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研究生:簡伯如
研究生(外文):CHIEN, PO-JU
論文名稱:自我注視/監視的奇觀:1840-1880年間法國攝影師自拍像
論文名稱(外文):The Observed Spectacle of Moi: The Self-Portraits of French Photographers,1840-1880
指導教授:楊永源楊永源引用關係林志明林志明引用關係
指導教授(外文):YANG, YUNG-YUANLIN, CHI-MING
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:美術學系
學門:藝術學門
學類:美術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:201
中文關鍵詞:自拍像再現認同自我分身景框主體性現代性早期攝影師攝影工作坊19世紀攝影
外文關鍵詞:photographic self-portraitsrepresentationidentityselfdoubleframesubjectivitymodernityprimitive photographersateliers of photographers19th-century photography
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:1943
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:238
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:6
本文旨在透過1840~1880年間法國攝影師自拍像,探究其個人再現與攝影實踐,以及他們如何藉此與社會溝通,形塑其身分認同。鑑於過去早期自拍像研究受限於作者論觀點,側重影像的技術革新與形式美感,忽略攝影的媒體本質,及其獨特的觀看機制和接受脈絡如何對影像製作與符號指涉發揮作用。本文將結合後結構主義和視覺文化觀點,透過社會學式的歷史考察與文獻分析,重構早期攝影師紛雜、多變的社會身分,突顯其在現實與再現、社會與自我認同之間的衝突與相應,為面貌殊異的早期自拍像提出一套建立在攝影初始,正反論述交織、彼此對話的詮釋架構,主要是在:技術/藝術、公/私、職業/業餘、意欲/意外等四個端點之間相互擺盪、滑移,形成一充滿張力的多重論述網絡。
第一章以Félix Nadar等博學攝影家為例,闡述早期攝影在技術與藝術上的交會。攝影雖因機械複製性與藝術對抗,卻也為科學家和藝術家建立新的合作關係,使肖像意涵與再現模式重獲省視、發生轉變,傳統肖像語彙的借用,為早期攝影師在布爾喬亞與波西米亞文化品味之爭中尋得雙贏可能。第二章以Hippolyte Bayard、Victor Hugo、Castiglione女伯爵為例,說明系列自拍像成為早期攝影者施展權利、主張自我的媒介,攝影加速個人意識的傳播,公與私領域的界線重新分野,自拍像由公眾形象的塑造過渡到私密性的揭露,展現變換自如、奇觀化的自我扮演。第三章對照商業攝影師Disdéri和業餘攝影家Olympe Aguado,呈顯早期攝影者社會角色和攝影實踐的多元與流動性。當時自拍像雖不乏新意,然在商業實用取向下難逃單調重複,又以名片卡肖像最能體現早期攝影師發達之夢下的取捨。第四章以達蓋爾版和現存少數意外影像為例,闡述早期攝影混雜真實與幻覺、自然與人造的對立概念。攝影兼具現實自身與其再現的媒材屬性,模糊了西方自來以圖像作為真實之鏡的再現框架。框架破除的意外影像在19世紀末遂成一大眾娛樂,影像透過現實的擷取向觀者提出意義,自拍像不再受過去單一、靜態、內聚的景框所限,開始朝向多元、動態、外推的界外之域,突顯影像作為現實切片的無盡連續和意義的開敞性。
早期自拍像投射出多重、矛盾的分裂主體,19世紀下半葉人們雖主張是獨立個體,實受社會框架定義,其自我再現看似複多,實則單一。攝影師轉從影像框架觀看自身,從而衍生無數我的分身,攝影造就複多卻類型化的百變自我,亦應合片段、偶然、瞬時即逝的現代美學觀。早期自拍像無異是攝影、自我、現代性等三個論述軸線交集於西方現代晚期的有力論域。

The purpose of the dissertation is to investigate the photographic self-portraits and practice of early French photographers, 1840-1880, and to probe into how they identify and fashion themselves through these images. The discussion of early self-portraits has been confined to technical innovation and formal analysis, and the spectatorship and receptive context of these images have been neglected. With poststructuralist perspectives on subjectivity and photography’s discursive spaces, the research tends to reconstruct varied and mobile roles of early photographers through historical investigation, and to manifest the contest and conformity between their social roles and self-imagery. It aims to examine these conflicting self-representations based on multiple, and seemly contradictory origins of early photographic discourses, mainly the debates of science vs. art, publicity vs. privacy, photographers vs. amateurs, and the artificial vs. the unintended.
The first chapter focuses mainly on Félix Nadar and some erudite scientists whose self-portraits exemplify early photography as an art medium as well as its use in scientific practice. The second chapter analyzes the self-portrait series of Hippolyte Bayard, Victor Hugo, and Comtesse de Castiglione as fictionalized autobiographies to assert themselves by publicizing their private lives. In the third chapter, the contrast of A. A. E. Disdéri and Olympe Aguado provides the focus of a reexamination of versatile photographic practice and social roles of early photographers, which make their self-portraits paradoxically artistic and commercial, innovative and repetitive. The fourth chapter explores Daguerre’s daguerreotype portraits, which trace the duality of reality and illusion in early photographic discourse. Few remaining unintended images blurring the inside and outside of the picture frame have turned out to be recreational spectacles in the second half of the 19th century, which unfold the contingent and mobile nature of modern realities.
The contradictory selves revealed in the self-portraits address modernity of the discrepant self/subject in the fin-de-siècle. As metteurs-en-scène, early photographers create numerous but unitary doubles through these images. The study on the photographic self-portraits of early French photographers demonstrated the discourses of photography, self, and modernity interweaving in the late modern period
授權書..........................................................................................................................iii
論文通過證書................................................................................................................v
圖版目錄.......................................................................................................................xi
謝辭........................................................................................................................xxv
摘要......................................................................................................................xxvii
Abstract.....................................................................................................................xxix
緒 論............................................................................................................................1
第一章技術與藝術的選擇........................................................................................25
第一節早期攝影史中以技術者定位的攝影師再現........................................25
第二節攝影的藝術論戰....................................................................................35
第三節攝影藝術家的角色形塑........................................................................42
1.3.1. 十九世紀藝術家的再現風潮...........................................................43
1.3.2. Nadar的藝術家攝影肖像..................................................................44
1.3.3. 浪漫主義藝術家的概念...................................................................48
1.3.4. 十九世紀藝術家的角色形塑...........................................................50
第四節早期攝影藝術的技術性........................................................................59
1.4.1. 早期自拍像的藝術感.......................................................................59
1.4.2. 藝術攝影肖像的技術法則...............................................................61
1.4.3. 科學與藝術的交會...........................................................................70
第五節小結........................................................................................................71
第二章公與私的過渡................................................................................................75
第一節攝影加速自我的公眾化:Bayard的〈溺斃者自拍像〉....................77
第二節自拍像的場面調度................................................................................85
2.2.1. Bayard的室內雕像與花園系列:自我作為一物件........................86
2.2.2. Le Secq自拍像中的文字隱喻...........................................................87
2.2.3. Aguado兄弟的家庭自拍像...............................................................89
2.2.4. 職業攝影師的他者扮裝...................................................................92
2.2.5. 活人畫的戲劇傳統...........................................................................94
第三節私密性作為一種視覺奇觀....................................................................95
2.3.1. Victor Hugo的流亡者系列肖像........................................................96
2.3.2. 卡司迪里翁女伯爵的自我扮裝.....................................................100
第四節小結......................................................................................................102
第三章在業餘與職業之間遊移..............................................................................105
第一節大眾眼中的攝影師..............................................................................106
第二節工作室中的攝影師..............................................................................114
3.2.1. 早期攝影師工作室.........................................................................114
3.2.2. 攝影工作室的企業化經營.............................................................115
3.2.3. 工作室作為視覺奇觀的場域.........................................................117
第三節攝影師之夢..........................................................................................120
3.3.1. 十九世紀攝影師的執業歷程.........................................................120
3.3.2. Disdéri的個人興衰史......................................................................122
3.3.3. 商業攝影師的另一典型:Pierre Petit...........................................128
第四節業餘攝影家的世界..............................................................................129
3.4.1. 早期業餘攝影家的形成.................................................................131
3.4.2. 從業餘到職業:Aguado兄弟的攝影實踐....................................133
第五節小結......................................................................................................136
第四章意欲與意外的演出......................................................................................137
第一節達蓋爾版的自然與魔法......................................................................139
4.1.1. 從環景畫幕到達蓋爾版:Daguerre的真實幻覺..........................141
4.1.2. Daguerre與其分身...........................................................................146
4.1.3. 達蓋爾版的藝術性追求.................................................................147
第二節從自然魔法到視覺娛樂......................................................................149
4.2.1. 自我扮裝的雙重性.........................................................................150
4.2.2. 多重分身影像.................................................................................150
4.2.3. 攝影師的鏡像倒影.........................................................................153
4.2.4. 十九世紀末的娛樂攝影手冊.........................................................155
4.2.5. 笑與自我的分裂.............................................................................156
第三節意外的新視象......................................................................................157
4.3.1. 有意識的黑影.................................................................................157
4.3.2. 十九世紀失誤影像的再發現.........................................................160
4.3.3. 幽靈影像與鬼魂理論.....................................................................164
第四節框內與框外的消解..............................................................................165
4.4.1. 十九世紀觀看的雙重性.................................................................165
4.4.2. 面具與臉:攝影肖像的景框和邊界.............................................166
第五節小結......................................................................................................168
結論........................................................................................................................171
參考書目....................................................................................................................177
人名索引....................................................................................................................195
圖版........................................................................................................................20
壹、西文部分

一、肖像與自我肖像

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Derrida, Jacques, Memoirs of the Blind: The Self-Portrait and Other Ruins, trans. by Pascale-Anne Brault & Michael Naas (Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993).
Ewing, William A., Face: The New Photographic Portrait (London: Thames & Hudson, 2006).
Face à face: Portraits d’artistes dans les collections publiques d’Île-de-France (Paris: Somogy Édition d’art, 1998).
Gombrich, E. H., “The Mask and the Face: The Perception of Physiognomic Likeness in Life and Art,” Art, Perception, and Reality (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972), pp. 1-46.
Hartley, Lucy, Physiognomy and the Meaning of Expression in Nineteenth-Century Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Heilbrun, Françoise, ed., Figures and Portraits: Photography at the Musée d’Orsay (Paris: Musée d’Orsay, 2006).
Heppner, Irene, Bibliography on Portraiture: Selected Writing on Portraiture as an Art Form and as Documentation (Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, 1990).
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Lassam, Robert, ed., Portrait and the Camera (London: Studio Edition, 1989).
Levine, Steven Z., “The Crisis of Resemblance: Portraits and Paintings during the Second Empire,” Arts Magazine 53 (Dec. 1978), pp. 90-93.
Lingwood, James, Staging the Self: Self-Portrait Photography, 1840-1980 (London: National Portrait Gallery, 1986).
Maddow, Ben, Faces: A Narrative History of the Portrait in Photography (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1977).
Man, Paul de, “Autobiography as De-Facement,” The Rhetoric of Romanticism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984), pp. 67-81.
Masclet, Daniel, Le portrait en photographie (Paris: Publications Photo-Revue, 1971).
Mauner, George, “Self-portrait Without Mirror,” in Kathlenn Collins, eds., Shadow and Substance: Essays on the History of Photography in Honor of Heinz K. Henisch (New Mexico: The Amorphous Institute Press, 1990).
McPherson, Heather, The Modern Portrait in Nineteenth-Century France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
Meaux, Danièle and Jean-Bernard Vray, Traces photographiques, traces autobiographiques ( Saint-Étienne: Publications de l'université de Saint-Étienne, 2004).
Nairne, Sandy and Sarah Howgate, The Portrait Now (London: National Portrait Gallery; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).
Pommier, Édouard, Théories du portrait de la Renaissance aux Lumières (Paris: Gallimard, 1998).
Roche, Denis et Alain Sayag, Autoportraits photographiques, 1898-1981 (Paris: Centre Georges-Pompidou/ Éditions Herscher, 1981).
Roquencourt, Jacques & André Gunthert, “Notes sur le portrait de M. Huet, ”Études photographiques, no. 6 ( 1999), pp. 139-142.
Sagne, Jean, “L’exotisme dans le portrait photographique au XIXe,” Revue de la Bibliothèque nationale, n. 1 (sept. 1981), pp. 27-36.
Schaeffer, Jean-Marie, “Du portrait photographique,” in Portraits, singulier, plurier 1980-1990. Le photograph et son modèle (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1997), pp. 9-25.
Schneider, Norbert, The Art of the Portrait (Cologne: Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, 1992).
Sobieszek, Robert A., The Camera I, Photographic Self-Portraits from the Collection of Audrey and Sidney Irmas (L. A. & N. Y.: Los Angeles County Musuem & Abrams, 1994).
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二、攝影史與攝影總論

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Chéroux, Clément, Fautographie: Petite histoire de l'erreur photographique (Crisnée: Yellow Now, 2003).
Chevrier, Jean- François, et Jean Sagne, “Essai sur l’identité, l’exotisme et les excès photographiques,” Photographies, no. 4 ( avril 1984), pp. 45-82.
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Collins, Kathlenn, eds., Shadow and Substance: Essays on the History of Photography in Honor of Heinz K. Henisch (New Mexico: The Amorphous Institute Press, 1990).
De Mondenard, Anne, La mission héliographique: cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851 (Paris: Centre des monuments nationaux, 2002).
Denton, Margaret, “Francis Wey and the Discourse of Photography as Art in France in the Early 1850s: 'Rien n'est beau que le vrai; mais il faut le choisir',” Art History, vol. 25, issue 5 ( Dec. 2003), pp. 622-48.
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Gervais, Thierry et Gaëlle Morel, La Photographie: Histoire, Techniques, Art, Presse (Paris: Larousse, 2008).
Godeau, Abigail Solomon-, Photography at the Dock: Essays on Photographic History, Institution, and Practices (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991).
Goldberg, Vicki, ed., Photography in Print: Writings from 1816 to the Present (New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1988).
Hannavy, John, ed., Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography (London: Routledge, 2007).
Heilbrun, Françoise et Philippe Néagu, Musée d’Orsay: Chefs-d’œuvre de la collection photographique (Paris: Philippe Sers Réunion des Musées nationaux, 1986).
Heilbrun, Françoise, Philippe Néagu et Bernard Marbot, L’invention d’un regard 1839-1918 (Paris: Edition de la RMN, 1989).
Henisch, Heinz K. and Bridget A. Henisch, The Photographic Experience, 1839-1914: Images and Attitudes (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994).
Hirsch, Robert, Seizing the Light: A History of Photography (London: McGraw-Hill, 1999).
Jammes, André and Eugenia Parry Janis, The Art of French Calotype (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983).
Jammes, André and Robert Sobieszek, French Primitive Photography (New York: Aperture, 1970).
Johnson, Geraldine A., Sculpture and Photography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Keller, Ulrich F., “The Myth of Art Photography: A Sociological Analysis,” History of Photography ( January-Februry 1985), pp. 1-38.
──, “The Myth of Art Photography: An Iconographic Analysis,”History of Photography, vol. 8, no. 4 ( October-December 1984), pp. 249-56.
Kozloff, Max, The Privileged Eye: Essays on Photography (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987).
Krauss, Rolf H., Beyond Light and Shadow. The Role of Photography in Certain Paranormal Phenomena: A Historical Survey (Munich: Nazraeli Press, 1995).
L’Ecotais, Emmanuelle de, et Alain Sayag, Man Ray: Photography and Its Double (Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou; Corte Maderna, CA.: Gingko Press, Inc., 1998).
La Lumière ( 1851-1880).
Lemagny, Jean-Claude and Raymond Lécuyer, A History of Photography: Social and Cultural Perspectives (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
Lewis, Jennifer Green-., Framing the Victorians: Photography and the Culture of Realism (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1996).
Marien, Mary Warner, Photography and Its Critics: A Cultural History, 1839-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
──, Photography: A Cultural History (London: Lawrence King Publishing, 2002).
McCauley, Elizabeth A. E., “ ‘Merely Mechanical’: On the Origins of Photographic Copyright in France and Great Britain,” Art History, vol. 31, no. 1 (Feb. 2008), pp. 57-78.
──, “Caricature and Photography in Second Empire Paris,”Art Journal (Winter 1983), pp. 355-60.
──, Industrial Madness: Commercial Photography in Paris, 1848-1871 (New Haven & London : Yale University Press, 1994).
──, Likenesses: Portrait Photography in Europe, 1850-1870 (Albuquerque: Art Museum, University of New Mexico, 1980).
Mondenard, Anne de, “Entre romantisme et réalisme. Francis Wey (1812-1882), critique d’art,” Études photographiques, no. 8 ( nov. 2000), pp. 22-43.
Nadeau, Luis, Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and Photochemical Processes, 2 vols. (New Brunswick, Frederiction: Luis Nadeau, 1989).
Néagu, Philippe, ed., La Mission héliographique: Photographies de 1851 (Paris: Inspection générale des musées classés et contrôlés, 1980).
Newhall, Beaumont, ed., Photography: Essays & Images. Illustrated Reading in the History of Photography (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980).
──, ed., The History of Photography: From 1839 to the Present (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1982).
Novak, Daniel A., Realism, Photography and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Pauli, Lori, ed., Acting the Part: Photography as Theatre (London & New York: Merrell Publishers, 2006).
Peter E. Palmquist, ed., Photographers : A Sourcebook for Historical Research. Featuring Richard Rudisill's Directories of Photographers: An Annotated Bibliography (Nevada City: Carl Mautz, 2000).
Pinney, C. & N. Peterson, eds., Photography’s Other Histories: Objects and Histories (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003).
Pultz, John, The Body and the Lens: Photography 1839 to the Present (New York: Calmann and King Ltd., 1995).
Quentin Bajac et Planchon-de Font-Réaulx, eds., Le Daguerréotype français: Un objet photographique (Pairs: Réunion des musées nationaux, 2003).
Rabb, Jane M., Literature and Photography: Interactions, 1840-1990 (Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 1995).
Regards su la photographie en France au XIXe siècle. 180 chefs-œuvre du Départment des estampes et de la photographie (Paris: Berger-Levranlt, 1980).
Roosens, Laurent & Luc Salu, eds., History of Photography: A Bibliography of Books (London: Mansell, 1989-1994).
Rosenblum, Naomi, A World History of Photography (New York & London: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1997).
Roubert, Paul-Louis, L’image sans quailté: Les beaux-arts et la critique à l’épreuve de la photographie 1839-1859 (Paris : MONUM/Édition du patrimoine, 2006).
Rouillé, André et Marbot, B., Le Corps et son image: photographies du dixneuvième siècle (Contrejour: Bibliothèque nationale Maison de la culture de La Rochelle et du Centre Ouest, 1986).
Rouillé, André, L’Empire de la photographie, 1839-1870 (Paris: Le Sycomore, 1982).
──, La photographie en France, textes et contriverses: Une anathologie, 1816-1874 (Paris: Macula, 1989).
Sagne, Jean, Delacroix et la photographie (Paris: Herscher, 1982).
──, L’Atelier du photographe:1840-1940 (Paris: Presses de la Renaissance, 1984).
Scharf, Aaron, Art and Photography (London: The Penguin Books, 1968).
Schwarz, Heinrich& William E. Parker, eds., Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1985).
Seiberling, Grace, Amateurs, Photography and the Mid-Victorian Imagination (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1986).
Sicard, Monique, “La photographie scientifique, les académismes et les avant-gardes. Les conditions d’une convergence,” Alliage: l’Image dans la science, no. 39 (été 1999).
Sobieszek, Robert A., ed., Ghost in the Shell: Photograph and the Human Soul, 1850-2000 (Cambridge, Mass.: Los Angeles County of Art & The MIT Press, 1999).
──, Masterpieces of Photography from the George Eastman Collection (New York: Abbeville Press, 1985).
Szarlowski, John, Looking at Photographs: 100 Pictures from the Museum of Modern Art (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973).
──, Photography Until Now (New York: The Museum of Modern Art , 1989).
──, The Photographer’s Eye (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1966).
Thomas, Alan, Time in a Frame: Photography and the Nineteenth-Century Mind (New York: Schoken Books, 1977).
Trachtenberg, Alan, “Mirror in the Marketplace: American Responses to the Daguerreotype, 1839-1851,” in John Wood, ed., The Daguerreotype (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1989), pp. 60-73.
──, ed., Classic Essays on Photography (New Haven: Leete’s Island Books, 1981).
Weaver, Mike, ed., British Photography in the Nineteenth Century: the Fine Art Tradition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Witkovsky, Matthew S., “Circa 1930. Histoire de l’art et nouvelle photographie,” Études photographiques, no. 23 ( 23 mai 2009), pp. 116-38.

三、攝影理論與美學

Barthes, Roland, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981).
Baudrillard, Jean, “Photography, Or the Writing of Light, ” Impossible Exchange (London: Verso, 2001).
Benjamin, Walter, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” in Illuminations: Essays and Reflections (New York: Schoken Books, 1968), pp. 217-51.
Bergson, Henri, Le Rire. Essai sur la signification du comique (Paris: PUF, 1981).
Burgin, Victor de., Thinking Photography (Hampshire & London: MacMillan Press Ltd., 1982).
Derrida, Jacques, The Truth in Painting, trans. by Geoff Bennington & Ian McLeod (Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1987).
──, Writing and Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).
Dubois, Philippe, L’Acte photographique et autres essais (Bruxelles: Editions Nathan, 1990).
Elkins, Jammes, ed., Photography Theory (London: Routledge & New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2007).
Flusser, Vilem, Towards a Philosophy of Photography (Göttingen: European Photography, 1984).
Gadamar, Hans-Goerg, “The Ontology of the Work of Art and Its Hermeneutic Significance,” Truth and Method, trans. by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald Marshall (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 1989).
Guilbert, Hervé, L’Image fantome (Paris: de Minuit, 1981).
Hegel, Phenomenology of Mind, trans. by J. B. Baillie, 2 vols. (New York: Cosimo Inc., 2006).
Krauss, Rosalind, “Notes on the Indexes: Part 1, Part 2,” in The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths (Mass. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1985), pp. 196-209, 210-19.
──, Le Photographique: Pour une Théorie des Ecarts (Paris : Editions Macula, 1990).
Landais, Napoléon, Dictionnaire général et grammatical des dictionnaires français (Paris: Didier, 1847).
Mitchell, W. J. T., “Showing Seeing: A Critique of Visual Culture,” in N. Mirzoeff, eds., The Visual Culture Reader (London & New York: Routledge, 2002).
Newman, Michael, Vision as Metaphor: Towards a Fragmentary History, in The Mirror and the Lamp (Edinburgh: The Fruitmarket Gallery, 1986).
Schaffer, Jean-Marie, “La photographie entre vision et image,” in Valérie Picaudé et Philippe Arbaïzar, eds., La Confusion des genres en photographie (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de Paris, 2001), pp. 14-19.
Sontag, Susan, On Photography (Doubleday: An Anchor Books, 1973).
──, Under the Sign of Saturn (New York: Vintage Books, 1978).
Tagg, John, The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988).
Tisseron, Serge, Le Mystère de la chamber claire: photographie et inconscient (Paris: Les Belles Lettres/ Archimbaud, 1996).


四、攝影師個別研究

A、Hippolyte Bayard (1801-1887)
Batchen, Geoffrey, “Le noyé,” Burning with Desire: The Conception of Photogrpahy (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997), pp. 143-73.
Boyé, Michel, et Jean Alain, Pionneers méconnus de la photographie, en homme à Hippolyte Bayard et Louis Ducos du Hauron (Bordeaux: Musée des Douanes, 1989).
Frizot, Michel, “The Parole of the Primitives: Hippolyte Bayard and French Calotypists. La Parole de primitifs ( à propos d’Hippolyte Bayard et des calotypistes français), History of Photography, vol. 6, no. 4 ( Winter 1992), pp. 358-70.
Gautrand, Jean-Claude & Michel Frizot, Hippolyte Bayard: Naissance de l’image photographique (Amiens: Trois Cailloux, 1986).
Jammes, André, Ein verkannter Erfinder und Meister der Photographie (Lucerne: Bucher, 1975).
Keeler, Nancy B., “Hippolyte Bayard: aux origines de la photographie et de la ville moderne,” La Recherche Photographie, no. 2 ( May 1987), pp. 7-17.
──, Cultivating Photography: Hippolyte Bayard and the Development of a New Art (Austin: University of Texas diss., 1991).
Lo Duca, Giuseppe Maria, Bayard. Portrait par Amaury Duval (Paris: Prisma, 1943).
Passafiume, Tania, “Le positif directe de Hippolyte Bayard reconstitué, ” Études Photographiques, 12 (novembre 2002), pp. 98-108.
Poivert, Michel., “Hippolyte Bayard et la préhistoriographique de la photographie, ” Revue de l’Art, 141/3 ( 2003), pp. 25-30.
Sapir, Michel, “The Impossible Photograph: Hippolyte Bayard’s Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man,”Modern Fiction Studies, 40/3 ( 1994), pp. 619-629.
Steinert, Otto, Hippolyte Bayard. ein Erfinder der Photographie (Essen: Folkwang Museum, 1959).

B、La Comtess de Castiglione (1837-1921)
Apraxine, Pierre and Xavier Demange, eds., La Divine Comtesse: Photographs of the Countess de Castiglione (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000).
Godeau, Abigail Solomon-, “The Legs of the Countess,” in Emily Apter and William Pietz, eds., Fetishism as Cultural Discourse (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1993), pp. 266-306.
La contessa di Castiglione e il suo tempo (Cinisello Balsamo: Silvana; Torino: Regione Piemonte, 2000).
McPherson, Heather, “La Divine Comtesse: (Re)presenting the Anatomy of a Courtesan,” The Modern Portrait in Nineteenth-Century France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 38-75.
Merz, Christian, “Photography and Fetish,” in October, 34 ( Fall 1985), pp. 81-90.
Montesquiou-Fezensac, Robert de, La Divine comtesse: étude d'après Mme la comtesse de Castiglione (Paris: Manzi, Joyant et Cie, 1913).

C、Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (1787-1851)
Daguerre, 1787-1851 (Paris : Bibliothèque Nationale George Eastman House, 1961).
Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mandé, An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Various Processes of the Daguerreotype and the Diorama (Paris: Alphonse Giroux Et Cie, 1839; New York: Winter House, 1971).
Gernsheim, Alison and Helmut, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of Diorama and the Daguerreotype (New York: Dover Publications, 1969).
Louis Daguerre. Le Magicien de l’image, 1851-2001 (Bry-sur-Marne: Ville de Bry-sur-Marne, 2001).
Pinson, Stephen C., “Daguerre, expérimentateur du visuel,” Études photographiques, 13 ( juillet 2003), pp. 2-5.
Pinson, Stephen C., Speculating Daguerre: Art and Entreprise in the Work of L. J. M. Daguerre (Chicago: Univerisity of Chicago Press, 2007).
Stephen C. Pinson, “Trompe l’œil: Photography’s Illusion Reconsidered,” Nineteen-Century Art Worldwide, vol. 1, issue 1 ( spring 2002).
Potonniée, Georges, “Daguerréotypomanie,” La Revue Française de Photographie, Paris ( 15 aoüt 1921)
Potonniée, Georges, Daguerre, peintre et décorateur (Paris: Paul Montel, 1935).

D、André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (1819-1889)
Disdéri, André-Adolphe-Eugène, “Sur le portrait photographique”(1862), in Michel Frizot & Françoise Ducros, eds., Du bon usage de la photographie. Un anthologie de textes ( Paris: Centre National de la Photographie, 1987), pp. 37-48.
──, Application de la photographie à la reproduction des œuvres d’art (Paris: Disdéri, 1861).
──, L’Art et la photographie (Paris: Disdéri, 1861).
──, Manuel opératoire de photographie sur collodion instantané (Paris: A. Gaudin, 1853).
──, Renseignements photographie indispensable à tous (Paris: produced by the author, 1855).
Frizot, Michel, ed., Identités: de Disdéri au Photomaton (Paris: Centre national de la photographie/ Édition du Chêne, 1985).
McCauley, Elizabeth A. E., Disdéri and the Carte-de-visite Portrait Photograph (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985).
Sobieszek, Robert A., “Composite Images and the Origins of Photomontage: Part II, The Formalist Strain,” Art Forum, vol. 17 ( Oct. 1978), pp. 40-44.

F、Guillaume-Benjamin-Amant Duchenne (1806-1875)
Boulogne, G. –B. Duchenne de, The Mechanism of Human Facial Expression, Studies in Emotions and Social Interaction, Cuthbertson, R. Andrew, ed. (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Catherine, Mathon, ed., Duchenne de Boulogne, 1806-1875 (Paris: École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts, 1999).
Debord, Jean-François, “Le mécanisme de la physionomie humaine: la vie et l’œuvre de Duchenne de Boulogne, ” in L’Âme au corps, arts et sciences, 1793-1993 (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1993), pp. 412-19.
Duchenne de Boulogne, De l’électricité localisée et de son application à la physiologie, à la pathologie et à la thérapeutique (Paris: Baillière, 1855).
Jammes, André, “Duchenne de Boulogne, la grimace provoquée et Nadar, ” Gazette des Beaux-Arts, no. 1319 tome 92 ( décembre 1978), pp. 215-20.
Luxenberg, Alisa, “ ‘The Art of Correctly Painting the Expressive Lines of the Human Face’, Duchenne de Boulogne’s Photographs of the Human Expression and the École des beaux-arts,” History of Photography, 25/2 ( 2001), pp. 201-12.

G、Victor Hugo ( 1802-1885)
Blondel, Madeleleine & Pierre Georgel, eds., Victor Hugo et les images (Dijon: aux amateurs de livres, 1989).
Gaudon, Sheila, “Victor Hugo et la photographie: les débuts de l’atelier photographique de Jersey (1855),”Bérénice, no. 7 ( 1995), pp. 11-23.
Georgel, Pierre, “Les images,” La Gloire de Victor Hugo (Paris: Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, 1985), pp. 64-157.
Gisbourne, Mark, “Le spiritisme chez Victor Hugo, Justinus Kerner et quelques autres,” in Jean Clair, ed., L’Âme au corps. arts et sciences, 1793-1993 (Paris: RMN & Gallimard/ Electa, 1993), pp. 488-99.
Heilbrun, Françoise and Danielle Molinari, En collaboration avec le soleil: Victor Hugo Photographies de l’exil (Paris: Maison de Victor Hugo, Paris-Musée/ RMN, 1998).
Heilbrun, Françoise and Philippe Néagu, “L’Atelier de photographie de Jersey,” Victor Hugo et les images. Colloque de Dijon (Dijon: Ville de Dijon, 1989), pp. 185-96.
Lacan, Ernest, “Vues de Jersey par MM. Hugo frères et Auguste Vacquerie,” La Lumière, no. 41 ( 8 Octobre 1853)
Le Théatre de Victor Hugo mis en scène (Paris: Paris musées, 2002).
Neagu, Philippe, “Un projet photographique de Victor Hugo,” Photographies, no. 5 ( 1983), pp. 55-61.
Prévost, Marie-Laure, ed., L’Homme Océan (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004).
Souvenirs de Jersey, Photographies de Charles Hugo et Auguste Vacquerie (Paris: Galerie Octant 1980).
Stevens, Philip, Victor Hugo in Jersey (Chichester: Phillimore & Co., 1985, 2002).

G、Félix Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon,1820-1910)
Baldwin, Gordon & Judith Keller, Nadar-Warhol, Paris-New York: Photography and Fame (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1999).
Bouillon, Jules, Catalogue d’albums, lithographies et eaux-fortes, provenant de la collection de M. Nadar (Paris: D. Dumoulin et Cie, 1895).
Chevallier, Alix & Jean Adhémar, Nadar (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 1965).
Chotard, Loïc, Nadar: Caricatures et photographies (Paris: Paris-musées & Maison de Balzac, 1990).
Gosling, Nigel, Nadar (New York: Knopf, 1976).
Greaves, Roger, Nadar, ou le paradoxe vital (Paris: Flammarion, 1980).
Heilbrun, Françoise, Maria Morris Hambourg et Philippe Néagu, Nadar: Les Années créatrices, 1854-1860 (Paris: Édition de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1994).
Heilbrun, Françoise, Maria Morris Hambourg, Philippe Néagu, eds., Nadar (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995).
Jammes, André, Nadar (Paris: Centre national de la photographie, 1983).
Kozloff, Max, “Nadar and the Republic of the Mind,” Artforum 15 (sept. 1976), pp. 28-39.
Krauss, Rosalind, “Tracing Nadar,” October, no. 5 (1978), pp. 29-47.
Mellot, Philippe, Paris sens dessus-dessous: Marveille et Nadar, photographies 1852-1870 (Neuilly, V & O: Editions de Lodi, 2001).
Nadar, Panthéon-Nadar: Albums photographiques (Paris-Leipzig, 1930).
Nadar, Quand j’étais photographe (Paris: Flammarion, 1899; New York: Arno Press, 1979; Pairs: Seuil, 1994 ).
Néagu, Philippe et Jean-Jacques Poulet-Allamagny, Les Parisian souterrain de Félix Nadar, 1861 (Paris: Caisse nationale des monuments historiques et des sites, 1982).
Néagu, Philippe, Jean-Jacques Poulet-Allamagny et Jean-François Bory, Nadar, 2 tomes (Paris: Arthur Hubschmid, 1979).
Peeters, Benoît, Les Métamorphoses de Nadar (Auby-sur-Semois: Marot, 1994).
Prinet, Jean et Antoinette Dillasser, Nadar (Paris: Armand Colin, 1966).
Rouillé, André, ed., Nadar. Correspondance, 2 vols. (Nîmes: J. Chambon, 1998).
Schneider, Pierre, The Many-Sided M. Nadar (New York: Stable Gallery, 1955).

H、其他攝影師
Adhémar, Jean, “ Baudelaire et les photographes: Paris et Bruxelles,” Bulletin Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (1985), pp. 249-59.
Aubenas, Sylvie, Alphonse Poitevin 1819-1882, photographe et inventeur (Paris: Thèses dactylographie, Ecole des Chartes, 1987).
──, “Les photographies d’Eugène Delacroix, ” Revue de l'Art , no. 127 ( jan. 2000), pp.62-69.
──, ed., Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884 (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France/ Gallimard, 2003).
Baldwin, Gordon, ed., All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852-1860 (New Haven: Yale University Press; New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004).
──, ed., Gustave Le Gray 1820-1884 (Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2002).
Buerger, Janet E., Pierre Petit. Photographer (Rochester, New York: International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, 1980).
Borcorman, James, ed., Charles Nègre, 1820-1880 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1976).
Carjat, Etienne, Artiste et citoyen (Paris: Tresse édit, 1883).
Charles Marville, photographe de Paris de 1851 à 1879 (Paris: Bibliothèque historique de la Ville de Paris, 1980).
Dahlberg, Laurie, Victor Regnault and the Advance of Photography: The Art of Avoiding Errors (Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2005).
Etienne Carjat (Ville de Chalon-sur-Soane: Musée Nicéphore Niépce, 1980).
Fallaize, Elizabeth, Etienne Carjat and Le Boulevard: 1861-1863 (Genève-Paris: Slatkine, 1987).
Gautrand, Jean-Claude et Alain Buisine, Blanquart-Évrard (Douchy-les-Mines: Centre Régional de la photographie Nord-Pas-de-Calais, 1999).
Haddard, Hubert, ed., Etienne Carjat, 1828-1906 (Paris: L’Image du Grenier sur L’Eau, 1990).
Heftler, Sylviane, ed., Etienne Carjat. photographe, 1828-1906 (Paris: Musée Carnavalet, 1982).
Heilbrun, Françoise, ed., Charles Nègre: photographe, 1820-1880 (Paris: Musées Nationaux, 1980).
Hungerford, Constance Cain, “Charles Marville, Popular Illustrator: The Origins of a Photographic Sensibility,” History of Photography, vol. 9, no. 3 ( 1985), pp. 227-46.
Jammes, André, Charles Nègre Photographe, 1820-1880 (Paris: André Jammes, 1963).
Jammes, Isabelle, Albums photographiques édités par Blanquart-Evrard (Chalon-sur- Saône: Musée Nicéphore Niépce, 1978).
Janis, Eugenia Parry & Josiane Sartre, Henri Le Secq. photographe de 1850 à 1860 (Paris: Musée des arts décoratifs / Fammarion, 1986).
Janis, Eugenia Parry, “The Man on the Tower of Notre-Dame: New Light on Henri Le Secq,” Image, vol. 19, no. 4 ( Dec. 1976), pp. 13-25.
──, The Photography of Gustave le Gray (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).
Jay, Paul et Michel Frizot, eds., Nicéphore Niépce: Lettres et documents (Paris: Centre National de la Photographie, 1983).
Morand, Sylvain, ed., Charles Winter Photographe. Un pioneer Strasbourgeois, 1821-1904 (Strasbourg: Musée de Strasbourg, 1985).
──, eds., Olympe Agaudo photographe, 1827-1894 (Strasbourg: Musée d’Art Moderne et Contemporaine, 1997).
Munhall, Edgar, Whistler and Montesquiou: The Butterfly and the Bat (New York & Prais: Frick Collection/ Flammarion, 1995).
Perego, Elvire, “Delmaet & Durandelle ou la rectitude des lignes, un atelier du XIXe siècle, ” Photographies, no. 5 ( 1984), pp. 54-75.
Pierre Petit photographer (Rochester: International Museum of Photogrpahy at George Eastman House, 1980).
Sacquin, Michèle, Zola (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France / Fayard, 2003).
Schwilden, Tristan, et Steven Joseph, Le Chevalier L. P. T. Dubois de Nehaut, 1799-1872. Sa vie et son œuvre (Bruxelles: Crédit Communal, 1987).
Thiébaut, Philippe, Robert de Montesquiou ou l'art de paraître (Paris: Musée d'Orsay, RMN, 1999).


五、十九世紀研究

Bätschmann, Oskar, The Artist in the Modern World: The Conflict between Market and Self- Expression (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997).
Booth, Michael R., Victorian Spectacular Theatre, 1850-1910 (Boston and London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981).
Bourdieu, Pierre, The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field, trans. by S. Emanuel (Standford: Standford University Press, 1995).
Brown, Marylin R., Gypsies and Other Bohemians: The Myth of the Artist in Nineteenth-Century France (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1985).
Clark, T. J., The Absolute Bourgeois: Artists and Politics in France 1848-1851 (London: Thames & Hudson, 1973, 1982).
Cooper, Barbara T. & Donaldson-Evans, Mary, eds., Modernity and Revolution in Late Nineteenth- Century France (Newark, London & Toronto: University of Delaware Press, Associated University Presses, 1992).
Crary, Jonathan, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth-Century (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1990).
──, Suspension of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1999).
Daumard, Adéline, Les Bourgeois de Paris au XIX siècle: science de l'histoire (Paris: Flammarion, 1970).
Daumier, 1808-1979 (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1999).
Debord, Guy, Society of the Spectacle (Detroit: Black and Red, 1983).
Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. by Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 1987).
Deteil, Loys, Honoré Daumier: the Early Lithograph, 1830-1870 (San Francisco: Alanwofsy Fine Arts, 2005).
Doy, Gen, Picturing the Self: Changing View of the Subject in Visual Culture (London: I. B. Tauris, 2004).
Feldman, Edmund B., The Artist: A Social History (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1982).
Foucault, M., “What is an Author?” ( 1969) in C. Harriso n and P. Wood, eds., Art in Theory: An Anthology of Changing Ideas (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1992), pp. 923-28.
Fried, Michael, Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).
Gay, Peter, The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud, 5 vols. (New York: Norton, 1998).
Giddens, Anthony, Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1991).
──, The Consequences of Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990).
Gluck, Mary, Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-Century French Thought (L. A.: University of California Press, 1994).
──, Modernity and Its Discontents: French Society and the French Man of Letters in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1966).
──, Popular Bohemia: Modernism and Urban Culture in Nineteenth-Century Paris (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005).
──, Popular Bohemian versus Bourgeois: French Society and Man of Letters in the Nineteenth-Century (New York: Basic Books, 1964).
Goffman, Erving, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Edinburgh: Anchor, 1959).
Green, Nicholas, The Spectacle of Nature: Landscape and Bourgeois Culture in Nineteenth-Century France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990).
Gross, John, The Rise and Fall of the Man of Letters: A Study of the Idiosyncratic and the Humane in Modern Literature (New York: Macmillan, 1969).
Hamilton, Peter & Roger Hargreaves, The Beautiful and the Damned: The Creation of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Photography (London: National Portrait Gallery, 2001).
Hannoosh, Michele, Baudelaire and Caricature: From the Comic to an Art of Modernity (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992).
──, “Théophile Silvestre’s Histoire des artistes vivants: art criticism and photography,” Art Bulletin, 88 ( Dec. 2006), pp. 729-55.
Harper, Paula Hays, Daumier’s Clowns: Les Saltimbanques et les parades. Biographical and Political Functions for a Nineteenth-Century Myth (New York: Garland, 1981).
Haskell, Francis, “The Social Clown: Some Note on a Nineteenth-Century Myth,” in Past and Present in Art and Taste: Selected Essays (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), pp. 117-28.
Hemmings, F. W. J., The Theatre Industry in Nineteenth-Century France (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Kris, Ernst & Otto Kurz, Legend, Myth and Magic in the Image of the Artist: A Historical Experiment (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994).
Lacan, J., “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I,” in Ecrits: A Section, trans. by A. Sheridan (London: Routleledge and Kegan Paul, 1977), pp. 1-8.
Lloyd, Jill, German Expressionism: Primitivism and Modernity (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991).
Meisel, Martin, Realizations: Narrative, Pictorial, and Theatrical Arts in Nineteenth- Century England (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983).
Meskimmon, Marsha, The Art of Reflection (London: Columbia University Press, 1996).
Nochlin, Linda, Realism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971).
Nochlin, Linda, The Body in Pieces: The Fragment as a Metaphor of Modernity (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1995).
Nochlin, Linda, The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society (London: Harper & Row, 1994).
Pelles, Geraldine, Art, Artists & Society: Origins of a Modern Dilemma (Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963).
Prevost, John C., Le Dandysme en France: 1817-1839 (Geneva: E. Droz; Paris: Minard, 1957).
Pyat, Félix, Nouveau tableau de Paris au XIXme siècle, 7 vols. (Paris: Madame Charles-Béchet, 1834).
Rugg, Linda Haverty, Picturing Ourselves: Photography and Autobiography (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1997).
Schwartz, Vanessa & Jeannene M. Przyblyski, eds., The Nineteenth-Century Visual Vulture Reader (New York & London: Routledge, 2004).
Seigel, Jerrold, Bohemian Paris: Culture, Politics and the Boundaries of Bourgeois Life, 1830-1930 (New York: Viking, 1986).
──, The Idea of the Self: Thought and Experience in Western Europe since the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
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White, Harrison C. & Cynthia A., Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Art World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
Wittcower, Rudolf and Margot, Born Under Saturn: The Character and Conduct of Artists: A Documented History from Antiquity to the French Revolution (New York: Random House, 1963).


貳、中文部分
Ariès, Philippe、Georges Duby著,周鑫等譯,《私人生活史:卷三-激情》(哈爾濱市:北方文藝,2008)。
──《私人生活史:卷四-演員與舞台》(哈爾濱市:北方文藝,2008)。
Barthes, Roland著,許綺玲譯,《明室:攝影札記》(台北:台灣攝影工作室,1995)。
Baudelaire, Charles著,郭宏安譯,《1846年的沙龍:波特萊爾美學論文選》(桂林:廣西師範大學出版社,2002)。
Benjamin, Walter著,許綺玲譯,《迎向靈光消逝的年代》(台北:台灣攝影工作室,1998)。
Burger, Peter著,蔡佩君、徐明松譯,《前衛藝術理論》(台北:時報文化,1998)。
Crary, Jonathan著,蔡佩君譯,《觀察者的技術:論十九世紀的視覺與現代性》(台北:行人,2007)。
Fossier, François,〈法國肖像繪畫的辯護與例證〉,《從普桑到普桑:法國繪畫三百年》(台北:國立故宮博物院,2001),頁33-39。
Freud, Sigmund著,林克明譯,《日常生活的心理分析》(台北市:志文,1984)。
Freund, Gisèle著,盛繼潤、黃少華譯,陳新綺校閱,《藝術與社會》(台北:攝影家出版社,1990)。
Germer, Stefan著,林瑞逢譯,〈舊媒體‧新使命:十九世紀藝術家的社會定位〉,《視覺藝術》,第二期(1999.5),頁47-69。
Leenhardt, Jacques著,林志明譯,〈作為自我生產的自畫(自拍)像〉(“La Production du soi dans l’image”),曾曬淑編,《身體變化:西方藝術中身體的概念和意象》(台北:南天書局,2002),頁141-58。
Levine, Steven Z.著,劉瑞琪譯,〈從蒙田、普桑至杜象、拉岡的法國面貌繪畫〉( “Self- Representation in France from Montaigne and Poussin to Duchamp and Lacan ”),曾曬淑編,《身體變化:西方藝術中身體的概念和意象》(台北:南天書局,2002),頁111-29。
Lobstein, Dominique,〈由單一沙龍到多元沙龍:法國官方展覽史1648-1914〉,《從普桑到塞尚:法國繪畫三百年》(台北:國立故宮博物院,2001),頁24-27。
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice著,龔卓軍譯,《眼與心》(台北:典藏藝術,2007)。
Sicard, Monique著,陳姿穎譯,《視覺工廠:圖像誕生的關鍵故事》(台北:邊城,2005)。
Sontag, Susan著,黃翰荻譯,《論攝影》(台北:唐山,1997)。
林志明,〈在指認和認同之間擺盪的攝影肖像〉,曾曬淑編,《身體變化:西方藝術中身體的概念和意象》(台北:南天書局,2002),頁171-98。
林志明,〈注意的觀看:波特萊爾的《現代生活的畫家》〉,蔡淑玲編,《中外文學:自波特萊爾以降-現代性的法蘭西觀點》,第30卷,第11期(2002.4),頁62-82。
馬國明,《班雅明》(台北:東大,1998)。
許綺玲,《糖衣與木乃伊》(台北:美學書房,2001年)。
陳振堯,《法國文學史》(台北:天肯文化,1995)。
陳傳興,〈明室鏡語:由羅蘭巴特(Roland Bathes)的《明室》談攝影美學的幾種問題〉,《憂鬱文件》(台北:雄獅美術,1992),頁163-90。
曾少千,〈杜米埃的沙龍繪畫:為觀眾作史〉,《國立歷史博物館學報》,第11期(1998.12),頁95-116。
曾少千,〈波西米亞藝術家:浪漫時期的文化現象〉,《國立歷史博物館學報》,第12期,1999年3月,頁197-213。
劉瑞琪,《陰性顯影:女性攝影家的扮裝自拍像》(台北:遠流,2004),頁11-27。

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