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研究生:黃瑞恆
研究生(外文):Rui-heng Ray Huang
論文名稱:析取、並列、與疑問:一個比較性的研究
論文名稱(外文):Disjunction, Coordination, and Question: A Comparative Study
指導教授:丁仁丁仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ting, Jen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:220
中文關鍵詞:析取並列並列刪除選擇問句正反問句鄰接謂語問句
外文關鍵詞:disjunctioncoordinationConjunction Reductionalternative questionsA-not-A questionsVP-VP questions
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本論文探討英語和漢語的析取並列句式(disjunctive coordinate sentences),特別著重於漢語裡三種析取問句的比較,包括選擇問句(alternative questions)、正反問句(A-not-A questions)、以及鄰接謂語問句(VP-VP questions)。
本研究檢視析取並列句式的結構及語意特性,發現此句式和聯合並列句式(conjunctive coordinate sentences)皆具有雙分枝(binary branching)及補語式(complementation)的特點,並且觀察到析取並列句式之語意,和句法移位現象有密切互動。例如,當疑問或非疑問析取句式之並列項沒有時序、因果、讓步或條件之相互關係(correlation)時,此類析取句式歸屬於偶然並列結構(accidental coordination),並列項裡的內部成分不允許被釋出(extraction)。相反的,「否則」(‘otherwise’)析取句式的並列項具有條件(conditionality)之相互關係,而此類析取句式則歸屬於自然並列結構(natural coordination),並列項裡的內部成分可以被釋出。此現象意味著「並列結構限制」(Coordinate Structure Constraint,Ross 1967)並非牢不可破,當並列項的語意具有相互關係時,即為例外。此結果支持張寧(2009a)所提出的「相對性平行要求」(Relativized Parallelism Requirement),根據該要求,語意為決定並列句式合法與否的重要因素之ㄧ。
本研究同時論證,漢語裡的三種析取問句是有必要區分的。雖然選擇問句與正反問句皆為並列結構且皆能進行「並列刪除」(Conjunction Reduction),但此二種句式亦有相異處。首先,選擇問句乃藉由無擇約束(unselective binding)得到認可,而正反問句則經由邏輯形式移位(LF movement)得到認可。其次,僅有隱性並列(asyndetic)結構,像是正反問句,才能進行「音節刪除」(Syllable Reduction)。再者,正反問句的正反形式已歷經俗成化(conventionalization)而定型,而選擇問句的形式則未經俗成化。至於鄰接謂語問句,根據本研究的主張,係由兩個比鄰且獨立的是非問句融合而成,其選擇語意則導因於語用上的重新詮釋。本研究更進一步指出,鄰接結構(juxtaposition)與並列結構(coordination)不可相提並論,證據之一來自於僅有並列結構適用並列刪除,而鄰接結構則不適用。總之,本研究不僅指出三分法之必要性,更重要的是說明了如何把漢語裡的三種析取問句區分開來。
This thesis examines disjunctive coordinate sentences in English and Mandarin Chinese, with particular focus on the comparison among alternative questions, A-not-A questions, and VP-VP questions in Mandarin Chinese.
Configurational and semantic properties of disjunctive coordination are identified in this study. It is found that disjunctive coordination is characterized by binary branching and complementation, on a par with conjunctive coordination. It is also pointed out that semantics of disjunctive coordination interacts closely with syntactic patterns of extraction. Specifically, the two disjuncts in ‘either-or’ or ‘whether-or’ sentences do not display the temporal, causal, ‘despite/nonetheless’, or conditional correlation. Such disjunctive sentences fall into complexes of accidental coordination and no element is able to be extracted from one of the two disjuncts. By contrast, the two disjuncts in ‘otherwise-or’ sentences are semantically correlated by conditionality. Such disjunctive sentences fall into complexes of natural coordination and an element is able to be extracted from a disjunct. As a consequence, the Coordinate Structure Constraint (Ross, 1967) can be relaxed by semantic correlation. This outcome supports Zhang’s (2009a) proposal of Relativized Parallelism Requirement (RPR), according to which semantics is one of the crucial factors that are responsible for representations of coordination.
Regarding the three types of disjunctive questions in Mandarin Chinese, it is argued that a tripartite distinction is necessary. Although alternative questions and A-not-A questions are both structures of coordination and able to undergo Conjunction Reduction (CR), they differ in several ways. First, alternative questions are licensed by unselective binding whereas A-not-A questions are licensed by LF movement. Second, only asyndetic structures like A-not-A sentences can undergo Syllable Reduction (SR). Third, the formation of A-not-A questions has been conventionalized while that of alternative questions is not. As for VP-VP questions, it is proposed that they are formed by juxtaposing two independent yes-no questions and reinterpreted as a single alternative question on pragmatic grounds. Juxtaposition is differentiated from coordination in this study. A piece of evidence comes from the fact that CR applies to structures of coordination, but not to structures of juxtaposition. It is concluded that this study does not simply bring up the necessity for a three-way distinction, but more importantly, demonstrate how the distinction can be made.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

摘要(CHINESE ABSTRACT) i
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
ABBREVIATIONS xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1. Introduction 1
2. Main Goal 4
3. Theoretical Framework and Organization of the Thesis 7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
1. Introduction 9
2. Configurational Properties of Conjunctive Coordination 9
2.1 Binary Branching vs. Multiple Branching 9
2.2 Adjunction vs. Complementation 12
3. Element Extraction and Relativized Parallelism Requirement (RPR) 19
3.1 Natural Coordination vs. Accidental Coordination 19
3.2 Zhang’s (2009a) Coordination Theory: RPR 22
4. Two Approaches to Either…Or and Whether…Or Sentences in English 28
4.1 Movement Approach 28
4.2 Reduction Approach 37
4.2.1 Schwarz (1999) 37
4.2.2 Han and Romero (2004) 41
5. Three Kinds of Disjunctive Question Forms in Mandarin Chinese 48
5.1 Alternative Questions and A-not-A Questions 48
5.1.1 Wang (1967): One-Rule Approach 48
5.1.2 Huang (1988, 1991a): Modular Approach 50
5.1.2.1 AB-not-A: Anaphoric Ellipsis 50
5.1.2.2 A-not-AB: Reduplication 55
5.1.3 A Comparison 59
5.2 VP-VP Questions 59
6. Summary 61

CHAPTER THREE: DISJUNCTION AND COORDINATION 63
1. Introduction 63
2. Configurational Properties of Disjunctive Coordination 63
2.1 Binary Branching and Complementation 63
2.2 Structural Representation for Coordination in General 69
2.3 Revisiting Two Supporting Facts for the Either-Or Cluster Proposal 74
3. Disjunction and the RPR Theory 80
3.1 ‘Either-Or’ and ‘Whether-Or’ as Accidental Coordination 80
3.2 ‘Otherwise-Or’ as Natural Coordination 87
3.3 Revised RPR Theory 91
4. Summary 96

CHAPTER FOUR: DERIVING SYNDETIC DISJUNCTION 98
1. Introduction 98
2. Conjunction Reduction 98
2.1 Application of CR 98
2.2 Limitations of CR 110
3. Deriving ‘(Either)…Or’ Sentences 113
3.1 ‘Or’ Accompanied by ‘Either’ 113
3.2 ‘Or’ Alone Without ‘Either’ 117
4. Deriving ‘(Whether)…Or’ Sentences 119
4.1 ‘(Whether)…Or’ in English 119
4.2 ‘(Whether)…Or’ in Chinese 122
4.2.1 Movement without CR 122
4.2.2 Movement with CR 126
4.2.3 Non-Movement with CR 133
5. Implications: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison 146

CHAPTER FIVE: DERIVING ASYNDETIC DISJUNCTION 149
1. Introduction 149
2. Deriving A-not-A Questions 149
2.1 Coordination and A-not-A Questions 149
2.1.1 Syndetic vs. Asyndetic 149
2.1.2 A-(or)-not-A Disjunction and RPR 151
2.2 Against Reduplication 153
2.3 Proposal 159
2.3.1 AB-not-A Questions and A-not-AB Questions 159
2.3.2 Reduction Preferred over Reduplication 165
2.3.3 a-not-aB Questions 169
2.3.3.1 Syllable Reduction (SR) 169
2.3.3.2 Limitations of SR 171
2.3.3.3 Conventionalization 179
2.3.4 Interim Summary 185
3. Deriving VP-VP Questions 188
3.1 Juxtaposition of Yes-No Questions 188
3.2 Juxtaposition and RPR 194
4. Summary 195

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION 197

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