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研究生:胡恪洵
研究生(外文):Ke-Hsun Hu
論文名稱:自米糠產製植酸與γ-胺基丁酸之製程條件
論文名稱(外文):The Processing Conditions of Phytic Acid and γ-amino Butyric Acid from Rice Bran
指導教授:邱思魁邱思魁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tze-Kuei Chiou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:植酸米糠味精離子交換樹脂gmma胺基丁酸、
外文關鍵詞:MSGRice branGABAIon-exchangePhytic acid
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米糠(rice bran, RB)中存在相當的麩胺酸脫羧酶(glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD)活性,可利用來轉化味精(monosodium L-glutamate, MSG)基質生產-胺基丁酸(-aminobutyric acid, GABA),除去水溶性成分剩下的米糠尚有多量植酸(phytic acid, PA)、米糠醇等生物活性物質值得回收利用。本研究針對米糠和MSG反應生成GABA之製程,探討同時回收PA之處理條件。自丙酮脫脂米糠以酸萃取PA的回收量比直接從米糠原料增加25.1~47.8%,但可能脫脂處理也造成GAD的部分失活,以脫脂米糠生產GABA的產量減少32.8%。米糠原料與MSG於35oC反應6小時後的反應物,稱之為含GABA米糠餅(rice bran cake, RBC),RBC與米糠原料、脫脂米糠作為回收PA的來源,以RBC不經過離心(RBC before centrifugal)為兼具生產GABA及萃取PA的最好來源。比較鹽酸濃度(0.1~2.0 M)、萃取溫度(25~45oC)與萃取時間(0.5~5小時)等變因對PA回收量之影響,RBC before centrifugal在室溫下以2 M鹽酸萃取一小時之PA產量最高(100.01 mg/g RB),且GABA的含量也不受PA回收製程影響,介於3,579 ± 252.10 ~ 4,377 ± 15.57 g/g與最初生成量之間無顯著差異。在分離PA的部分,酸浸液以氫氧化鈉溶液中和而使之形成使植酸鹽沉澱的分離法,PA回收率僅44.7%;若先將酸浸液調整為pH 3.0再加入的醋酸鹽緩衝液(pH 3.0),注入Dowex 50WX8強陽離子交換樹脂管柱進行分離純化,PA回收率升為70.0%,且GABA與PA完全分離。萃取所得的植酸以120oC水解24小時的植酸殘留量最低,亦即肌醇產量可能最高。
Rice bran (RB), due to contain considerable glutamate decarboxylase activity, could be used to incubate with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) substrate to produce -aminobutyric acid (GABA). After water-soluble portion was removed, large amounts of active components such as phytic acid (PA) and oryzanol remained and is worthy of recovery. This study investigated to use RB not only for the production of GABA but also to to extract PA under appropriate processing conditions. PA amounts recovered from acetone-defatted rice bran (DRB) were 25.1~47.8% higher than that from raw RB. But it might be lose of the activity of GAD, the production of GABA using DRB decreased by 32.8%. After the incubation of raw RB and MSG at 35oC for 6 hours, the whole reactant was called rice bran cake (RBC). Among raw RB, DRB and RBC as starting material, RBC without a further centrifugation (RBC before centrifugalizing) was the best source for the recovery of GABA and PA. Factors that affecting the recovery of PA including hydrochloric acid concentration (0.1~2.0 M), extraction temperature (25~45oC) and extraction time (0~5 hr) were compared. To extract RBC before centrifugal by 2.0 M HCl for 1 hr at ambient temperature had the highest yield of PA (100.01 mg/g RB). Also yield of GABA from the subsequent recovery producedure was not affected, amounting in a range of 3,579 ± 252.10 ~ 4,377 ± 15.57 g/g and showing no significant difference with initial content. For separation of PA from acid extract, acid extract was neutralized by adding NaOH solution and this resulted in a precipitation of phytate salt. The recovery of PA, however, was only 44.7%. On the other hand, when acid extract was firstly titrated with NaOH solution to pH 3.0 and then mixed with acetate buffer (pH 3.0), the solution was applied into a Dowex 50WX8 ion-exchange column to elute GABA and PA. It was found that the PA recovery rose to 70%. Also GABA and PA were completely separated from each other. The heating of PA sample thus obtained at 120oC for 24 hr showed the lowest PA remained, suggesting that the production of inositol might be the largest.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
壹、 研究背景與目的 1
貳、 文獻整理 3
一、 米糠 3
(一) 米糠之化學組成 4
1. 蛋白質 4
2. 脂質 4
3. 碳水化合物 5
4. 礦物質 5
5. 維生素 5
(二) 米糠內生性麩胺酸脫羧酶 5
二、 -胺基丁酸 6
(一) GABA生成與代謝途徑 7
(二) GABA生理活性 8
(三) GABA於食品中之現有應用 8
三、 植酸 9
(一) 植酸物化性質 9
(二) 植酸生理活性 11
(三) 植酸現有之常見應用 12
(四) 一般植酸萃取方法 12
1. 米糠顆粒對萃取植酸的影響 12
2. 萃取植酸時酸萃取液選擇 12
(五) 植酸水解 13
1. 酸及熱水解 13
2. 酵素水解 13
四、 肌醇 15
參、 實驗流程圖 17
肆、 材料與方法 19
一、 實驗材料 19
(一) 樣品原料 19
(二) 化學藥品 19
(三) 肌醇磷酸鹽標準品 19
(四) 胺基酸標準品 19
(五) 使用儀器 19
二、 實驗項目 20
(一) 各種處理之米糠樣品選用及各項萃取變因對植酸含量之影響 20
1. 各種處理之米糠樣品選用 20
2. 植酸萃取變因 21
(二) 植酸與-胺基丁酸之分離 22
1. 植酸鈉沉澱分離 22
2. 離子交換樹脂分離GABA與植酸 23
(三) 植酸水解 24
三、 化學分析方法 24
(一) GABA與MSG含量分析 24
(二) 植酸含量分析 24
四、統計分析 25
伍、 結果與討論 26
一、 各種處理之米糠樣品選用及各相萃取變因對植酸含量之影響 26
1. 米糠脫脂與否對GABA生成量之影響 26
2. 不同鹽酸濃度對萃取米糠中植酸之影響 26
3. 不同溫度對萃取米糠中植酸之影響 28
4. 萃取時震盪與攪拌之影響 28
5. 不同加工處理之米糠樣品選擇 30
6. 萃取時間對回收米糠中植酸之影響 30
7. 植酸萃取後GABA殘留量 31
8. 重覆萃取次數對植酸回收量之影響 31
二、 植酸與-胺基丁酸之分離 32
1. 植酸鈉沉澱分離 32
2. 離子交換樹脂分離GABA與植酸 32
三、 植酸水解 33
陸、 結論 35
柒、 參考文獻 36


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