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研究生:侯建綸
研究生(外文):Chien-Lun Hou
論文名稱:立體影像量測系統應用於立體氣壓三軸平行機械臂之研究
論文名稱(外文):Development of a Stereo Vision Measurement System for a 3D Three Axial Pneumatic Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm
指導教授:江茂雄江茂雄引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:工程科學及海洋工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:立體視覺立體重建被動式感測圓偵測影像校正平行機構機械臂
外文關鍵詞:stereo vision3D reconstructionpassive perceptioncircle detectionimage rectificationparallel mechanism robot arm
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本文旨在發展立體視覺三維位置測量系統應用於氣壓三軸平行機械臂,以本研究發展之立體視覺三維位置測量系統量測氣壓三軸平行機械臂之運動平台端點(End Effector)之三維空間軌跡。
為了追踪氣壓三軸平行機械臂之運動平台端點,本研究利用圓偵測演算法偵測得運動平台端點上之目標,爾後利用SAD演算法持續跟踪移動目標,並於相應之立體影像中沿其共軛極線上(Epipolar line)搜尋相應之目標位置。立體雙CCD攝影機組經校正後,藉由求得之個別攝影機內部參數和立體攝影機組之外部參數,來修正影像之扭曲,並利用立體影像對之極線校正(Epipolar rectification)方法,使立體匹配(Stereo matching)之搜索範圍縮減至沿一維之水平共軛極線。最後,運動平台端點之三維空間座標可由立體三角(Stereo triangulation)計算求得。
由實驗結果證實,本研究發展之立體視覺三維位置測量系統可成功地應用於量測立體氣壓三軸平行機械臂之運動平台端點之空間軌跡,分別為五階軌跡、正弦軌跡、三維直線軌跡和三維圓軌跡。


In this thesis, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for the three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.
In order to track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desire target and the SAD algorithm is used to track moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained so that images can be rectified according to camera parameters, and through the use of the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation.
The experiment results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this thesis can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory, sinusoidal trajectory, 3D straight-line trajectory, and 3D circle trajectory of the end-effector of the three axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.


口試委員審定書 I
致謝 II
中文摘要 III
Abstract IV
Contents V
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables XI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Purpose 1
1.2 Literature Review 3
1.3 Overview 6
Chapter 2 System Setup 7
2.1 System Overview 7
2.2 Stereo Vision Measurement System 11
2.3 Hardware 12
2.3.1 Stereo Rig 12
2.3.2 Image Acquisition Card 17
2.3.3 The Three Axial Pneumatic Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm 18
Chapter 3 Image Prepocessing 19
3.1 Fundamental Image Processing 19
3.1.1 Thresholding 19
3.1.2 Edge detection 23
3.1.3 Smoothing filter 26
3.2 Circle Detection 27
3.3 Image Rectification 33
3.3.1 Camera Model 34
3.3.2 Camera Calibration 38
3.3.3 Epipolar Geometry 40
3.3.4 Epipolar Rectification 41
Chapter 4 Stereo Vision Tracking 45
4.1 Stereo Tracking 45
4.1.1 Motion Tracking 46
4.1.2 Stereo Matching 47
4.2 Depth Perception 48
4.2.1 Parallel Camera Configuration 49
4.2.2 Stereo Triangulation 50
4.3 Discussion on Real-Time Visual Tracking 52
4.3.1 Hardware Aspect 52
4.3.2 Software Aspect 52
Chapter 5 Experimental Results and Discussions 54
5.1 Image Rectification 54
5.1.1 Camera Calibration 54
5.1.2 Radial Distortion Correction 56
5.1.3 Epipolar Rectification 58
5.2 Stereo Tracking 59
5.2.1 Target Detection 60
5.2.2 Stereo Tracking 62
5.3 Measurement Correction 63
5.3.1 Z-Direction Correction 65
5.3.2 X-Direction Correction 67
5.3.3 Y-Direction Correction 71
5.4 Experiment of Trajectory Measurement 75
5.4.1 Fifth Order Polynomial Trajectory 77
5.4.2 Sinusoidal Trajectory 80
5.4.3 3D Straight Line Trajectory 81
5.4.4 3D Circle Trajectory 86
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Prospect 94
6.1 Conclusions 94
6.2 Future Prospective 96
Reference 97


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