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研究生:波開樂
研究生(外文):Caleb Portnoy
論文名稱:DaedaekiTaromak:在達魯瑪克部落傳統領域探索無聲獵人、百步蛇、和聖地之集體景觀與文化結果
論文名稱(外文):Daedae ki Taromak: Exploring the Collective Landscape and Cultural Outcomes of Silent Hunters, Hundred-Pace Snakes, and Spirit Places in the Traditional Territory of Taromak
指導教授:蔡志偉蔡志偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Awi Mona
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺東大學
系所名稱:南島文化研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:198
中文關鍵詞:文化景觀行動者網絡論(ANT台灣原住民族傳統領域原住民族土地權利
外文關鍵詞:Indigenous LandscapesActor-Network TheoryTaiwan Indigenous PeoplesTraditional TerritoryIndigenous Land Rights
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社會與生態破裂,自然資源與權利衝突,氣候變化,與其他混合(hybrid)議題正在威脅全球與當地社區,而使用現代科學的自然/文化和全球/當地二分法時,卻無法被了解。 本論文透過目前在擴大的人類學理論與哲學家Bruno Latour之行動者網絡論(Actor-Network Theory) 來看穿此二分法,來探索東台灣原住民東魯凱族達魯瑪克部落的景觀。
首先表示達魯瑪克部落的景觀被人類,非人類,神聖性,當地,和全球行動實體的互連網絡構成。從殖民時代前的跨此實體關系互相支持下,並持續被此創造成當地社會文化特質。
外來政體,和全球市場與信仰影響到景觀時,此關聯網絡擴大包含有新力量之行動者。在多數例子中此新行動者中斷了先前持續達魯瑪克部落自然文化網絡的相互支持關系。
最後,為了拼成自然文化網絡與支持其福利,達魯瑪克人正在重新創造許多由景觀與祖先關系的程序,並且重新定義他們的自然文化網絡。
本論文表露景觀的多元橫切關聯來凸顯達魯瑪克部落傳統領域對當地特殊社會生態的重要性。
Social and environmental breakdowns, battles over natural resources and rights, fears of climate change, and other hybrid issues threaten global and local communities, and cannot be understood while using the nature-culture, global-local dichotomies of modernist sciences. This thesis applies expanding anthropological theories and Bruno Latour’s Actor-Network Theory to see through those dichotomies and conceptualize local views of the landscape in the indigenous Taromak Rukai tribe of Southeastern Taiwan.
First, it is shown that the landscape of Taromak is made up of a network of interconnected human, non-human, divine, local and global active entities. Pre-colonial relations between these entities aimed at being mutually supportive, and maintained the local socio-cultural characteristics that they created.
Secondly, as foreign regimes and global market and religious forces influenced the landscape, this network of relations expanded to include powerful new actors. In many cases these new actors interrupted the mutually supportive relations that once maintained the Taromak nature-culture network.
Finally, by recreating many of the ancestral relations with other landscape entities, the Taromak are currently in the process of redefining their nature-culture network in ways that support its wellbeing.
By revealing the Taromak landscape’s crosscutting relations, the locally particular socio-environmental importance of the traditional territory comes into view.
CHAPTER ONE: Study Design………………………………………. 1
I. Introduction and Research Motive............................................................... 1
II. Literature Review………………………………………………………….. 3
1. Nature-Cultures.......................................................................................................... 4
2. Landscapes of Places……………………………………………………………… 10
3. An Actor-Network Approach to Landscapes…………………………... 18
III. Taromak Rukai……………………………………………………………… 22
1. The Rukai………………………………………………………………. 22
2. The Taromak…………………………………………………………… 27
IV. Field Work and Research Limits…………………………………………... 31

CHAPTER TWO: Assembling the Landscape..................................... 35
I. Traditional Landscape………………………………………………………... 35
1. Origins and Precedence………………………………………………… 36
2. Migrations……………………………………………………………… 39
3. Boundaries……………………………………………………………… 44
II. Neighbor Relations…………………………………………………………… 48
1. The Western Rukai……………………………………………………... 49
2. The Paiwan……………………………………………………………... 51
3. The Puyuma…………………………………………………………….. 52
4. The Bunong…………………………………………………………….. 54
5. The Amis……………………………………………………………….. 56
6. The Han Chinese……………………………………………………….. 56
7. Daowadalraka…………………………………………………………... 57
III. Place ………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
1. Place and Place Names…………………………………………………. 59
2. Taidrengelr……………………………………………………………... 63
3. Kabaliwa………………………………………………………………... 65
IV. Spiritual Territory…………………………………………………………... 69
1. Taididingana (Spiritual Places) ………………………………………………… 72
2. The Hundred Pace Viper……………………………………………….. 74
3. Spiritual Structures and Change………………………………………... 76
V. The Political Territory……………………………………………………….. 79
VI. Assembling the Territory…………………………………………………… 82

CHAPTER THREE: The Acting Landscape………………………… 85
I. Traditional Land Tenure…………………………………………………... 86
1. Agricultural Tenure…………………………………………………….. 86
2. Hunting Area Tenure…………………………………………………… 88
3. Land Inheritance………………………………………………………... 90
4. Land and Work Sharing………………………………………………... 90
II. Land Use……………………………………………………………………. 92
1. Agriculture……………………………………………………………... 93
(a) Traditional Agriculture and Ceremonies………………………… 93
(b) Contemporary Agriculture……………………………………….. 97
2. Collecting Mountain Products…………………………………………. 99
3. Hunting…………………………………………………………………. 100
(a) Prey and Process ………………………………………………………….. 100
(b) Prayer and Taboo……………………………………………… 106
(c) Contemporary Changes and Limits……………………………... 109
4. Fishing………………………………………………………………….. 113
III. Landscape Management………………………………………………….. 114
1. Social Class and Land Management…………………………………… 114
2. ‘Alakua…………………………………………………………………. 117
3. Tualisiya………………………………………………………………... 119
4. Contemporary Land Management……………………………………… 120
(a) Forestry Bureau Land…………………………………………… 121
(b) Reservation Land………………………………………………... 122
IV. Watching the Landscape Act……………………………………………….. 126

CHAPTER FOUR: The Landscape Moving On…………………….. 128
I. Returning the Land…………………………………………………………… 129
1. Importance of the Landscape…………………………………………... 133
2. Reconstructing Kabaliwa………………………………………………. 138
3. Governance and Collective Action…………………………………….. 138
4. The Pig Farm…………………………………………………………… 142
II. Future of the Landscape……………………………………………………... 144
1. Reinventing Places……………………………………………………... 146
2. Running Rivers…………………………………………………………. 148
3. Autonomy……………………………………………………………… 150
III. The Landscape Moving On………………………………………………... 152

CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion................................................................ 154

Appendix I : Landscape Categories……………………………………………… 161

Appendix II : Place Name Table………………………………………………… 165

Appendix III : Informant Table…………………………………………………. 174

Appendix IV : Core Interview Questions………………………………………… 175

Bibliography……………………………………………………………. 181
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2008Traditional Territories of Taiwanese Indigenous Peoples under New Partnership Agreement: A Research based on Taiwanese Indigenous People’s Point of View (「新伙伴關系」下的台灣原住民傳統領域問題:部落觀點之研究, {xinhuoban guanxi} xia de Taiwan yuanzhumin chuantong lingyu wenti: buluo guandian zhi yanjiu). Masters Thesis. Hualien : National Dong Hwa University, Institute of Ethnic Relations and Culture (花連:國立東華大學族群關系與文化研究所).

Zhang, Jia-wei (張家瑋)
2004Yuanzu minzu shequ quanli jiegou bianqian zhi tantao: yi Beinanzu Lijia shequ, Rukaizu Dongxing shequ weili (原族民族社區權力結構變遷之探討:以卑南族利嘉社區、魯凱族東興社區為例, Discussing Indigenous Peoples Community Power Structure Changes: A Case Study in Beinan tribe Lijia Community and Rukai tribe Dongxing Community). Masters Thesis. Kaohsiung, Taiwan : National Sun Yat-sen University (高雄:國立中山大學).

Zhuang, Xiao-Guang (莊效光)
2002Study on Vegetation Ecology and Plant Utilization on the Traditional Territory of Rukai Tribe in Taromak (Masters Thesis). Pingtung, Taiwan : National Pingtung University of Science and Technology (屏東:國力屏東科技大學).
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