(3.92.96.236) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/09 01:37
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:季書林
研究生(外文):Saloum Jatta
論文名稱:兩種不同比例的蛋白質與脂質飼料以三種不同量投餵對吳郭魚成長、體組成和血液生化値之效應
論文名稱(外文):The effects of two dietary levels of protein and lipid on growth, body composition and blood parameters of Hybrid Tilapia
指導教授:劉擎華劉擎華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chyng-Hwa Liou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:雜交吳郭魚(Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus)蛋白質脂質攝食率成長表現
外文關鍵詞:hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus)protein levellipid levelfeeding rategrowth performance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:256
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:27
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘要
本研究以雜交吳郭魚(Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus)11.5~15.5克的魚苗進行飼養試驗,蓄養密度為每個水族箱12隻魚,每天投餵 2次(上午9時和下午7時)為期12週。本研究的目的為探討飼料蛋白質,脂質和投餵量對其生長及血液生化值的影響。配製四組能量相似的飼料,其中粗蛋白分別為30%或20%,脂質分別為12%或6%,每組飼料有三種不同的投餵量(100,80,60%)。8週後測量飼料蛋白質、油脂及攝食量對末重,增重率,每日增重率,飼料轉化率,攝食量,血漿中三酸甘油酯,膽固醇,血糖和總蛋白。12週後,除了成長和血液生化數據,測定肝體比,臟體比,腹腔脂質,肥滿度和腸的長度。
8週及12週結果顯示粗蛋白含量對增重率,每日增重率,飼料效率,肝體比及腹腔脂質有正向效應,而對飼料轉換率,血漿三酸甘油脂,膽固醇和總蛋白有負面效應。飼料中油脂含量對增重率,每日增重率和攝食量有負向效應,但對血糖,臟體比和腹腔脂質有正向效應。投餵量對增重率,每日增重率,採食量,總蛋白,血糖,肝體指數,內臟指數和腹腔脂肪有正向效應。
餵食高蛋白,低脂肪飼料有最好的成長表現;且未飽食投餵會比飽食投餵更佳。我們的研究結果顯示餵食吳郭魚粗蛋白含量20至30%,粗脂肪6%的飼料,攝食率80至100%之間會有較佳的成長表現。
關鍵字:雜交吳郭魚(Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus),蛋白質,脂質,攝食率,成長表現。

Abstract

A 12 week feeding trial was conducted on hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) fingerlings of 11.5-15.5g at a stocking density of 12 fish per aquarium and fed twice daily (9 am and 7 pm) for 12 weeks. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of dietary protein, lipid and feeding levels, on growth, blood and biological parameters. Four experimental diets of similar energy levels were prepared. Two of the diets contain 30% crude protein with either 12% or 6% lipid level while the other two contain 20% crude protein with either 12% or 6% lipid level. Each diet was administered in three different feeding ways (100, 80, and 60%) except the diet with low dietary protein and lipid which was administered in two feeding way (100 and 80%. At the end of 8 weeks, the effects of dietary protein, lipid and feeding levels on final body weight, percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed intake, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose and total protein were measured. At the end of 12 weeks, in addition to growth and blood parameters, biological parameters such as hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat, condition factor and intestinal length ratio were also measured.
Dietary protein level has positive effects on percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat but negative effects on plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein both at the end of 8 and 12 weeks. Dietary lipid level has negative effects on percent weight gain, specific growth rate and feed intake but positive effects on plasma glucose, viscerosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat. Feeding level has positive influences on percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, total protein, plasma glucose, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat.
The best growth performances were observed in fish fed with high protein with low lipid diet. It may be concluded that sub-satiation feeding would be more beneficial than satiation feeding. My results suggest the range of crude protein between 20 and 30%, crude lipid 6% in diet, and feeding rates between 80 and 100% for best rearing performances.
Key words: hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus), protein level, lipid level, feeding rate, growth performance.

Table of contents
Dedication i
Acknowledgements ii
Chinese abstract iii
Abstract iv
Table of contents vi
List of table viii
1.Introduction 1
2. Literature Review 4
2.1 Tilapia 4
2.2 Protein requirements of tilapia 5
2.3 Amino acids requirements of tilapia 7
2.4 Alternative protein sources for fishmeal 9
2.5 Soybean meal as a feed ingredient 11
2.6 Lipid requirements of tilapia 12
2.7 Effects of the interaction between high dietary lipid and protein levels on growth 13
2.8 Effects of the interaction between high dietary lipid and protein levels on blood 16
2.9 Effects of the interaction between high dietary lipid and protein levels on biological parameters 16
2.10 The effects of feeding rate on growth 17
2.11 Problem Formulation 18
3. Materials and Methods 19
3.1 Diet preparation 19
3.2 Growth trial 19
3.3 Sampling 21
3.4 Biochemical analyses 21
3.5 Chemical analysis of feed 22
3.6 Calculations of some parameters 22
3.7 Statistical analysis 23
4. Results 24
4.1 Growth and Survival 24
4.2 Blood parameters 27
4.3 Correlation between growth and blood parameters………………....28
4.3 Biological parameters 29
5. Discussion 31
6. Conclusions and Recommendations 38
7. Refrences 39


Refrences

Abdelghany, A.E., 2000. Replacement value of cystine for methionine in semi-purified diets supplemented with free amino acids for the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fry. pp. 109-119. In: Fitzsimmons, K., Filho, J.C. (eds.). Tilapia aquaculture in the 21st century. Proc. From the 5th Intl. Symp. On Tilapia in Aquaculture. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 3-7 September 2000.
Abdelghany, A.E., Ahmad, M.H., 2002. Effects of feeding rates on growth and production of Nile tilapia, common carp and silver carp polycultured in fertilized ponds. Aquacult. Res. 33, 415-423.
Aderolu, A.Z., Akinremi, O.A., 2009. Dietary effects of coconut oil and peanut oil in improving biochemical characteristics of Clarias gariepinus juvenile. Turkish J. of Fish. and Aqu. Sci. 9, 105-110.
Al Hafedh, Y. S., 1999. Effects of dietary protein on the growth and body composition of Nile Tilapia, L. Aquacult. Res. 30, 385-393.
Anderson, J., Capper, B.S., Bromage, N.R., 1991. Measurement and prediction of digestible energy values in feedstuffs for the herbivorous fish tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.). British J. of Nutrit. 66, 37-48.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Babalola, T.O.O., Adebayo, M.A., 2007. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. J. of Fish. Int’l. 2 (1), 60-64.
Bahnasawy, M.H., 2009. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Reared in Fertilized Tanks. Pakistan J. Nutr. 8, 674-678.
Barlow, S., 2003. World market overview of fishmeal and fish oil, pp.11-25. In: Bechtel, P.J. (editor), Advances in seafood by-products: 2002 conference proceedings. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, 566 pp.
Bender, A.E., Haizelden, S., 1957. Biological value of the proteins of a variety of fish meals. British J. Nutr. 11, 42-43.
Boonyaratpalin, M., Suraneiranat, P., Tunpibal, T., 1998. Replacement of fishmeal with various types of soybean products in diets for the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Aquaculture 161, 67-78.
Boscolo, W.R., Hayashi, C., Meurer, F., 2002. Digestibilidade Aparente da Energia e nutrietes de alimentos convencionais e alternatives para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) R. Bras. Zootec. 31, 539-545.
Brown, P.B., Twibell R.G., 1998. Optimal Dietary Protein for Hybrid Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus Fed All-Plant Diets. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 29, 9-16.
Brown, M.L., Nematipour, G.R., Gatlin, D.M., 1992. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile sunshine bass at different salinities. Prog. Fish-Cult. 54, 148-156.
Cameron, C., Gurure, R., Reddy, K., Moccia, R., Leatherland, J., 2002. Correlation between dietary lipid: protein ratios and plasma growth and thyroid hormone levels in juvenile Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus). Aquacult. Res. 33, 383-394.
Chakraborty, S.B., Banerjee, S., 2010. Comparative Growth Performance of Mixed-Sex and Monosex Nile Tilapia Population in Freshwater Cage Culture System under Indian Perspective. Int. J. Biol. 2, 44-50.
Chen, G., Zhang, M., Zhang, J., Dong, H., Zhou, H., Tang, B., Huang, J., Shi, G., Jiang, L., Wu, Z., 2009. The effects of different levels of dietary protein and L-Carnitine on blood sugar and lipids of the new GIFT strain of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sci. World J. 9, 1197-1205.
Cheng, A-C., Chen, C-Y., Liou, C-H., Chang, C-F., 2006. Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipids on Blood Parameters and Superoxide Anion Production in the Grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae: Epinephelinae). Zoolog. Stud. 45, 492-502.
Cho, C.Y., Kaushik, S.J., 1990. Nutritional energetics in fish: energy and protein utilization in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). World Rev. Nutr. Dietetics 61, 132-172.
Chou, B.S., Shiau, S.Y., 1996. Optimum dietary lipid level for growth of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus. Aquaculture 143, 185-195.
Chou, R.L., Her, B.Y., Su, M.S., Hwang, G., Wu, Y.H., Chen, H.Y., 2004. Substituting fishmeal with soybean meal in diets of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture 229, 325-333.
Company, R., Calduch-Giner, J.A., Kaushik, S., Pérez-Sánchez, J., 1999. Growth performance and adiposity in gilhead sea bream (Sparus aurata): risks and benefits of high fat diets. Aquaculture 171, 279-292.
Crab, R., Avnimelech, Y., Defoirdt, T., Bossier, P., Verstraete, W., 2007. Nitrogen removal techniques for a sustainable aquaculture. Aquaculture 270, 1-14.
Daniels, W.H., Robinson, E.H., 1986. Protein and energy requirements of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture 53, 243-252.
Day, O.J., Plascencia, H.G., 2000. Soybean protein concentrates as a protein source for turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Aquacult. Nutr. 6, 221-228.
De-Silva, S.S., Gunasekera, R.M., Atapattu, D., 1989. The dietary protein requirements of young tilapia and an evaluation of the least cost dietary protein level. Aquaculture 3, 271-281.
De-Silva, S.S., Gunasekera, R.M. and Shim, K.F., 1991. Interactions of varying dietary protein and lipid levels in young red tilapia: Evidence of protein sparing. Aquaculture 95, 305-318.
Dias, J., Alvarez M.J., Diez A., Arzel J., Corraze G., Bautista J.M., Kaushik S.J., 1998. Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary protein/energy ratio in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 161, 169-186.
Du, Z.Y., Liu, Y.J., Tian, L.X., Wang, J.T., Wang, Y., Liang, g.y.,2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquacult. Nutr. 11, 139-146.
Einen, O., Roem, A.J., 1997. Dietary protein/energy ratios for Atlantic salmon in relation to fish size: growth, feed utilization and slaughter quality. Aquacult. Nutr. 3, 115-126.
Einen, O., Skrede, G. G., 1998. Quality characteristics in raw and smoked fillets of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fed high-energy diets. Aquacult. Nutr. 4, 99-198.
Eknath, A. E., Hulata G., 2009. Use and exchange of genetic resources of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Reviews in Aquaculture 1, 197-213.
El-Saidy, D.M.S.D., Gaber, M.M., 2004. Use of cottonseed meal supplemented with iron for detoxification of gossypol as a total replacement of fishmeal in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) diets. Aquacult. Res. 35, 859-865.
El-Saidy, D.M.S.D., Gaber, M.M.A., 2005. Effect of dietary protein levels and feeding rates on growth performance, production traits and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) cultured in concrete tanks. Aquacult. Res. 36, 163-171.
El-Sayed, A.F., 2002. Effects of stocking density and feeding levels on growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry. Aquacult. Res. 33, 621-626.
El-Sayed, A.F., 2006. Tilapia Culture. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: Cabi Publishing. pp 95-111.
El-Sayed, A.M., Mansour, C.R., Ezzat, A.A., 2003. Effects of dietary protein levels on spawning performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) broodstock reared at different water salinities. Aquaculture 220, 619-632.
El-Sayed, A.F.M., Teshima, S., 1992. Protein and energy requirements of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry. Aquaculture 103, 55-63.
El-Sayed, A.F.M., 1999. Alternative dietary protein sources for farmed tiapia, Oreochromis spp. Aquaculture 179, 149-168.
El-Sayed, A.F.M., Garling, D.L. Jr. 1988. Carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios in diets for Tilapia fingerlings. Auaculture 73,157-163.
Eng, C.T., Paw, J.N., Guarin, F.Y., 1989. The environmental impact of aquaculture and the effects pollution on coastal aquaculture development in Southeast Asia. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 20, 335-343.
Fagbenro, O.A., Davies, S.J., 2001. Use of soybean flour (dehulled solvent-extracted soybean) as fishmeal substitute in practical diets for African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822): growth, feed utilization and digestibility. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 17, 64-69.
FAO 2002. State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Food and Agricultural Organization, Part 1. Rome, Italy.
FAO, 2006. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 ). FAO Fish. & Aquacult.
FAO, 2010. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). FAO Fish, and Aquacult. Depart.
FAO, 2007. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006. FAO, Rome, p.162.
Fasakin, E.A., Serwata, T.R.D., Davies, S.J., 2005. Comparative utilization of rendered animal derived products with or without composite mixture of soybean meal in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus) diets. Aquaculture 249, 329-338.
FIN (Fishmeal Information Network), 2004. Fishmeal facts and figure-November 2004 update (http://www.gafta.com/fin/finfacts.html)
Fitzsimmons, K., 2008. Review-global advances in tilapia production and marketing. Workshop, Eighth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture.
Fitzsimmons, K., Dickenson, G., Brand, C., Davis, J., 1997. Effects of reducing dietary lipid levels on growth and body composition of hybrid tilapia in an intensive recirculating-water system. Progress. Fish Cult. 59, 293-296.
Francis, G., Makkar, H.P., Becker, K., 2001. Anti-nutritional factors present in plant derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199, 197-227.
Furuya, W.M., Pezzato, L.E., Barros, M.M., Pezzato, A.C., Furuya, V.R.B., Miranda, E.C., 2004. Use of ideal protein concept for precision formulation of amino acid levels in fish-meal-free diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquacult. Res. 35, 1110-1116.
Gaylord, T.G., Gatlin, D.M., 2000. Dietary lipid level but not L-carnitine affects growth performance of hybrid striped bass (Marone chrysops male x M. saxatilis female). Aquaculture 190, 237-246.
Glencross, B.D., Booth, M., Allan, G.L., 2007. A feed is only as good as its ingredients - a review of ingredient evaluation for aquaculture feeds. Aquacult. Nutrit. 13, 17–34.
Goda, A.M.A.S., Wafa, M.E., El-Haroun, E.R., Chowdhury, M.A.K., 2007. Growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and tilapia galilae Sarotherodon galilaeus (Linnaeus, 1758) fingerlings fed plant protein-based diets. Aquacult. Res. 38, 827-837.
Goff, J.B., Gatlin, D.M., 2004. Evaluation of different sulfur amino acid compounds in the diet of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, and sparing value of cystine for methionine. Aquaculture 241, 465-477.
Gomes, E.F., Rema, P., Kaushik, S.J., 1995. Replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in diet rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): digestibility and growth performance. Aquaculture 130, 177-186.
Gunasekera, R.M., Shim, K.F., Lam, T.J., 1996. Effect of dietary protein level on spawning performance and amino acid composition of eggs of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). Aquaculture 146, 121-134.
Hanley, F., 1991. Effects of feeding supplementary diets containing varying levels of lipid on growth, food conversion, and body composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). Aquaculture 93, 323-334.
Hardy, R.W., Tacon, A.G.J., 2002. Fishmeal: historical uses, production trends and future outlook for supplies, pp.311-325. In: Stickney, R.R & MacVey, J.P. (eds), Responsible Marine Aquacultue. CABI P ublishing, New York, 391 pp.
Hayashi, C., Boscolo, W.R., Soares, C.M., Meurir, F., 2002. Digestible Protein Requirement for Nile tilapia Larvae (Oreochromis niloticus) during the Sexual Reversion. Brazilian Zootechnics Rev. 31, 823-828.
Helland, S.J., Grisdale-Helland, B., 1998. The influence of replacing fish meal with fish oil on growth, feed utilization and body composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the smoltification period. Aquaculture 162, 1-10.
Hempel, E., 1993. Constraints and possibilities for developing aquaculture. Aquacult. Int. 1, 1-19.
Hemre, G.I., Sandnes, K., 1999. Effect of dietary lipid level on muscle composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquacult. Nutr. 5, 9-16.
Hidalgo, F., Alliot, E., 1988. Influence of water temperature on protein requirements and protein utilization in juvenile seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture 72, 115–129.
Hillestad, M., Johnsen F., 1994. High energy/low protein diets for Atlantic salmon: effects on growth, nutrient retention and slaughter quality. Aquaculture 124, 109-116.
Hossain, M.A., Ali, M.Z., Rahman, M.M., Kader, M.A., 2006. Evaluation of mixed-feeding schedules with varying dietary protein content on the growth performance and reduction of cost of production for sutchi catfishsh, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage) with silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes). J. Appl. Aqua., 18, 63- 78.
Huntington, T., Frid, C., Banks, R., Scott, C., Paramor, O., 2004. Assessment of the sustainability of industrial fisheries producing fishmeal and fish oil. Report to the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB). Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd, Lymington, Hampshire, UK. June 2004.
Huntington, T.C., 2004. Feeding the fish: sustainable fish feed and Scottish aquaculture. Report to the Joint Marine Program (Scottish Wildlife Trust and WWF Scotland) and RSPB Scotland. Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd, Lymington, Hampshire, UK. August 2004.
Jauncey, K., 1982. The effects of varying dietary protein level on the growth, food conversion, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile tilapias (Sarotherodon mossambicus). Aquaculture 27, 43-54.
Jauncey, K. 2000. Nutritional requirement. In Beveridge, M.C.M., McAndrew, B.J. (Eds.), Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation. London, UK: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 327-375.
Jauncey, K., Ross, B. 1982. A Guide to Tilapia Feeds and Feeding. University of Stirling, Scotland. 111 pp.
Jauncey, K., Tacon, A.C.J., Jackson, A.J., 1983. The quantitative essential amino acid requirements of Oreochromis (Sarotherodon) mossambicus. In: Fishelson, J., Yaron, Z. (eds.). Proc. 1st Intl. Symp. On Tilapia in Aquaculture. Tel. Aviv. Univ., Tel Aviv. Israel. pp. 328-337.
Jobling, M., Miglavs, I., 1993. The size of fat depots- a factor contributing to control of food intake in Arctic charr, Salelinus alpinus? J. Fish Biol. 43, 487-489.
Kikuchi, K., 1999. Use of defatted soybean meal as a substitute for fishmeal in diets of flounder (Paralichthys olilaceus). Aquaculture 179, 3-11.
Lee, S.M., Jeon, T.G., Lee, J.Y., 2002. Effects of digestible protein and lipid levels in practical diets on growth, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Aquaculture 211, 227-239.
Li, M.H., Hartnell, G.F., Robinson, E.H., Kroneberg, J.M., Healy, C.E., Oberle, D.F., Hoberg, J.R., 2008. Evaluation of cottonseed meal derived from genetically modified cotton as feed ingredients for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Aquacult. Nutr. 14, 490-498.
Li, Z., Lei, W., Ye, J., He, X. 1991. The nutritional value of commercial feed ingredients for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis L.) in China. In De-Silva, S.S. (Ed.), Fish Nutrition Research in Asia, Asian Fisheries Society Special Publication, Manila, Philippines, pp. 101-106.
Lim, C.E., Webster, C.D., 2006. Nutr. Req. In: Lim, C., Webster, C.D. (Eds), Tilapia: biology, culture and nutrition. The Haworth Press, NY, LD and OX, pp. 469-502.
Liou, C.H., 1989. Lysine and sulpher amino acid requirements of juvinile Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus). PhD Dissertation, 101 pp. Texas A M University College.
Lovell, R.T., 1989. Nutrition and feeding of fish. New York: Van Norstrand Reinhord.
Luquet, P., 1989. Practical considerations on the protein nutrition and feeding of tilapia. Aquat. Living Resour. 2, 99-104.
Luquet, P., 1991. Tilapia, Oreochromis spp. In R. P. Wilson (Ed.), Handbook of Nutrient Requiremnts of Finfish. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc. pp. 169-179.
Marais, J.F.K., Kissil, G.W., 1979. The influence of energy level on the feed intake, growth, food conversion and body composition of Sparus aurata. Aquaculture 17, 203-219.
Matter, F., Peganova, S., Eder, K., 2004. Lipid concentrations of fillets, liver, plasma and lipoproteins of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), fed diets with varying protein concentrations. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 88, 275-287.
McAndrew, B.J., 2000. Evolution, phylogenetic relationships and biogeography. In: Bfveridge, M.C.M., McAndrew, B.J. (eds) Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London, pp.1-32.
McGoogan, B.B., Gatlin, D.M., 1997. Effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diets for red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and potential for palatability enhancement, J. World Aquacult. Soc. 28, 374-385.
Mohanta, K.N., Mohanty, S.N., Jena, J.K., Sahu, N.P., 2008. Protein requirement of silver barb, Puntius gonionotus fingerlings. Aquacult. Nutrit. 14, 143-152.
Naylor, R.L., Goldberg, R.J., Mooney, H., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Lubchenco, J., Primavera, J., Williams, M., 2000. Nature’s subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming. Science 282, 883-884.
New, M.B., Wijkström, U.N., 2002. Use of fishmeal and fish oil in aquafeeds: further thoughts on the fishmeal trap. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 975. Rome. 61 pp.
NRC (National Research Council), 1983. Nutrient requirement of warmwater fishes and shellfishes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council), 1993. Nutrient requirement of fishes. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC, 114 pp.
Ogata, H., Murai, T., 1991. Nutritional approach to the production of masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou smolt. In: Svrjcek, R.S. (Ed.), Marine Ranching: Proceedings of the 17th US-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture. NOAA Tec. Rept. NMFS 102, pp. 145-149.
Papaparakeva-Papoutsoglou, E., Alexis, M.N., 1986. Protein requirement of young mullet, Mugil capito. Aquaculture 52, 105-115.
Peres, H., Oliva-Teles, A., 1999. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by European sea bass juvenile (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 179, 325-334.
Phillipart, J.C., Ruwet, J.C., 1982. Ecology and Distribution of Tilapia. In Pullin, R.S., Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (Eds.). The Bilogy and Culture of Tilapias. ICLARM Conference Proceedings Manilla, Phillipines, 432 pp.
Phillips, A.M., 1972. Caloririe and energy requirements. In: Halver, J.E. (Ed), Fish Nutrition, Academic Press, New York, pp: 2-29.
Pike, I.H., 2005. Eco-efficiency in aquaculture: global catch of wild fish used in aquaculture. Inter. Aquaf. 8, 38-40.
Poston, H.A., 1986. Response of rainbow trout to source and level of supplemental dietary methionine. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 83, 739-744.
Rasmussen, R.S., Ostenfeld, T.H., Ronsholdt, B. And McLean, E., 2000. Manipulation of end-product quality of rainbow trout with finishing diets. Aquacult. Nutr. 6, 17-23.
Reigh, R.C., Ellis, S.C., 1992. Effects of dietary soybean and fish-protein ratios on growth and body composition of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed isonitrogenous diets. Aquaculture 104, 279-292.
Regost, C., Arzel, J., Cardinal, M., Robin, J., Laroche, M., Kaushik S.J., 2001. Dietary lipid level, hepatic lipogenesis and flesh quality in turbot (Psetta maxima). Aquaculture 193, 291-309.
Robaina, L., Izquierdo, M.S.,Moyano, F.J.,Socorro, J., Vergara, J.M., Montero, D., Fernandez-Palacios, H., 1995. Soybean and lupinseed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): nutritional and histologicalimplications. Aquaculture 130, 219-233.
Robinson, E.H., Wilson, R.P., Poe, W.E., 1981. Arginine requirement and apparent absence of a lysine-arginine antagonism in fingerling channel catfish. J. Nutr. 111, 46-52.
Santiago C.B., Lovell R.T., 1988. Amino acid requirement for growth of Nile Tilapia. J. Nutr. 118, 1540-1546.
Santiago, C.B., Laron M.A., 2002. Growth and fry production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), on different feeding schedules. Aquacult. Res. 33, 129-136.
Sargent, J.R., 1997. Fish oils and human diet. British J. Nutr. 78, S5-S13.
SEAFEEDS (Sustainable Environmental Aquaculture Feeds), 2003. Final report of the Seafeeds Workshop organized and chaired by Nautilus Consultants in association with the Stirling University Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling 8th-9th April 2003.
Shearer, K.D., Silverestein, J.T., Plisetskaya, E.M. 1997. The role of adiposity in food intake control of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshwytscha). Comp. Physiol. Biochem. 118A, 1209-1215.
Shiau, S.Y., Chuang, J.L., Sun, C.L., 1987. Inclusion of soybean in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O.aureus) diets at two protein levels. Aquaculture 65, 251-261.
Shiau, S.Y., Huang, S.L., 1989. Optimal dietary protein level for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O.aureus) reared in sea water. Aquaculture 81, 119-127.
Shiau, S.Y., Kwok, C.C., Hwang J,Y., Chen, J. M., Lee, S. L., 1989. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal in male Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O.aureus) fingerlings diets at a suboptimal protein level. J. World Aquac. Soc. 20, 230-235.
Shiau, S.Y., Lin, S.F., Yu, S.L., Lin, A.L., Kwok, C.C., 1990. Defatted and full-fat soybean meal as partial replacements for fishmeal in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) diets at low protein level. Aquaculture 86, 401-407.
Shyong, W.J., Huang, C.H., Chen, H.C., 1998. Effects of dietary protein concentration on growth and muscle composition of juvenile Zacco barbata. Aquaculture 167, 35-42.
Siddiqui, A. Q., Howlander, M.S., and Adam, A.A., 1988. Effects of dietary protein levels on growth, diet conversion and protein utilization in fry and young Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture 70, 63-70.
Siddiqui, A.Q., Al Hafedh, Y.S., Ali, S.A., 1998. Effect of dietary protein level on the reproductive performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). Aquacult. Res. 29, 349-358.
Silverstein, J.T., Shearer, K.S., Dickhoff, W.W., Plisetskaya, E. M., 1999. Regulation of nutrient intake and energy balance in salmon. Aquaculture 177, 161-169.
Sirol, R.N., Andrade, D.R., Salaro, A.L., 2000. Growth and body composition of red tilapia fingerling (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) submitted to different feeding levels. In: Tilapia Aquaculture in the 21st Century. Proceeding from 5th International Symposium on tilapia Aquaculture (ed. by K. Fitzsimmons and J.C. Filho), pp 382-389. Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, 3-7 September 2000.
Stickney, R.R., Wurts, W.A., 1986. Growth response of blue tilapias to selected levels of dietary menhaden and catfish oils. Progress. Fish-Cult. 48, 107-109.
Storebakken, T., Shearer, K.D., Roem, A.J., 1998. Availability of protein, phosphorus and other elements in fishmeal, soy-protein. Aquaculture 161, 365-379.
Tacon, A.G.J., 2007. Meeting the Feed Supply Challenges. Paper presented FAO Globefish Global Trade Conference on Aquaculture, Qingdao, China, 29-31 May 2007.
Teshima, S., Kanazawa, A., and Uchiyama, Y., 1985. Effects of dietary protein, lipid and digestible carbohydrate levels on the weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of Tilapia nilotica. Mem. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Ctr. South Pacific, 6, 56-71.
Tibaldi, E., Hakim, Y., Uni, Z., Tulli, F., de Francesco, M., Umberto, L., Harpaz, S., 2006. Effects of the partial substitution of dietary fishmeal by differently processed soybean meals on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and activity of intestinal brush border enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 261, 182-193.
Torstensen, B.E., Lie, O., Hamre, K., 2001. A factorial experimental design for investigation of effects of dietary lipid content and pro- and antioxidants on lipid composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tissue and lipoproteins. Aquacult. Nutr. 7, 265-276.
Trewavas, E., 1982. Tilapia taxonomy and speciation. In R. S. Pullin, R. H. Lowe-McConnel (Ed.), ICLARM conference Proceedings 7, Manilla. pp. 3-13.
Walton, M.J., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W., 1982. Methionine metabolism in rainbow trout fed diets of differing methionine and cystine content. J. Nutr. 112, 1525-1535.
Walton, M.J., Cowey, C.B., Coloso, R.M., Adron, J.W., 1986. Dietary requirements of rainbow trout for tryptophan, lysine and arginine determined by growth and biochemical measurements. Fish Physio. Biochem. 2, 161-169.
Weatherup, R. N., McCracken, K. J., Foy, R., Rice, D., McKendry, j., Mairs, R. J., Hoey, R, 1997. The effects of dietary fat content on performance and body composition of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 15, 173-184.
Webster, C.D., Tiu, L.G., Morgan, A.M., Gannam, A.L., 1999. Effect of partial and total replacement of fishmeal on growth and body composition of sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis fed practical diets. J. World Aquac. Soc. 30, 443-453.
Wilson, R.P., 1989. Protein and amino acid requirements of fish. In: Progress in Fish Nutrition (ed. by S. Shiau), pp. 51-76. National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan.
Wilson, R.P., Gatlin, D.M., Poe,W.E., 1985. Postprandial changes in serum amino acids of channel catfish fed diets containing different levels of protein and energy. Aquaculture 49, 101-110.
Winfree, R.A., Stickney, R. R., 1981. Effects of dietary protein and energy on growth, feed conversion efficiency and body composition of Tilapia aurea. J. Nutr. 111, 1001-1012.
Xu, X.L., Fontaine, P., Mélard, C., Kestemont, P., 2001. Effects of dietary fat levels on growth, feed efficiency and biochemical compositions of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Aquacult. Int. 9, 437-449.
Yang, S-D., Liou, C-H., Liu, F-G., 2002. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance, carcass composition and ammonia excretion in juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Aquaculture 213, 363-372.
Zarate, D.D., Lovell, T.R., 1997. Free lysine (L-lysine•HCL) is utilized less efficiently than protein-bound lysine (soybean meal) in practical diets by young channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture 159, 87-100.
Zhou, Q. C., Mai, K., Tan, B., Liu, Y., 2005. Partial replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal in diets for juvenile cobia (Rachcentron canadum). Aquacult. Nutr. 11, 175-182.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔