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研究生:賴芝亭
研究生(外文):Chih-Ting Lai
論文名稱:屋頂綠化對雨洪削減效益及水文平衡模式之建立
論文名稱(外文):Stormwater Mitigation and Water Balance Model for Green Roofs
指導教授:廖朝軒廖朝軒引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chao-Hsien Liaw
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:河海工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:低衝擊開發都市雨洪控制屋頂綠化生態工程綠建築
外文關鍵詞:Low impact developmenturban stormwater mitigationgreen roofsecological engineeringgreen building
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近年都市建築物密集,不透水鋪面大量取代原有綠地,再者台灣都市計畫皆以集中末端處理的排水概念為主軸,使得都市導排水系統大量使用不透水鋪面將雨水快速排出。此舉將使都市缺乏保水機能,且易誘發洪水之產生。本研究旨在探討屋頂綠化對都市減洪之效益,並建立一程式評估屋頂綠化系統之水文表現與蒸發散量估算。
利用屋頂面積進行綠化保水,將有助於雨水現地消滅。本研究利用模型試驗進行降雨逕流與保水能力評估,並於現地進行蒸發散試驗以了解實際蒸發散量之情況。所收集之試驗數據經由整理與評估,結合氣象資料建立一水平衡程式。程式框架採用Virtual Basic語言寫成,使之操作簡易。
本研究模擬各種降雨強度對屋頂綠化系統水文之影響,所建構之水平衡模式在特定氣候條件及工法下具有良好之結果,可用來評估屋頂綠化對減緩城市雨水徑流的效能。而蒸發試驗結果可用於評估屋頂綠化所需之用水量與保水性能之差異。
Impervious surfaces negatively affect the depth, frequency and volume of stormwater runoff. Green roofs are increasingly being used to alleviate stormwater runoff problems in urban areas. However, research related to green roof system and stormwater mitigation is rare in Taiwan. Therefore, the aim of this research attempts to explore the effects of stormwater mitigation with green roof system installation by mathematical model.
To quantify these effects, this research uses an extensive green roof platform and rainfall-runoff physical simulation model that generates three different rainfall intensities to assess the effects of green roofs on flood mitigation and water retention for individual rainfall event. Evapotranspiration of green roofs is measured by on-site test. The on-site test modulus considers various combinations of vegetation, growing medium depth and stores and drains water layer. In addition, meteorological observing system has been set up to measure some climate data including wind speed, temperature, humidity, and solar radiation, etc. With those experimental results, some empirical equations can be obtained and they will be provided as inputs to water balance model for green roofs. Furthermore, calculation procedures for this model are written in the form of user-friendly by Virtual Basic language to assess the stormwater behavior of the green roof. It will provide as a useful tool for assessing the hydrological change when the green roof is installed.
Abstract (in Chinese) i
Abstract (in English) ii
Acknowledgements ii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Chapter I Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Objectives 2
1.3 Organization of Research 2
Chapter II Literature Review 5
2.1 Development History of Green Roofs 5
2.2 Definition of Green Roofs 7
2.2.1 Classification of Green Roofs 7
2.2.2 Contrast Extensive with Intensive Green Roofs 10
2.3 Components and Benefits of Green Roofs 11
2.3.1 Components of Green Roofs 11
2.3.2 Benefits of Green Roofs 14
2.4 Water Relative Research Review 17
2.4.1 Stormwater Management 18
2.4.2 Water Quality 20
Chapter III Water Balance Concept and Framework for Green Roofs 22
3.1 Water Balance Concept for Green Roofs 22
3.2 Evapotranspiration 23
3.2.1 Factors Influence the Rate of Evapotranspiration 24
3.2.2 Calculation Methodology for Evapotranspiration 25
3.3 Infiltration 28
3.3.1 Calculation Methodology for Infiltration 29
3.4 Water Retention and Storage 31
3.5 Runoff 32
Chapter IV Experimental Models Design, Observation and Data Analysis 33
4.1 Rainfall-Runoff Simulation Model 33
4.1.1 Components and Layout 34
4.1.2 Measurement Procedures 40
4.2 Evapotranspiration Measurement 42
4.2.1 Measurement Equipment and Layout 42
4.2.2 Measurement Procedures 45
4.3 Data Analysis 47
4.3.1 Stormwater Runoff Quantity 47
4.3.2 Evapotranspiration 56
Chapter V Establishment of Water Balance Model for Green Roofs 59
5.1 Modeling Approach 59
5.2 Evapotranspiration Model 60
5.3 Stormwater Runoff Model 62
5.4 User-friendly Computer Model Establishment 63
5.5 Model Verification 67
5.5.1 Climate context 67
5.5.2 Runoff Hydrograph 68
5.5.3 Stormwater Retention 70
5.5.4 Evapotranspiration 71
Chapter VI Conclusions and Recommendations 73
6.1 Conclusions 73
6.2 Recommendations 74
References 76


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