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研究生:王佳陽
論文名稱:十五種海洋矽藻油脂成份之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the oil components of fifteen species of marine diatom
指導教授:陳衍昌陳衍昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yean-Chang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:181
中文關鍵詞:矽藻脂質脂肪酸
外文關鍵詞:diatomlipidfatty acid
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十五種純化之海洋矽藻分別被培養於溫室內夏季(平均溫度32.2℃、平均光度655 µE‧m-2‧s-1)、冬季(平均溫度22℃、平均光度195 µE‧m-2‧s-1)與培養箱(溫度24℃、光度100 µE‧m-2‧s-1)三種不同環境後,以氣相層析儀分析此四十五種組合下之脂肪酸組成。結果發現,其中以培養在溫室冬季的膨大橋彎藻(Cymbella turgida)的總脂質含量最高達45.98%,相較下,以恆溫培養箱的盾卵形藻(Cocconeis scutellum var. minutissma)最低為30.24%。脂肪酸組成種類以恆溫培養箱的菱形藻(Nitzschia grossestriata)、溫室夏季和冬季的提琴型菱形藻(N. panduriformis)、溫室冬季和恆溫培養箱的膨大橋彎藻最多均達十九種,而以溫室夏季的雙凸雙眉藻(Amphora bigibba)最少,只有十種。本研究發現簡單雙眉藻(A. exigua)、雙凸雙眉藻(A. bigibba)及擬銀幣直鏈藻(Melosira nummuloides)在溫室內夏季與冬季,光度較高的環境下,偏向累積ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸,在培養箱內,光度較低的環境下,偏向累積飽和脂肪酸。相反地,扁圓美壁藻(Caloneis platycephala)、盾卵型藻、菱形藻、布斯拉菱形藻(N. pusilla)及骨條藻(Skeletonema costatum)在光度較低的環境下,偏向累積ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸,在光度較高的環境下,偏向累積飽和脂肪酸。牟氏角刺藻(Chaetoceros muelleri)在溫室夏季,溫度較高的環境下,偏向累積ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸,在溫室冬季,溫度較低的環境下,偏向累積飽和脂肪酸。相反地,膨大橋彎藻及豎琴舟行藻(Navicula lyra)在溫度較低的環境下,偏向累積ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸,在溫度較高的環境下,偏向累積飽和脂肪酸。另外,提琴形菱形藻及半舟行藻(Seminavis gracilenta)在溫室夏季,溫度與光度均高的環境下偏向累積ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸。然而,在培養箱內,溫度與光度均低的環境下偏向累積飽和脂肪酸。細柱藻(Cylindrotheca sp.)及盾形舟行藻(Navicula scutiformis)則在溫室冬季,光度較高但溫度較低的環境下,偏向累積ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸。相對於溫室冬季環境,在培養箱內,光度較低但溫度較高的環境下偏向累積飽和脂肪酸。
Fifteen species of purified marine diatoms were cultured in the summer and the winter of a greenhouse and in an incubator respectively, subsequently their fatty acid components of these 45 combinations were analyzed using gas chromatography. It is found that Cymbella turgida had the highest total lipid content of 45.98%, when it was cultured in the winter. In contrast, Cocconeis scutellum var. minutissma had the lowest total lipid content of 30.24%, when it was cultured in an incubator. Nitzschia grossestriata was cultured in an incubator, N. panduriformis was cultured both in the summer and the winter, and Cymbella turgida was cultured both in the winter and incubator, those diatoms resulted as many as 19 species of fatty acids. However, Amphora bigibba resulted less speices of only 10 fatty acids, when it was cultured in the summer. A. exigua, A. bigibba, and Melosira nummuloides tended to accumulate ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), when they were cultured in higher light intensity. However, they tended to accumulate saturated fatty acids, when they were cultured in lower light intensity. On the contrary, Caloneis platycephala, Cocconeis scutellum var. minutissma, Nitzschia grossestriata, N. pusilla, and Skeletonema costatum tended to accumulate ω-3 PUFA, when they were cultured in lower light intensity. However, they tended to accumulate saturated fatty acids, when they were cultured in higher light intensity. Chaetoceros muelleri tended to accumulate ω-3 PUFA, when it was cultured in higher temperature. However, it tended to accumulate saturated fatty acids, when it was cultured in lower temperature. In contrast, Cymbella turgida and Navicula lyra tended to accumulate ω-3 PUFA, when they were cultured in lower temperature. However, they tended to accumulate saturated fatty acids, when they cultured in higher temperature. Nitzschia panduriformis and Seminavis gracilenta tended to accumulate ω-3 PUFA, when they were cultured both in higher light intensity and temperature. However, they tended to accumulate saturated fatty acids, when they were cultured in lower light intensity and temperature. Cylindrotheca sp. and Navicula scutiformis tended to accumulate ω-3 PUFA, when they were cultured in higher light intensity with lower temperature. However, they tended to accumulate saturated fatty acids, when they were cultured in lower light intensity with higher temperature.
謝辭………………………………………………………………………i
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….…..ii
英文摘要……………………….....…………………………………….iv
目錄…………………………………………………………………vi
圖目錄………………………………………….……………….………viii
表目錄…………………………….……………………………………x
壹、前言…………………………………………………….…………01
一、矽藻之構造……………………………………….…………01
二、矽藻的分類……………………………………….…………02
三、矽藻之生殖……………………………………….…………02
四、矽藻之運動性…………………………………………………03
五、矽藻之色素及儲存物質………………………………………04
六、矽藻之生態……………………………………………………05
七、矽藻之培養及固定化保種……………………….…………06
八、矽藻之矽殼應用…………………………….………………07
九、矽藻藻油成分之介紹……….………………………………08
貳、材料與方法………………………………..………………...……12
一、藻種及培養基的配製……………………………….………12
二、藻種純化……………………………………....………………13
三、矽藻之鑑定……………………………....………….….…….14
四、矽藻之生物量……………………………………….….……15
五、純種矽藻之培養及收集……………………………….........15
六、脂質之萃取………………………………….………………..16
七、脂肪酸成份分析……………………………………………....16
八、純種矽藻之固定化…………..…………........………………17
參、結果……………………….…….…………………….……….……19
一、藻種純化及鑑定…………………………………….………19
二、實驗期間培養環境測量結果………………….……………20
三、十二種純種矽藻之生物量……………………………………21
四、十五種純種矽藻之培養與脂肪酸成份分析……….………22
五、十五種矽藻在三種不同環境下之總脂質含量比較.………71
六、十五種矽藻在三種不同環境下之飽和脂肪酸及不飽和脂
肪酸之含量比較…………….…………….…….……………72
七、依照ω-3多元不飽和脂肪酸於三組不同環境下的含量,
將十五種藻種區分為6種不同環境需求來生產ω-3多元
不飽和脂肪酸的類型…………….………….…...........…….82
肆、討論................................................................................................…84
伍、結論....................................................................................................94
陸、參考文獻.........................................................................................95
柒、圖......................................................................................................102
捌、表......................................................................................................136
玖、附圖..................................................................................................178

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