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研究生:謝慈雪
論文名稱:國中生社會性科學議題的論證研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Junior High School Students' Argumentation about Socioscientific Issues
指導教授:張永達張永達引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Yung-Ta
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:社會性科學議題論證科學本質國中生
外文關鍵詞:socioscientific issuesargumentnature of sciencethe junior high school students
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本研究以三個社會性科學議題做為教學素材,探討兩組國中學生分別經過和未經過論證寫作,在科學本質觀的差異。研究結果發現實驗組學生(145人)實施論證寫作後,在「了解科學本質量表」的得分顯著高於對照組學生(111人)。
實驗組學生進行論證寫作時,學習單的框架包含五個面向:「自己對於議題的立場」、「依據何種理由支持或反對議題」、「理由背後的證據」、「他人可能的反駁」、「自己對他人反駁的再反駁」。學生在議題二、三的論證完整度顯著高於議題一。尤其是學業成就高分組和中分組學生能提出「反駁、「再反駁」的人數增加了,而低分組學生在三個議題的論證能力則沒有顯著差異。
學生支持或反對議題的理由大致可區分為依賴直覺、依賴情感、依賴理性三種,其中多數的理由是依賴情感或理性,只有少數理由依賴直覺。學生在論證的過程中使論證品質降低的原因如下:未提出證據、提出的證據和理由無關、誇大證據的效力、無法察覺他人可能的反駁、無法針對他人的反駁提出再反駁。
This study investigated how argument writing on socioscientific issues (SSI) contributed to the understanding of nature of science among junior high school students. For this purpose, the teaching materials were 3 SSI curriculums. The students of experimental group (N=145) implemented the argument writing, but the students of control group (N=111) did not. The results revealed that the students of experimental group gained higher score in the “Understanding Nature of Science Questionnaire” than the students of control group. (p< .05)
Learning sheets for the students of experimental group included five dimensions of argument writing: the claims in SSI, the reasons for supporting or objecting to SSI, the evidences for the reasons, counter-arguments from others, and the rebuttals to against the counter-arguments. The students appeared elaborate argumentation on the 2nd and 3rd SSI than in the 1st SSI. High academic level students and middle academic level students proposed more valid “counter-arguments” and “rebuttals” in 2nd and 3rd SSI than in the 1st SSI. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of low academic level students’ argumentation in these 3 SSI.
Students supporting or objecting to the SSI by offering warrants of rationalistic, emotive, and intuitive forms. Their warrants often relied on emotions and rationalities, few relied on intuition. Some students’ common mistakes reduced the quality of arguments. These mistakes included the following reasons: some students didn’t show any data to support their claims, some students’ data cannot correspond to their warrants, and some students exaggerate the data. Furthermore, some students cannot perceive other students’ counter-arguments, or they cannot make rebuttals to against counter arguments.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與重要性………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的與問題…………………………………………………………5
第三節 名詞界定…………………………………………………………………6
第四節 研究限制…………………………………………………………………8
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 社會性科學議題…………………………………………………………9
第二節 論證………………………………………………………………………20
第三節 論證寫作…………………………………………………………………36
第四節 科學本質…………………………………………………………………38
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構與研究流程……………………………………………………41
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………………43
第三節 研究設計…………………………………………………………………44
第四節 資料蒐集與分析…………………………………………………………52
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 兩組學生在科學本質觀的表現…………………………………………57
第二節 實驗組學生論證能力的成長……………………………………………64
第三節 學生對於三個議題的支持度……………………………………………83
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論………………………………………………………………………93
第二節 建議………………………………………………………………………96
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………… 99
附錄一……………………………………………………………………………105
附錄二……………………………………………………………………………107
附錄三……………………………………………………………………………109


圖次
圖1-1 社會性科學議題牽涉的層面…………………………………………6
圖2-1.1 社會性科學議題的功能 ……………………………………………15
圖2-2.1 科學家的論證過程 …………………………………………………21
圖2-2.2 Toulmin’s 論證模式……………………………………………22
圖2-2.3 推理、理論、論證對於發展科學構念的關係圖 …………………26
圖2-2.3 論證的潛在貢獻 ……………………………………………………28
圖2-3.1 學生對社會性科學議題的決策分類 ………………………………35
圖3-1.1 研究架構 ……………………………………………………………41
圖3-1.2 研究流程 ……………………………………………………………42
圖3-3.1「亨丁頓氏舞蹈症基因的篩檢議題」教學概念架構圖……………46
圖3-3.2墮胎議題教學概念架構圖……………………………………………47
圖3-3.3胚胎幹細胞教學概念架構圖…………………………………………47
圖3-3.4實驗教室之平面圖……………………………………………………49
圖3-3.5課程進行順序…………………………………………………………50
圖4-1.1兩組學生在「了解科學本質量表」的總分比較……………………59
圖4-1.2兩組學生在「了解科學本質量表」的三個分量表得分比較………61
圖4-2.1學生在三個議題的論證各元素得分次數分配圖……………………65
圖4-2.2學生在三個議題的論證總分平均……………………………………66
圖4-2.3論證SSI時常見的模式……………………………………………… 68
圖4-3.1男女學生對於不同議題的支持度……………………………………79
圖4-3.2學生在議題一的主要意見人數分配…………………………………83
圖4-3.3學生在議題二的主要意見人數分配…………………………………85
圖4-3.4學生在議題三的主要意見人數分配…………………………………87


表次
表2-1.1兩種科學本質觀的比較………………………………………………17
表2-2.1形式推理和非形式推理的比較………………………………………24
表2-2.2論證在科學教育的功能………………………………………………27
表2-2.3Sadler & Donnelly對論證品質的評分…………………………34
表2-4.1兩種科學本質觀的比較………………………………………………38
表2-4-2Bechmarks for Science Literacy中與科學本質有關項目…39
表3-2.1實驗組、對照組學生基本資料一覽…………………………………43
表3-2.2不同班級間生物科學業成績(學期總成績)之比較………………43
表3-3.1議題融入課程時機……………………………………………………48
表3-4.1「了解科學本質量表」(UNOS)構念一覽………………………… 48
表3-4.2學習單評分規準………………………………………………………53
表4-1.1兩組學生在「了解科學本質量表」達到顯著差異的項目…………58
表4-1.2實驗組學生在「了解科學本質量表」中表現較對照組好的題目…61
表4-1.3對照組學生在「了解科學本質量表」中表現較實驗組好的題目…63
表4-2.1學生在三個議題的論證各元素得分一覽……………………………64
表4-2.2學生在三個議題的論證總分比較……………………………………60
表4-2.3學生在三個議題中論證得分的成長…………………………………67
表4-2.4學業成績和三個議題中的論證得分之相關…………………………68
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