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研究生:羅力
研究生(外文):Li Lo
論文名稱:休閒水肺潛水者動機及行為研究 —以臺灣東北角龍洞灣為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Motivation and Behavior of Recreational SCUBA Diver - The Case study in Long-Dong Bay, Northeastern Taiwan
指導教授:黃向文黃向文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiang-Wen Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋事務與資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:水肺潛水潛水動機導潛潛水簡報
外文關鍵詞:scuba divingdiving motivationdiving guidediving briefing
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摘要
隨著台灣社會的發展,民眾越來越重視休閒生活,其中休閒潛水人口的增加,使人為接觸海底環境之頻率遞增,因此本研究旨在探討潛水者特性、潛水動機與水下行為間的相互關係,提供管理者與經營者參考。本研究在2009年7月1日~2010年6月30日期間以北台灣東北角潛水活動較為密集的龍洞灣海域進行調查,經由潛水業者問卷調查結果顯示,此一年期間約有20,299人在此地潛水。由潛水動機問卷調查346份顯示,有65.3%的人是利用假日前來,其中以北北基(75%)且大專以上程度(87%)人數最多;以潛水者特性來看在樣區的女性潛水者為少數(32%),且女性在學歷、有導潛、收費區潛水等和男性潛水者有顯著差異;以潛水者動機來看,前六名依序為:和好朋友潛水、增加不同的生活體驗、沉浸在清涼的海水、天候的適宜、認識新朋友與訓練潛水技巧等,多為交友、天候及訓練為主要考慮因素。
水下潛水行為調查88人發現,觸碰行為是會持續發生的,以擾動砂石(3.45次/人)為最多,定點停留(2.84次/人)次之,手主動觸碰(2.79次/人)第三;以潛水者擾動砂石總次數的水下行為來看,初級潛水者、體驗潛水者、潛水歷史次數在40次以內的潛水者為多數。此外,實施潛水前簡報後,珊瑚磨損總次數明顯減少,在有導潛的干預下,手主動觸碰總次數、定點拍攝總次數及定點停留總次數等行為皆有顯著減少。
綜合上述結果,本研究建議第一、規劃提供浮潛、潛水旅客進入珊瑚礁區的步道,改善環境設施增加便利性與安全性,應可以提昇女性潛水的意願;第二、以訓練和觀光性質劃分潛水區域、用潛水資格區分收費標準;第三、強化潛水前簡報與導潛干預功能,可以減少對海洋環境的衝擊。

Abstract
With the development of Taiwan’s society, people pay more attention to their leisure time. The increasing population of scuba diving increase the interaction between humans and the marine environment. Therefore, to investigate the characteristics, the motivations and the behavior under the sea of recreational divers are essential for managers and operators. This study deployed from July 1 2009 to June 30 2010 at LongDong Bay, the northeastern Taiwan where scuba diving activities are most common. With the preliminary survey, the estimated annual divers were 20,299 in this area. According to the questionnaires investigation of divers (n=346 persons), it showed 66.1% divers came on holidays. Among them, most people are from Taipei City, Taipei County, and Keelung City (75%). Most of than (87%) are, with or higher college degree (87%). Regarding the characteristics of the divers, female divers are less (32%) and have significant differences from male divers in education, with dive masters and the preferred pay area. As for the motivations marked by the divers, the top six factors are as follows: (1) the joy to dive with friends; (2) the increase of the different life experiences; (3) the pleasure to immerse in the sea water; (4) the amiable weather; (5) the chance to meet new friends and (6) the training of the technique of scuba diving. Most people considered making friends, weather and training are major attractions.
Regarding from the under the sea behavior investigation of the divers (n=88 persons), the touching activities occurred continuously, and most of them were disturbing the gravel (3.45 time/per person); the second one is the remained in one point (2.84 time/per person); the third one is touching by hands (2.79 time/per person).For disturbing gravel, the primary divers, discover, and those diving less than 40 times divers have higher times. In addition, diving briefing have significant differences in decreasing the friction of corals. When dive masters interfered the divers, the touch by hands, fixed photo taking and the time for remained in one point have significantly decreased.
Summarize from these results, this resesrch suggests that: (1) to construct coral reel trails for divers and improve basic facilities to encourage females’ willingness to scuba diving; (2) separate scuba diving areas to different areas, such as training areas and tourism areas and charge in accordance with the qualifications of scuba diving; (3) enhance the briefing before scuba diving and the interfering of the dive masters. These activities would be useful to decrease the impact of divers on the marine environment.

目 錄
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………………… 1
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………………. 2
第一章 前言 …………………………………………………………. 4
第一節 研究背景 ..….……………………………………………… 4
第二節 研究動機 …………………………………………………….. 7
第三節 研究目的 ……………………………………………………. 10
第二章 材料與方法 …………………………………………………… 11
第一節 研究區域 ……………………………………………………. 11
第二節 潛水總人數調查 .…………………………………………….11
第三節 潛水動機調查 .……………………………………………….14
第四節 潛水行為調查 ………………………………………………. 20
第三章 結果 .…………….………………………………………… 23
第一節 潛水總人數調查 .…………………………………………… 23
一、潛水總人次數 .………………………………………….....23
二、推估潛水人數與分布 .…………………………………… ....23
第二節 潛水動機調查 .…………………………………………….. 24
一、潛水者基本資料分析 .………………………………..…... 24
二、潛水者特性與潛水活動相互間關係 …………………….....25
三、潛水動機 .………………..…..….………………………….. 29
第三節 潛水行為 .…………………………………………………… 31
第四章 討論 .………………………………………………………….35
第一節 東北角潛水總人次數 .………………………………………35
第二節 潛水者動機 ...……………………………………………….37
一、潛水者特性 ...…..……..….………………………………….37
二、潛水動機 .…..……..…..……………………………………..41
第三節 潛水行為 .…………………………………………………… 42
第五章 結論與建議 .…………………..………………………….. 47
中文參考文獻 .……………………………..….……………………… 50
英文參考文獻 .…………………………………………………………… 53
網路資料 .………………………………………………………………… 59
附圖 .……………………………………………………………………… 60
附表 .……………………………………………………………………… 80
附件一 氣瓶總數月報表 .……………….…………….……..…. 105
附件二 問卷內容 .……………….… .……………….… …….… 106
附件三 水下行為記錄表 .……………….… .…………… .……. 112
附錄一 龍洞灣海域海洋生態轉變資料 .……………… .…….….. 113
附錄二 交通部觀光局東北角海岸國家風景區管理處公告 .………. 115
附錄三 東北角暨宜蘭海岸國家風景區管理處訪談資料 …………..….116
附錄四 東北角潛水業者訪談資料 ……………………………………...118



圖 次

圖1 PADI潛水總人數統計圖(1967~2000) .………… …………… 60
圖2 東北角暨宜蘭海岸國家風景區域圖 .……….… …………….……61
圖3 東北角暨宜蘭海岸國家風景區歷年遊客人數統計圖 . …………..62
圖4 東北角龍洞灣B區潛水區域圖 .……… .……… .…… ……..….63
圖5、圖6 龍洞灣海洋公園照片.……… .……… .……… …… ... 64
圖7、圖8 龍洞灣和美國小海岸照片.……… .……… ……...…... 64
圖9 東北角龍洞灣海洋公園1999~2009年旅遊人數統計圖 …………. 65
圖10 研究目的相互影響圖示 .……… .……… .……….…..……..66
圖11 四個潛水者特性與五個潛水活動特性之相關示意圖 …………..66
圖12 潛水者水下行為圖示 ……… .……… .……… …...…....…67
圖13 水下行為調查圖板 ………………………………………………...68
圖14 潛水者、潛水活動與潛水行為相互關係 ………..…………….…68
圖15 龍洞灣潛水人次數月統計圖 ………………………..………….…69
圖16 每月平均風速與潛水人數散布圖 ………………………....... 70
圖17 每月平均浪高與潛水人數散布圖 …………………………....… 70
圖18 每月平均氣溫與潛水人數散布圖 ……………….……..….... 70
圖19 每月平均水溫與潛水人數散布圖 …………………………….…. 70
圖20 潛水者潛水資格統計圖…………………………………………... 71
圖21 潛水者潛水歷史次數統計圖…………………………………..…. 71
圖22 有無潛水前簡報磨損珊瑚盒鬚圖…………………………...…….72
圖23 有、無干預與手主動觸碰總次數盒鬚圖…………………….…..72
圖24 有、無干預與定點拍攝總次數盒鬚圖……………………….…..72
圖25 有、無干預與定點停留總次數盒鬚圖…………………………...72
圖26 潛水者性別與碰撞總次數盒鬚圖…………………..……………..73
圖27 潛水者性別與擾動砂石總次數盒鬚圖……………...…………….73
圖28 潛水者性別與撞斷珊瑚總次數盒鬚圖………………………….….73
圖29 潛水者有無攜帶水下攝影器材與定點拍攝總次數盒鬚圖…….….73
圖30 潛水者有無攜帶攝影機與手主動觸碰總次數盒鬚圖…..….….. 74
圖31 是否在收費區域與擾動砂石總次數盒鬚圖………………..………74
圖32 是否在收費區域與撞斷珊瑚總次數盒鬚圖…………..……………74
圖33 潛水者資格與擾動砂石總次數盒鬚圖……………….…………….75
圖34 潛水者潛水歷史次數與擾動砂石總次數盒鬚圖…………………..76
圖35 潛水者教育程度與無意碰撞總次數盒鬚圖………………..………77
圖36 PADI國際專業潛水教練組織,美國男/女性1990~2000年檢定卡
比例…………………………………….….……………………….....….78
圖37 台灣東北角與馬來西亞潛水環境比較…………………….……….79


表 次
表1 東北角龍洞灣潛水店氣瓶供應調查表………………………..…….…80
表2 東北角潛水總人數與平均風速、平均浪高、平均氣溫、平均水表面
溫度對照表…………………………...………………………..………... 80
表3 潛水人數、每月平均風速、浪高、氣溫、水表面溫度相關表…..… 81
表4 潛水者基本資料統計………………………………………………….. 82
表5 潛水簡報、導潛、干預及攜帶水下照相器材描述…………………. 82
表6 收費制度與管理……………………………………………………….. 83
表7 Cross-tabulation Table (卡方同質性檢定)潛水者特性與潛水活動相關表…………..………………………………….…………………...84
表8 性別與潛水歷史次數交叉表 …………………………………………. 85
表9 性別與潛水資格交叉表 ………………………………………………..86
表10 性別與教育程度交叉表……………………………….……………….86
表11 性別與是否有導潛交叉表………………………………….…….....87
表12 性別與潛水環境管理收費關係交叉表 …………………….……... 87
表13 教育程度與是否干預潛水者的觸碰行為交叉表…………….……….88
表14 教育程度與潛水環境管理收費關係交叉表………………….……….88
表15 潛水資格與是否在收費區域潛水交叉表………………………….….89
表16 潛水歷史次數與收費制度交叉表 表………………………….….……90
表17 潛水歷史次數與是否攜帶攝影器材交叉………………..……..…….91
表18 潛水簡報與潛水是否主動干預交叉表…………………………….….92
表19 有無攜帶潛水攝影器材與是否在收費區域潛水交叉表………….….92
表20 東北角潛水者潛水動機(不同因素)平均數表……………….…….93
表21 每十分鐘記錄水下行為統計表………………………………….…….94
表22 潛水前簡報與潛水者行為總次數 Mann-Whitney U 檢定表.....95
表23 導潛有無干預與潛水者行為總次數 Mann-Whitney U 檢定表…..95
表24 性別與潛水者水下行為總次數 Mann-Whitney U 檢定表 ……….96
表25 潛水者是否攜帶潛水攝影器材與潛水行為總次數 Mann-Whitney
U 檢定表 ……………………………………..…………………….....….96
表26 潛水者是否在收費區域潛水與潛水行為總次數 Mann-Whitney U
檢定表……………………………………………………………….....…..96
表27 潛水行為調查擾動砂石總次數以潛水資格人數區分平均數表….…97
表28 潛水資格與水下潛水行為總次數卡瓦二氏 H 檢定表…………...98
表29 潛水行為調查擾動砂石總次數以潛水歷史次數區分平均數表 ....99
表30 歷史潛水次數與潛水者水下行為總次數卡瓦二氏 H 檢定表…….100
表31 潛水行為調查無意觸碰總次數以教育程度區分平均數表………..101
表32 教育程度與潛水者水下行為總次數卡瓦二氏 H 檢定表 ….…...102
表33 潛水動機國內外比較………………………………….…………….103

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網路資料

PADI(2000)PADI全球潛水員簽證史,參考網站: http://206.107.76.171/chinese_traditional/common/padi/statistics/1.asp, Download on March 19, 2010.
PADI(2001)美國男性 / 女性取得PADI潛水員檢定卡的歷史, 參考網站: http://206.107.76.171/chinese_traditional/common/padi/statistics/10.asp, Download on April 19, 2010.
今日新聞NOW NEWS(2009)遺憾!貢寮潛水意外20分鐘奪兩命,參考網站: http://www.nownews.com/2009/08/02/138-2486519.htm, Download on March 3, 2010.
內政部統計處(2010)台灣地區面積及海岸線長度、台灣地區島嶼位置及面積、海南諸島礁名稱,參考網站: http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/year/list.htm, Download on May 8, 2010.
行政院主計處(2010)行政院主計處網頁「現住人口數」,參考網站: http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=1, Download on January 31, 2010.
東北角暨宜蘭海岸國家風景管理處(2010)行政資訊網,管理處沿革,參考網站:http://www.necoast-nsa.gov.tw/gov/Article.aspx?Lang=1&SNo=03001310, Download on March 22, 2010.
邵廣昭(2003)海洋生物的多樣性及其保育,生物多樣性研習營,網址:http://web.ncyu.edu.tw, Download on May 8, 2010.
國立海洋科技博物館(2010)探索神祕的深海~認識大洋環境,網址: http://www.nmmst.gov.tw/deepsea/ocean.php, Download on March 19, 2010.

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