地已是拉姆薩公約所公告的濕地基地,也是南韓文化體育觀光局及國家觀光組織重要的生態旅遊教育基地,但它目前卻不是以生態旅遊為基礎去發展的教育基地。本研究也希望從生態旅遊的核心價值、建議及整合研究基地的保育與居民生活經濟利益議題於未來的生態旅遊及濕地發展考量中。
Until nineteen seventies, tourism had been famed as a smokeless industry in the world, and its negative environmental impacts had not focused at all. However, the critics of the mass tourism began to bring the issues on its adverse ecological and socio-cultural affects. With the rise of a new paradigm called sustainable development, many people started to talk about alternative tourism mode which is environmentally sustainable mechanism. Therefore, ecotourism has become increasingly popular, while the ecotourism business became a fad throughout the world.

Since the ecotourism boom in 1980s, a number of problems have arisen, such as lack of economic benefits; insufficient local communities’ participation; environmental impacts by tourists’ activities; problems in the national preservation area’ system; government’s policies.

In an ideal ecotourism, local residents, preserved resources and tourism may benefit each other in an interrelated, symbiotic cooperation. However, this relationship does not happen automatically. The ecotourism industry requires close cooperation among the government sector, the non-governmental sector and the local residents. The long-term success of ecotourism requires a sense of unity among them. Thus, unfortified implement of ecotourism without mutual sense on the sustainable development can be quickly destroyed in natural resources and also local community.

The purpose of this study were to investigate ideal ecotourism goals which are, conservation and increasing residents’ benefits, based on perceptions from the stakeholders of the Upo wetland. The stake holders are three villages’ residents, villages representatives, people who were residents but now live out of the area, civil officials, and environmental NGO members of the Upo wetland.

This study was undertaken from January to July, 2009. Data were collected from secondary sources including textbooks, journals, government and Non-governmental organization reports, academic research findings, and news paper reports. For this paper focuses on the perception of the stakeholders about ecotourism in the research area, individual and group interviews and informal field conversation were collected from local residents, local government officials and Non-governmental organizations members who are the major stakeholders of local ecotourism development in Upo wetland. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

The study results were as follows:
While the perceptions of environmental conservation among interviewees were positive, the residents’ perceptions about residents’ benefits were severely negative at the wetland. People who used to reside there and then moves out had pride about the Upo and they want to return to live in the Upo wetland area.

Even though Upo wetlands are a Ramsar site which people can easily access among the Korean Ramsar sites and one of the most well known educational ecotourism areas in South Korea by the Ministry of Culture, Sports & Tourism (MCST) and Korea National Tourism Organization (KNTO), the Upo wetland area is not yet an ecotourism site based on the definition of ecotourism goals which seek generating conservation and residents’ benefits in this study. There are suggestions for development of this wetland area. The conservation policy with the residents’ benefits and their satisfaction are carefully recommended.
Abstrac-i
摘要-iii
Acknowledgements-v
Table of contents-vi
List of figures-vii
List of tables-viii
Chapter I. Introduction-1
1.1 Study purpose-2
1.2 Conceptual framework of ecotourism development in South Korea-3
Chapter II. Literature review-5
2.1 Ecotourism in sustainable development-5
2.2 Community-based ecotourism-9
2.3 Positive and negative impacts of ecotourism-10
2.3 Successful cases of community-based ecotourism in Taiwan-16
Chapter III. Research method-21
Chapter IV. Ecotourism in South Korea-25
4.1 Tourism in South Korea-25
4.2 Ecotourism in South Korea-28
Chapter V. Study site-38
5.1 Study site-38
5.2 Research village-44
Chapter VI. Research result-49
Chapter VII. Suggestions & conclusions-55
References-60
Appendix-63
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