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研究生:李佳倫
研究生(外文):Li, CHIA-LUN
論文名稱:德國雙B御駕「氫」征碳經濟
論文名稱(外文):German automakers BMW and Daimler Benz drive the Hydrogen Economy
指導教授:王 弓
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:德國產業群聚Daimler BenzBMW零排碳內燃機氫內燃機燃料電池
外文關鍵詞:Germanyindustrial clusterGermanyDaimler BenzBMWzero emissionhydrogenhydrogen internal-combustion enginefuel cell
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20世紀初二次工業革命,電氣化帶來進步的新動力,亦展開一場蒸氣、電動和汽油汽車的淘汰賽,最後由亨利•福特(Henry Ford)大量生產的汽油車以價格優勢獲勝。現今的環境革命,汽、柴油內燃機、電動及氫動汽車的淘汰賽正開始,然依2008年National Research Council (NRC)報告顯示,以氫作為未來汽車動力來源,能達最快速減碳且於2100年達減碳80%目標,而德國政府面臨新的環境革命,除了發展電池車外,早於1975年又為重要的汽車產業指引出零排碳的氫動力技術一途,而Daimler Benz是汽油內燃機汽車發明者,現今又成為氫燃料電池汽車技術領先者,另其可敬的對手BMW亦研發氫動力汽車,但堅持於內燃機技術的氫內燃機汽車,目前亦為該技術領先者,在相同的國定、相似的環境及採相同的氫策略的兩廠,確發展出不同的技術基礎,
Electrification brought new power for growth in Second Industrial Revolution of Early Twentieth Century, and The knockout competition with steam-, electric-, and gasoline-powered vehicles race start. Finally, Henry Ford created the first inexpensive mass-produced automobile, steam and electric vehicles knock out, gasoline powered internal combustion engines won!
Now is Environmental Revolution, a new knockout competition is beginning which is gasline-, diesel-, electric-, and hydrogen-powered vehicles competition. According to National Research Council (NRC) Report in 2008, future vehices power by hydrogen can fast and eEffective achieve the 80% reduction in GHG output by 2100.
The the German government faces this new environmental revolution. In addition to development of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), they also guided their auto industry to other way in 1975, which is Hydrogen power vehicles technology with zero- emission. Daimler Benz invented the the Gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles, now is hydrogen fuel cell technology leadership. In the same country and similar environment, they choose the same hydrogen strategy for the future of automotive power. The main worthy rival of BMW, is the forerunner and leader in hydrogen hydrogen powered combustion engine technology. Why choose different hydrogen technology? Is it relevant with the historical background and regional advantage? Who can form a hydrogen power vehicles industry cluster?
U目 錄 I
U圖目錄 II
U表目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 6
第二章 文獻回顧 8
2.1 產業群聚理論 8
2.2 德國氫動力汽車產業發展文獻 12
第三章 研究方法 17
3.1 研究方法 17
3.2 研究架構 17
第四章 德國氫動力汽車產業群聚-以DAIMLER BENZ 與BMW為例 19
4.1 美、日氫動力汽車發展概況 19
4.1.1 美國氫動力汽車發展概況 22
4.1.2 日本氫動力汽車發展概況 32
4.2 德國發展概況 38
4.3 德國DAIMLER BENZ 與 BMW 氫動力汽車發展 49
4.3.1 氫動力汽車技術選擇與歷史背景FF 49
4.3.1.1 Daimler Benz – PEMFCV 50
4.3.1.2 BMW – H2ICEV 55
4.3.2 氫動力汽車產業群聚 58
4.3.2.1 巴登州氫燃料電池汽車產業群聚-Daimler Benz 61
4.3.2.2 巴伐利亞州氫內燃機汽車產業群聚-BMW 69
4.3.2.3 再論氫動力汽車產業群聚 75
4.4 小結 81
第五章 結論及建議 82
5.1 結論 82
5.2 研究限制與建議 83
參考文獻 85
附錄一 歐盟減量責任分擔 99
附錄二 氫動力汽車技術簡介 101
附錄三 德國加氫站分佈 117
附錄四 1970-2008年德國能源結構調整之重要歷程 122
附錄五 DAIMLER BENZ 發展史 124
附錄六 BMW 發展史 127
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43.陳玉鈴,「創新系統中產-官-學模式對產業群聚績效影響之探討 ─以Eindhoven區域為例」,HH國立中央大學HHHH產業經濟研究所HH,碩士論文2008年

44.陳志信,「【燃料電池技術發展與動向】氫經濟」,電機月刊,205期,182-189頁,2008年1月
45.陳志信,「氫能經濟與氫能技術」,電機月刊, 207期,154-165頁,2008年3月
46.陳志信,「燃料電池系統發展趨勢」,電機月刊,199期,172-185頁,2007年7月
47.陳志信,「燃料電池應用趨勢」,電機月刊, 215期,206-214頁,2008年11月
48.陳芃,「節能而乾淨的移動--汽車動力來源與發展限制」,能源報導,31-34頁,2009年3月
49.陳崇憲,「推展氫能應用新時代--能源局推動氫能與燃料電池產業與技術」,能源報導,26-28頁,2008年6月
50.楊志忠、林頌恩與韋文誠,「燃料電池的發展現況」,科學發展 第367期,30-33頁,2003年7月
51.董琳,「賓士工程師透露:賓士多款環保概念車將量產」,京華時報,2010年04月01日
52.董琳,「賓士在“通往零排放道路”上」,中國經濟網 ,2010年04月01日
53.趙中興,「神奇的燃料電池(Magical Fuel Cells)」,大華技術學院電機工程系
54.趙以諾、戴志揚、薛康琳、張文振與曹芳海,「質子交換膜燃料電池系統模擬的應用與發展現況」,化工資訊與商情, 76期,66-74頁,2009年10月
55.劉文海,「日本電動汽車產業回顧與展望」,機械工業306期,,87-100頁,2008年9月
56.蔡麗端與林葆喜,「燃料電池介紹及產業發展現況」,永續產業發展, 45期,38-47頁,2009年8月
57.薛天山,「內燃機(修訂版)」,全華科技,2008年8月
58.薛康琳,「質子交換膜燃料電池的原理、應用與發展」,電機月刊, 211期,240-251頁,2008年7月
59.薛康琳,「燃料電池內的電化學反應-觸媒與反應動力」,工業技術研究院工業材料研究所,149-154頁,第62卷第1期,2004年
60.鍾金明、邱敏與王國政,「質子交換膜燃料電池之特性分析及實務應用」,能源季刊,106-120頁,2007年1月
61.羅健昇與趙以諾,「燃料電池車的發展現狀介紹」,機械工業,166-172頁,289期,2007年4月

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2.HHUhttp://www.afcc-auto.com/

3.HHUhttp://www.airliquide.com/

4.HHUhttp://www.argemuc.de/en/index.php

5.HHUhttp://www.baden-wuerttemberg.de/en/index.html

6.HHUhttp://www.ballard.com/

7.HHUhttp://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/

8.HHUhttp://www.bayern-international.de/

9.HHUhttp://www.bmw.com/

10.HHUhttp://www.bmwi.de/English/Navigation/root.html

11.HHUhttp://www.Brennstoffzellenbus.de
12.HHUhttp://www.carmall.eu/emission_standards.html

13.HHUhttp://www.cncda.org/publications/publications.html

14.HHUhttp://corporate.evonik.com/en/Pages/default.aspx

15.HHUhttp://www.daad.de/en/index.html

16.HHUhttp://www.daimler.com/

17.HHUhttp://www.destatis.de/jetspeed/portal/cms/Sites/destatis/Internet/EN/Navigation/Homepage__NT.psml

18.HHUhttp://www.dlr.de/en/

19.HHUhttp://www.dornier.com/alternate.htm

20.HHUhttp://www.en.uni-muenchen.de/index.html

21.HHUhttp://www.epa.gov/

22.HHUhttp://www.ford.com/

23.HHUhttp://www.fraunhofer.de/en/

24.HHUhttp://www.fuelcellbus.com

25.HHUhttp://www.fuelcells.org/

26.HHUhttp://www.fz-juelich.de/portal/

27.HHUhttp://www.gtai.com/web_en/homepage

28.HHUhttp://www.helmholtz.de/en/

29.HHUhttp://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/

30.HHUhttp://www.hydropole.ch/hydropole/hydrogen/transport.html

31.HHUhttp://www.iea.org/index.asp

32.HHUhttp://www.jhfc.jp/e/index.html

33.HHUhttp://www.lbst.de/index_e.html

34.HHUhttp://www.linde.com/international/web/linde/like35lindecom.nsf/docbyalias/homepage

35.HHUhttp://www.livehere.de/verkehr_city.htm

36.HHUhttp://www.man.eu/MAN/en/

37.HHUhttp://maps.google.com.tw/

38.HHUhttp://www.matthey.com/

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40.HHUhttp://www.mtu-online.com/mtu/?&L=1

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43.HHUhttp://www.poweringnow.ca/about-us/

44.HHUhttp://www.siemens.com/entry/cc/en/

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48.HHUhttp://www.vda.de/index_en.html

49.HHUhttp://www.v-g-t.de/english/main/deutschland.htm

50.HHUhttp://www.wiba.de

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52."Chapter: Alternative Vehicle Concepts", HHUhttp://www.docstoc.com/docs/11306940/Chapter-Alternative-Vehicle-ConceptsU

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62.HH“Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (“HICEs”)”, HH HHUhttp://www.kentlaw.edu/faculty/fbosselman/classes/Spring2003/studentpresentations/HydrogenintlcombustionSchwartz.pptU

63.“HyWay report”, HHUhttp://www.hyways.de/docs/main1.htmlU

64.HH“Invest in Bavaria Facts and Figures”, Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology, Uwww.invest-in-bavaria.comU

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68.HH“Lombardia & Rhein-Main towards Zero Emission: Development and Demonstration of Infrastructure Systems for Hydrogen as an Alternative Motor Fuel”, 25.02.2005, Uwww.zeroregio.comU

69.HH“National Inventory Report for the German Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990 - 2007”, Federal Environment Agency, UGermany, http://www.umweltbundesamt.deU
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71.HH“The Clean Energy Partnership CEP”, Uwww.cep-berlin.deU
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74.HH“The Stuttgart Region – The location for growth and innovation”, Uwww.region-stuttgart.deU

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76.“Twenty Hydrogen Myths”, Amory B. Lovins, 17 February 2005, HHUwww.rmi.orgU

77.HH“Worldwide Hydrogen Fueling Stations”, Updated 7/09, Uwww.fuelcells.org/info/charts/buses.pdfU
78.孔建设,「氢燃料汽车还有戏吗?」,HHUhttp://auto.163.com/10/0118/10/5TA9RQOM00083ID3.htmlU
79.司洪濤、李春正與G. L. HUFFMAN,「節約能源與污染預防之燃料電池技術介紹」,HHUhttp://www.ammonia.org.tw/toasun/2-2.pdfU
80.陈高生,「德国公司治理模式对我国企业的启示」,HHUhttp://www.ceccen.com/cenews/news/?id=51599U
81.經濟部工業局,工業區開發管理94年度年報HHUhttp://idbpark.moeaidb.gov.tw/chinese/Research/Annals_Journal/year/094/094-000.htmU
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1. 9. 尤如瑾,「燃料電池市場展望」,工業材料,250期,103-110頁,2007年10月
2. 9. 尤如瑾,「燃料電池市場展望」,工業材料,250期,103-110頁,2007年10月
3. 10. 尤如瑾,「燃料電池產業發展前景分析」,電機月刊,192期,224-229頁,2006年12月
4. 10. 尤如瑾,「燃料電池產業發展前景分析」,電機月刊,192期,224-229頁,2006年12月
5. 21. 江愛群,「氫燃料電池車之發展概況」,車輛工業月刊,177期,64-68頁,2008年11月
6. 21. 江愛群,「氫燃料電池車之發展概況」,車輛工業月刊,177期,64-68頁,2008年11月
7. 32. 林祥輝、趙以諾、黃建中、張文振與鄭名山,「國際氫能經濟發展概況」,工業材料,265期,82-91頁,2009年1月
8. 32. 林祥輝、趙以諾、黃建中、張文振與鄭名山,「國際氫能經濟發展概況」,工業材料,265期,82-91頁,2009年1月
9. 37. 徐業良,「談氫燃料內燃機引擎」,汽車購買指南雜誌 史丹福專欄,2005年1月號
10. 37. 徐業良,「談氫燃料內燃機引擎」,汽車購買指南雜誌 史丹福專欄,2005年1月號
11. 39. 張行直,「我國氫能燃料電池產業發展現況」,能源報導,15-16頁,2008年5月
12. 39. 張行直,「我國氫能燃料電池產業發展現況」,能源報導,15-16頁,2008年5月
13. 42. HH許桓瑞、陳祈彰、鍾孝平、張文振與曹芳海,「傳統製造業跨入燃料電池產業研發與生產契機之探討」,工業材料,63-71頁,271期 2009年7月
14. 42. HH許桓瑞、陳祈彰、鍾孝平、張文振與曹芳海,「傳統製造業跨入燃料電池產業研發與生產契機之探討」,工業材料,63-71頁,271期 2009年7月
15. 44. 陳志信,「【燃料電池技術發展與動向】氫經濟」,電機月刊,205期,182-189頁,2008年1月