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研究生(外文):Hung Chang Hsu
論文名稱:低維度過渡金屬氧化物Bi2Sr2CoO6+δ 與LiCu2O2的單晶成長與物理特性研究
論文名稱(外文):Crystal growth and physical property studies of low dimensional transition metal oxide materials Bi2Sr2CoO6+δ and LiCu2O2
指導教授(外文):Liu, Hsiang-LinChou, Fang-Cheng
外文關鍵詞:LiCu2O2Bi2Sr2CoO6+deltafinite size effectmultiferroicisolated dimer
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在Zn參雜的LiCu2O2樣品中,低濃度(Zn < 5%)的參雜使得樣品的磁有序溫度降至18 K,但是高濃度(Zn > 5 %)的樣品中,配合磁性、電性、晶格與比熱的量測,一個新的磁有序性被發現,並且與理論預測吻合。
The spin-lattice and spin-electric dipole interactions have been the focus on the study of strongly correlated electron materials. Herein, spin-phonon coupling constant and non-magnetic ion substitution effects in the strong correlated low dimensional materials Bi2Sr2CoO6+delta and LiCu2O2 have been studied. For low-dimensional and spin 1/2 system, the impact of quantum fluctuations becomes important for the ground state of the system. The quantum fluctuations is even more pronounced if the system under consideration exhibits strongly frustrated interactions. Single crystal samples were grown by using traveling solvent floating zone method and physical properties have been studied thoroughly.
Bi2Sr2CoO6+delta shows the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition (T_N) from 100 K to 280 K depending on the ratio of Co2+ and Co3+. In a Co3+ rich region, where delta ~ 0.5, T_N is around 280 K. While delta ~ 0.25, where crystal has the equal number of Co2+ and Co3+, except T_N reduces to around 100 K and also exhibits ferromagnetic (FM) behavior. For 0.25 < delta < 0.5, both ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism coexist in the system. The ab-plane infrared and optical reflectance of Bi2Sr2CoO6+delta (delta ~ 0.3 and 0.4 < delta < 0.5) single crystals has been measured over a wide frequency range (50-55000 cm^-1) and at temperatures between 20 and 330 K. The room-temperature infrared spectrum displays an insulating character. The optical gap determined from the infrared conductivity (~ 0.53 eV) is consistent with thermal activation energy from dc transport measurements. Upon passing through the 150 and 265 K antiferromagnetic ordering transition, a softening of the phonon mode near 205 cm^-1 correlates well with the temperature dependent normalized square of the sublattice magnetization. Furthermore, the magnetic-ordering induced splitting of the phonon modes at about 238 and 386 cm^-1 is observed. Additionally, the phonon mode at about 588 cm^-1 exhibits a Fano-like line shape. Since no appreciable structural change was detected at low temperatures in x-ray diffraction studies, all of these observations support the suggestion of a complex nature of spin-phonon coupling in these materials. Floating-zone growth of untwinned single crystal of LixCu2-zZnzO2 is reported. Li content of Zn free LixCu2O2 has been determined accurately through combined iodometric titration and thermogravimetric methods, which also ruled out the speculation of chemical disorder between Li and Cu ions. The morphology and physical properties of single crystals obtained from slowing-cooling (SL) and floating-zone (FZ) methods are compared. The floating-zone growth under Ar/O2=7:1 gas mixture at 0.64 MPa produces large area of untwinned crystal with highest Li content of x ~ 0.99 , which has the lowest helimagnetic ordering temperature ~ 19 K in the LixCu2O2 system. Helical ordering transition temperature (T_h) of the original LiCu2O2 follows nite size scaling for less than ~ 5.5% Zn substitution, which implies that the existence of finite helimagnetic domains with domain boundaries formed with nearly isolated spins. Higher Zn substitution > 5.5% quenches the long range helical ordering and introduces an intriguing Zn level dependent magnetic phase transition with slight thermal hysteresis and a universal quadratic eld dependence for Tc(Zn > 0.055,H). The magnetic coupling constants of nearest-neighbor (nn) J1 and next-nearest-neighbor (nnn) J2 (alpha=J2/J1) are extracted from high temperature series expansion (HTSE) fitting and N=16 finite chain exact diagnolization simulation. We have provided evidence of direct correlation between long range helical spin ordering and the magnitude of electric polarization in this spin driven multiferroic material also.
1 Introduction 2
2 Brief survey of Bi2Sr2CoO6+ and LixCu2O2 7
2.1 Bi2Sr2CoO6+delta 7
2.1.1 Material synthesis 7
2.1.2 Physical properties 8
2.2 LiCu2O2 17
2.2.1 Material synthesis 17
2.2.2 Physical properties 19
3 Theoretical background 53
3.1 Optical theory 53
3.2 Magnetic susceptibility 58
3.2.1 Larmor diamagnetism and Van Vleck paramagnetism 58
3.2.2 Curie-Weiss Law 61
3.2.3 Heisenberg model 64
3.3 High temperature series expansion 67
4 Experimental techniques 73
4.1 Optical spectrometers 73
4.2 Raman-scattering setup 77
4.3 X-ray powder diraction 78
4.4 Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, SQUID 81
5 Spin-phonon coupling in antiferromagnetic Bi2Sr2CoO6+delta: An infrared reflectance study 89
5.1 Crystal growth 89
5.2 X-ray powder diffraction 90
5.3 Magnetic properties 92
5.4 Optical reflectance 92
5.5 Electronic excitations 96
5.6 Vibrational properties 97
5.7 Raman scattering 103
5.8 Summary 105
6 Li non-stoichiometry and crystal growth of untwinned quasi-two-dimensional quantum spin system Li1-zCu2O2 129
6.1 Crystal growth and physical properties 129
6.2 Twinning structure of Li1-zCu2O2 132
6.3 Li content and Cu valence 132
6.4 Magnetic properties 135
6.5 Summary 137
7 Effects of substitution of Zn for Cu in quasi two-dimensional quantum spin system LiCu2O2 147
7.1 Crystal growth and Zn substitution consideration 148
7.2 Magnetic properties 150
7.3 Specific heat 156
7.4 Electric polarization 157
7.5 Summary 158
8 Thesis summary 170
Reference 172
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