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研究生:李昱宏
研究生(外文):Yu-Hung Lee
論文名稱:利用生命週期評估探討五種移除水中硝酸鹽之環境友善技術
論文名稱(外文):Life Cycle Assessment of the Removal of Nitrate from Water Using Five Environmentally Friendly Technologies
指導教授:闕蓓德闕蓓德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Te Chiueh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:硝酸鹽催化脫硝環境友善評價系統生命週期評估層級分析法
外文關鍵詞:nitratecatalytic denitrificationenvironmentally friendlyLCAAHP
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硝酸鹽為自然界常見之污染物,主要是由農業過度施肥滲透土壤造成地下水污染,硝酸鹽一旦被攝取進人體會在體內還原成亞硝酸鹽,阻礙血液輸送氧氣的能力,嚴重時恐會引發休克。近年來利用化學脫硝與催化脫硝程序去除水中硝酸鹽之新興技術已被證實是有效率且經濟性的處理方式,然而因處理程序中添加部分貴金屬並製備奈米級材料等,致使此類處理技術是否反而替環境帶來負面衝擊成為眾所關切之議題,故本研究之目的是以生命週期評估(Life Cycle Assessment, LCA)結合層級分析法(Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP)建立一套環境友善性評價系統,針對五種去除水中硝酸鹽之技術進行盤查,比較處理程序間之環境友善度差異。五種技術分別為:鈀銅批載氧化鈦奈米管(Pd-Cu/TNTs)、鈀銅批載二氧化鈦之加氫系統(H2 + Pd-Cu/TiO2)、鈀銅批載二氧化鈦(Pd-Cu/TiO2)、鈀批載零價鋅(Pd/Zn0)、鈀銅批載零價鐵(Pd-Cu/Fe0)。

本研究利用生命週期評估軟體SimaPro7.1與層級分析法軟體Expert Choice來建立環境友善性評價系統,首先利用Eco-indicator 99做為衝擊評估模式進行生命週期評估,以量化研究案例對環境面之衝擊;接續建立環境友善評價系統之指標,並將總經濟成本與環境衝擊面給予1:1之等權重,再以層級分析法決定環境衝擊面之細部指標權重,即得環境友善評價系統。

研究結果顯示:(1)鈀金屬與電力耗損為貢獻環境衝擊之主要原因;(2)環境友善評價系統之權重,總經濟成本為50%,環境衝擊面為50%,其下之權重為:生態毒性(9.4 %) > 石化燃料(8.9 %) > 致癌物(5.6 %) > 輻射(4.5 %) > 土地利用(4.3 %) > 臭氧層破壞(3.2 %) = 氣候變遷(3.2 %) > 礦物(3.0 %) > 可吸入性有機物(2.9 %) = 酸化與優養化(2.9 %) > 可吸入性無機物(2.2 %);(3)考量去除相同量之硝酸鹽、去除能力、投入原物料與能源耗損造成環境之衝擊、污染物排放對環境之衝擊、經濟成本等多準則評估下,以Pd-Cu/TiO2做為催化脫硝之技術最為環境友善。本研究所建立的環境廢污處理技術之環境友善性評估雖為實驗室規模,但可了解新興處理技術在物質使用、能源投入、二次污染、經濟成本等多面向之衝擊,故做為未來實務上選用之參考。


Nitrate, one of common contamination in nature, is widespread due to over-fertilization in agriculture. Once taken into the body, nitrates are converted into nitrites, which can interfere with the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. It will lead to severe shock at the worst. In recent years, catalytic reduction processes applied in the removal of nitrate in water has been proved to be an effective and economical treatment. However, some of the noble metal and nanomaterials will be used in the processes, the potential risks and impacts to the environment with catalytic reduction processes associated are viewed critically. In this study, the main purpose is to establish evaluation system of environmentally friendly by life cycle assessment (LCA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). With this objective a life cycle assessment has been used as a tool for the assessment of the environmental impact of five environmentally friendly processes for the removal of nitrates from water : (1)Pd-Cu/TNTs, (2)H2 + Pd-Cu/TiO2 , (3)Pd-Cu/TiO2 , (4)Pd/Zn0 , (5)Pd-Cu/Fe0.

The inventoried data has been classified considering the potential environmental impacts categories included in the Eco-indicator 99 method of SimaPro 7.1. Evaluation system of environmentally friendly considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of process, giving these equal weighting. On the other hand, the Expert Choice has been used as an AHP tool to decide the weighting factors of environmental impacts.

Among the five cases considered, Pd-Cu/TiO2 treatment proved to have the lowest environmental impact in all the evaluation system of environmentally friendly due to the lower palladium and electricity consumptions. On the other hand, the weighting factors of environmental impacts were : ecotoxicity (9.4 %) > fossil fuels (8.9 %) > carcinogens (5.6 %) > radiation (4.5 %) > land use (4.3 %) > ozone layer (3.2 %) = climate change (3.2 %) > minerals (3.0%) > respiratory organics (2.9 %) = acidification / eutrophication (2.9 %) > respiratory inorganics (2.2 %). Although the evaluation system of environmentally friendly of the removal of nitrate from water was focused on five bench-scale treatments, it will be valuable on site in the future.

中文摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的及內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1硝酸鹽氮之污染與危害 3
2.1.1硝酸鹽氮之污染 3
2.1.2硝酸鹽氮之危害 4
2.2硝酸鹽氮之處理技術 4
2.2.1薄膜逆滲透 5
2.2.2離子交換法 5
2.2.3電透析法 6
2.2.4生物脫硝法 6
2.2.5化學脫硝法 7
2.2.6催化脫硝法 8
2.3環境友善與生命週期評估的應用 8
2.4指標權重決定之方法 12
第三章 研究方法 14
3.1案例說明 15
3.1.1案例A《氧化鈦奈米管負載銅鈀異相催化水中硝酸鹽》 15
3.1.2案例B《選擇性催化加氫技術還原水中硝酸鹽為氮氣之研究》 16
3.1.3案例C《選擇性光催化還原水中硝酸鹽為氮氣之研究》 16
3.1.4案例D《零價鋅及鈀鋅雙金屬對水中硝酸鹽還原脫硝之研究》 17
3.1.5案例E《催化性雙金屬還原水中硝酸鹽之研究》 18
3.2生命週期評估 18
3.2.1目標與範疇界定 18
3.2.2生命週期盤查分析 19
3.2.3生命週期衝擊評估 19
3.2.4結果闡釋 22
3.3層級分析法 23
3.3.1評估尺度 24
3.3.2進行步驟 24
3.3.3專家問卷 27
3.3.4分析工具Expert Choice 27
第四章 結果與討論 28
4.1生命週期評估 28
4.1.1目標與範疇界定 28
4.1.2生命週期盤查分析 29
4.1.3生命週期衝擊評估與結果闡釋 32
4.2層級分析法 43
4.2.1層級擬定 43
4.2.2專家問卷 44
4.2.3共識性權重 49
4.3環境友善度 50
第五章 結論與建議 54
5.1結論 54
5.2建議 56
參考文獻 58
附錄 64

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