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研究生(外文):Liang-Jung Huang
論文名稱(外文):Reinscribing Motherhood: the Mother-Surrogate-Daughter Relationship in Edith Wharton’s Later Works
指導教授(外文):Hsin-ying Li
外文關鍵詞:Edith WhartonLucretia Jonessurrogate mother figuresmother-daughter relationshipfemale sexualitymotherhoodghost stories
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本論文檢視華頓之母及代理母親在其鬼故事及後期作品中的影響。華頓自1920年代後之作品反映對女性於母職 (motherhood) 中遭遇的困境有愈發深入的了解,在描寫母女關係的同時,華頓亦和生命中正面及負面的母性影響力 (maternal forces) 對話,隱匿在其鬼故事中的女兒及代理母親的關係結構,使作家得以探究居家空間 (domestic space) 中的女性合作及相互支持,在其寫實作品中,華頓對於母職之議題的興趣,和其與母親的衝突及記憶關係密切,透對此議題的關照,華頓終在創作中與母親和解,同時,對身為母親的女性,表現出更深刻、同情的關懷。


This thesis examines the influence of Wharton’s mother and surrogate mother figures, especially in her ghost stories and late works. Wharton’s works in the 1920s, especially those written after 1925, reflect this tendency of a deepening understanding of women’s difficulties in motherhood. As Wharton writes the mother-daughter relationship, she negotiates with the maternal forces in her life and career as female writer, positive and negative alike. The daughter-surrogate mother structure embedded in the ghost stories enables the writer to explore the support of a female cooperation within haunting domestic space. In the non-gothic fictions, Wharton’s interest in the issue of motherhood has its affinity with her conflict with and memory of her mother. Through the exploration of the theme of motherhood in her writing, Wharton reconciles with the influence of her mother and achieves a deeper, more sympathetic understanding of women as mothers.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ii
Abstract in Chinese iii
Abstract in English iv

1 Introduction 1

2 The Suffering Daughters and the Surrogate Mothers 21
“The Lady’s Maid’s Bell” 26
“All Souls’” 41

3 The Reinscription of Motherhood 60
The Old Maid 64
The Mother’s Recompense 80

4 Conclusion 108

Works Cited 114

Works Cited

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Lyde, Marilyn Jones. Edith Wharton: Convention and Morality in the Work of the Novelist. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1959.
McDowell, Margaret B. Edith Wharton. New York: Twayne, 1991.
---. “Edith Wharton’s The Old Maid: Novella/Play/Film.” College Literature 14.3 (1987): 246-62.
Nevius, Blake. Edith Wharton: A Study of Her Fiction. Berkeley: U of California P, 1953.
Noble, Marianne. “An Ecstasy of Apprehension: The Gothic Pleasure of Sentimental Fiction.” American Gothic: New Interventions in a National Narrative. Ed. Robert K. Martin, and Eric Savoy. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1998.
Olin-Ammentorp, Julie. “Wharton through a Kristevan Lens: The Maternality of The Gods Arrive.” Wretched Exotic: Essays on Edith Wharton in Europe. Ed. Katherine Joslin, and Alan Price. New York: Peter Lang, 1993.
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Rich, Adrienne. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. New York: Norton, 1986.
Saunders, Catherine E. Writing the Margins: Edith Wharton, Ellen Glasgow, and the Literary Tradition of the Ruined Woman. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1986.
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Thompson, Terry W. “Old Testament Sourcing in Edith Wharton’s ‘All Souls’.” Heldref. 19.4 (2006): 47-52.
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Walker, Nancy. “Mothers and Lovers: Edith Wharton’s The Reef and The Mother’s Recompense.” The Anna Book: Searching for Anna in Literary History. Ed. Mickey Pearlman. Westport: Greenwood, 1992.
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Wershoven, Carol. The Female Intruder in the Novels of Edith Wharton. London: Associated UP, 1982.
Wharton, Edith. A Backward Glance. New York: Touchstone, 1998.
---. Novella and Other Writings. New York: Library of America, 1990.
---. The Age of Innocence. Ed. Candace Waid. New York: Norton, 2003.
---. The Children. London: Virago, 1985.
---. The Ghost Stories of Edith Wharton. New York: Scribner, 1973.
---. The Gods Arrive. London: Virago, 1987.
---. The Mother’s Recompense. New York: Scribner,1986.
---. The Old Maid: The Fifties. New York: Modern Library, 2003.
Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. A Feast of Words: The Triumph of Edith Wharton. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.

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