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研究生:黃中介
研究生(外文):Chung-chieh Huang
論文名稱:學生口語錯誤與外師給予糾正之分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Speech Errors and Corrective Feedback Distribution in Three English Speaking Classrooms
指導教授:陳錦芬陳錦芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-fen Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:兒童英語教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:口語錯誤糾正類型
外文關鍵詞:corrective feedbacklearners’ errorerror analysis
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摘要
本研究旨在檢視國小英語教學情境中,學生口語錯誤的類型與外師給予修正的策略類型,以及兩者之間的相互關係,並且提供英語師資培育者以及英文老師具體建議。本研究的研究對象為台北市公立小學聘請的三位母語為英語的外籍教師,與他們105位的四年級學生,資料的搜集主要是透過持續三個月的課堂觀察以及研究筆記,課堂觀察資料用錄音的方式記錄之後轉換成文字檔語料,三位外籍老師共計36小時。
根據研究結果分析,學生錯誤主要有六種 (phonological, morphosyntactic, lexical, semantic, factual, and discourse error),老師給予的糾正方式有七種 (explicit correction, recast, clarification request, metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, repetition, and disregard)。研究結果顯示:一、語音錯誤(phonological error)與語法錯誤(morphosyntactic error)是兩種出現頻率最高的錯誤。二、七種訂正口語錯誤的方式中,以覆蓋性提供正確說法的訂正方式(recast)最常被老師使用。三、高頻率出現的錯誤相對來說導致高頻率的糾正。四、針對同一個口語錯誤老師會給予多樣化的糾正方式,使其更為明顯或具體以利學生注意。五、外師本身對英語的直覺和語感對於辨識英語語音與語法方面有其價值與優勢。六、在選擇糾正策略時,存在教師個別差異。
根據分析結果,本研究提出具體建議,希望協助英語教師正視學生的口語錯誤並設下可行的訂正模式,也期盼幫助英語老師了解外籍老師的訂正模式,截長補短以提升我國英語教學成效。
ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to examine the speech errors the fourth graders made and the types and distributions of corrective feedback native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) offered and the correlation of learner errors and NESTs’ corrective feedback. Data were collected through classroom observation, field notes, and audio-recording. Types of learner errors were decoded with 6 categories: phonological, morphosyntactic, lexical, semantic, factual, and discourse and furthermore, types of corrective feedback were decoded as explicit correction, recasts, clarification requests, metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, repetition, and disregard. The results of the study indicate that the first two most frequently made errors were morphosyntactic and phonological ones and recast was the most frequently adopted corrective feedback, which further suggest that the high rate of occurrence of learner errors may lead to respective high rate of corrective feedback, multiple corrective strategies were applied to one certain learner error, making the corrective feedback more solid and salient and NESTs’ intuition toward English linguistics is vital to identify syntax and phonology errors occurring in a preliminary stage of target language learning and individual differences in beliefs influence NESTs’ selection of corrective feedback strategies. Finally, some instructional implications and further study focuses are recommended.
Key words: corrective feedback, learners’ error, error analysis
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHINESE ABSTRACT I
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ……………………...……………………………………….II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III
TABLE OF CONTENT IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
CHAPETER ONE INTRODUCTION 1

Background of Motivation 1
Purposes of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 6
Definitions of Terms 7

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8

Classroom Interaction and Language development 8
The Significance of Learners’ Errors 10
Corrective Feedback in Language Learning 12
Corrective Feedback in First Language Acquisition 12
Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition 12
Foreigner Talk 17

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 19

Research Structure 19
Research Setting 20
Participants 21
Teachers 21
Students 21
Researcher 22
Data Collection 22
Classroom Observation 22
Interviews 22
Data Analysis 23
Coding system 23
Error Types 23
Corrective Feedback 25
Inter-rater Reliability of Coding. 26

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 28

Types of Errors 28
Frequency of Learners’ Errors 29
Comparison of Learners’ Errors in Three Classes 32
Types of Corrective Feedback 34
The Distribution of Corrective Feedback 34
Comparison of Corrective Feedback Provisions in Three Classes 38
The Relationship of Students’ Errors to NESTs’ Corrective Feedback 40
Multiple Moves of CF to one type of learners’ errors 40
Types of Feedback Corresponding to Each Type of Error 42
NESTs’ Most Frequently Employed Corrective Feedback 44
Conclusions 49

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 52

Discussions of the Main Findings in this Study 52
Suggestions 58
Limitations 59

REFERENCES 61
APPENDIX A 68
APPENDIX B 70
APPENDIX C 71
APPENDIX D 74
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