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研究生:莊育權
研究生(外文):Yu-Chaun Juang
論文名稱:好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器的好氧顆粒穩定性及薄膜積垢探討
論文名稱(外文):Stability of Aerobic Granule and Membrane Fouling in Aerobic Granule Membrane Bioreactor (AGMBR)
指導教授:李篤中李篤中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Duu-Jong Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:化學工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:好氧顆粒雷射掃描式共軛焦顯微鏡好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器薄膜內部生物膜Arthrobacter sp.
外文關鍵詞:Aerobic granuleConfocal laser scanning microscopyaerobic granule membrane bioreactorInternal biofilmArthrobacter sp.
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好氧顆粒是結構緊實的生物聚集體,具有良好的沉降性,並且具有處理高強度有機污水和毒性污水的能力。由低氨鹽和低磷酸鹽的培養基培養出的好氧顆粒,在連續式反應器中運作三天即失去好氧顆粒之結構穩定性。相反的,以培養基具有高濃度的氨鹽所培養的好氧顆粒能夠在連續式薄膜生物反應器中穩定運行210天。以掃描式電子顯微鏡元素分析以及雷射掃描式共軛焦顯微鏡觀察好氧顆粒內部有大量鈣與鐵的沉澱物,以Visual MINTEQ 計算顯示磷酸鹽和氫氧化物是好氧顆粒內部沉澱物的主要物質。
好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器在經過長期的穩定操作後,發現薄膜內部形成生物膜。從好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器中取得好氧顆粒、外部積垢層和薄膜內部生物膜分離菌種,並分析菌種分布、尺寸大小、表面電位和生長行為,另外測量菌種在不同有機負荷下分泌胞外聚合物質的濃度。從分離菌種中挑出可能穿過微過濾膜的三株菌,其親緣關係分別近似於Ralstonia mannitolilytica strain SDV、Arthrobacter sp. BJQ-2和Actinobacterium DS3。三株菌種中只有Arthrobacter sp.會形成內部生物膜。由於Arthrobacter sp.的長度較短於其他兩株菌,所以Arthrobacter sp.通過薄膜孔洞結構時受到較小的阻力,因此提高Arthrobacter sp.在薄膜內部表面形成生物膜的能力。

Aerobic granules are compact, strong microbial aggregates that have excellent settling ability and capability to efficiently treat high-strength and toxic wastewaters. The aerobic granules cultivated with low ammonium and phosphates lost structural stability within 3 days in continuous-flow reactors. Conversely, stable aerobic granules were cultivated in substrate with high levels of ammonium salts that could stably exist for 210 days in continuous-flow membrane bioreactors. The scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis and the confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging detected large amounts of calcium and iron precipitates in granule interiors. The Visual MINTEQ version 2.61 calculation showed that the phosphates and hydroxides were the main species in the precipitate.
Internal biofilm was observed in the long-term operating AGMBR system. This study isolated strains in aerobic granule, the surface fouling layer, and biofilm inside hollow-fiber membranes of an aerobic granule membrane bioreactor; analyzed their distributions, sizes, surface charges, and growth behaviors; and determined the quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by these strains under different organic loadings. Three strains, which may penetrate the microfiltration membranes, were close relatives of the Ralstonia mannitolilytica strain SDV, Arthrobacter sp. BJQ-2, and Actinobacterium DS3. Among these three strains, only Arthrobacter sp. developed an internal biofilm. The relatively short length of Arthrobacter sp. minimizes resistance to cells moving through the membrane matrix, thereby enhancing its ability to build a biofilm in the interior surface of membranes.

謝辭.................................I
摘要................................II
Abstract...............................III
目錄................................IV
圖目錄...............................VI
表目錄...............................IX
第一章 前言.............................1
第二章 文獻回顧...........................2
2.1 薄膜生物反應器........................2
2.1.1 影響薄膜積垢的參數....................2
2.1.1.1 薄膜模組的特性.....................2
2.1.1.2 反應器中生物體的特性..................3
2.1.1.3 MBR的操作參數.....................4
2.2 好氧顆粒...........................4
2.2.1顆粒形成.........................5
2.2.1.1初始污泥的菌相.....................6
2.2.1.2進料組成........................6
2.2.1.3連續批式反應器的操作..................6
2.2.2顆粒的特性........................7
2.2.2.1顆粒的物理特性....................7
2.2.2.2顆粒的化學特性.....................7
2.2.2.3顆粒的生物特性.....................8
2.2.3顆粒應用.........................8
2.2.3.1處理毒性有機汙水....................8
2.2.3.2水中氮磷的移除.....................9
2.2.4汙泥顆粒化的機制.....................9
2.2.4.1汙泥顆粒化的步驟....................9
2.2.4.2環境壓力選擇性假說...................10
2.2.4.3 EPS促使汙泥顆粒化...................10
2.2.4.4汙泥顆粒化模型.....................11
2.3好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器...................11
第三章 實驗設備與方法.......................11
3.1好氧顆粒的培養過程......................12
3.2好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器的設置與操作..............12
3.2.1好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器的設置...............12
3.2.2好氧顆粒薄膜生物反應器的操作參數.............13
3.3實驗操作與分析樣品的前處理..................14
3.4分析儀器...........................17
3.5分析操作...........................18
第四章 結果與討論..........................21
4.1 AGMBR處理合成汙水的表現.................21
4.2好氧顆粒在薄膜生物反應器中長時間操作下的演變........30
4.3 AGMBR中增加好氧顆粒穩定性的可能性............35
4.4 AGMBR應用於處理真實都市汙水...............38
4.5 AGMBR薄膜模組之外部生物結垢...............39
4.6 AGMBR薄膜模組之內部生物結垢...............41
4.7 AGMBR薄膜模組反洗與結垢的關係..............44
4.8 薄膜生物積垢的探討.....................53
4.9 內部生物積垢的成因探討...................60
第五章 結論............................65
第六章 參考文獻...........................66

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