(3.238.7.202) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/02/26 15:05
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李文達
研究生(外文):Wen-Ta Li
論文名稱:台灣牛隻副結核病的傳播風險因子和控制策略
論文名稱(外文):Transmission Risk Factor and Control Strategy of Bovine Paratuberculosis in Taiwan
指導教授:蕭世烜
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:獸醫學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:控制計畫血清酵素結合免疫吸附法副結核病即時定量聚合監測異數重複序列
外文關鍵詞:control programELISAparatuberculosisreal-time PCRsurveyVNTRs
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:240
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Bovine paratuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The aims of this study was to investigate the current MAP infection status and MAP transmission risk factors in Taiwan; thereby, to develop a practical control program. A nation-wise survey by serum enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted. Environmental samples from dairy herds were collected for detecting MAP by real time PCR and for phylogenic analysis by variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). Results indicated that MAP seroprevalence in dairy cow was 10.1%, and 66.7% dairy herds were positive, MAP seroprevalence of beef cattle was 2.8%, MAP seroprevalence of intradermal tuberculin test (ITT) positive cattle was 51.4%. MAP infection status and transmission risk factors are different among different herds. Soil and feces were high risk carries for transmitting MAP. Nine substrains of MAPs were identified indicating direct link of MAP transmission among herds. According to the results above and previous research, a MAP control program was developed.

口試委員會審定書...........................................................................................................I
Acknowledgements..........................................................................................................II
中文摘要.................................................................................................................III
Abstract..................................................................................................................IV
Figures....................................................................................................................V
Tables....................................................................................................................VI
Chapter I: Literature review...............................................................................................1
Etiology of bovine paratuberculosis........................................................................................1
Influences of bovine paratuberculosis…....................................................................................1
Transmission pathways and risk factors of bovine paratuberculosis..........................................................6
Diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis......................................................................................10
Molecular epidemiology of bovine paratuberculosis.........................................................................12
Control and prevention of bovine paratuberculosis.........................................................................14
Bovine paratuberculosis in Taiwan.........................................................................................19
Chapter II: Specific Aim and Hypothesis...................................................................................23
Specific aim..............................................................................................................23
Hypothesis................................................................................................................23
Chapter III: Material and methods.........................................................................................25
Bovine paratuberculosis surveillance......................................................................................25
Collection of bovine serum samples........................................................................................25
Detect the MAP specific antibody for bovine serum samples.................................................................25
Descriptive statistical analysis..........................................................................................26
Spatial Statistical analysis..............................................................................................26
Transmission Risk Factor Analysis for Bovine Paratuberculosis.............................................................27
Collection and pretreatment of environmental samples......................................................................27
Real time PCR of environmental samples....................................................................................28
Molecular epidemiology of bovine paratuberculosis.........................................................................32
Evidence-based control strategy for bovine paratuberculosis in Taiwan.....................................................38
Chapter IV: Results.......................................................................................................40
Bovine paratuberculosis surveillance......................................................................................40
Collection of bovine serum samples........................................................................................40
MAP seroprevalence of dairy herds in Taiwan...............................................................................40
MAP seroprevalence of beef cattle in Taiwan...............................................................................41
MAP seroprevalence of ITT positive cattle in Taiwan.......................................................................41
bPTB spatial analysis of dairy herds in Taiwan............................................................................41
Transmission Risk Factor Analysis for Bovine Paratuberculosis.............................................................48
Environmental samples for IS900 real time PCR.............................................................................48
IS900 Real time PCR of environmental samples..............................................................................48
Environmental samples for molecular epidemiology..........................................................................49
Molecular epidemiology of bovine paratuberculosis by VNTRs................................................................49
Evidence-based control strategy for bovine paratuberculosis in Taiwan.....................................................63
The information about bPTB should be propagandized to livestock owners....................................................63
The most cost-effective diagnostic method to identify the MAP infection status of dairy herd..............................64
The preventive management practices to control bPTB.......................................................................65
The most cost-effective diagnostic method to identify the subclinical infected cattle.....................................66
The optimal method for certification and monitoring scheme of “MAP low-risk”herd........................................67
Chapter V: Discussion.....................................................................................................68
Bovine paratuberculosis surveillance......................................................................................68
The MAP seroprevalence of dairy cattle is 10.1%...........................................................................68
The herd-level MAP prevalence is 66.7%....................................................................................68
The seroprevalences of individual herd are ranged from 0% to 60%..........................................................68
The seroprevalence and herd-level prevalence of bPTB in each country and city.............................................69
The MAP seroprevalence of beef cattle is 2.8%.............................................................................70
The MAP seroprevalence of ITT positive cattle.............................................................................70
The kernel density map of MAP positive dairy herds........................................................................72
Transmission Risk Factor Analysis for Bovine Paratuberculosis.............................................................73
The prevalences of soil and feces samples from MAP-positive herds.........................................................73
The prevalence of water samples from MAP-positive herds...................................................................73
Nine substrains (From A to I) of MAPs were identified.....................................................................74
The Phylogenetic tree of 9 MAP substrains.................................................................................74
The Phylogenetic tree of 9 MAP substrains.................................................................................75
The distributions of MAP substrains in each herd..........................................................................75
Evidence-based control strategy for bovine paratuberculosis in Taiwan.....................................................77
Livestock owner education and propaganda of bPTB..........................................................................77
Identify the MAP status of voluntary dairy herds..........................................................................79
The control and test strategy for MAP positive herds......................................................................80
“MAP low-risk” certification and monitoring program.....................................................................83
Chapter VI: Conclusion....................................................................................................88
Reference.................................................................................................................89
Appendix I...............................................................................................................108
Appendix II..............................................................................................................131

Alinovi, C.A., Ward, M.P., Lin, T.L., Moore, G.E., Wu, C.C., 2009, Real-time PCR, compared to liquid and solid culture media and ELISA, for the detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Vet Microbiol 136, 177-179.
Ansari-Lari, M., Haghkhah, M., Bahramy, A., Novin Baheran, A.M., 2009, Risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Fars province (Southern Iran) dairy herds. Trop Anim Health Prod 41, 553-557.
Baksh, F.K., Finkelstein, S.D., Ariyanayagam-Baksh, S.M., Swalsky, P.A., Klein, E.C., Dunn, J.C., 2004, Absence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the microdissected granulomas of Crohn''s disease. Mod Pathol 17, 1289-1294.
Benedictus, G., Dijkhuizen, A.A., Stelwagen, J., 1987, Economic losses due to paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Vet Rec 121, 142-146.
Berghaus, R.D., Farver, T.B., Anderson, R.J., Jaravata, C.C., Gardner, I.A., 2006, Environmental sampling for detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on large California dairies. J Dairy Sci 89, 963-970.
Bielanski, A., Algire, J., Randall, G.C., Surujballi, O., 2006, Risk of transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by embryo transfer of in vivo and in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. Theriogenology 66, 260-266.
Brumbaugh, G.W., Edwards, J.F., Roussel, A.J., Jr., Thomson, T.D., 2000, Effect of monensin sodium on histological lesions of naturally occurring bovine paratuberculosis. J Comp Pathol 123, 22-28.
Brumbaugh, G.W., Simpson, R.B., Edwards, J.F., Anders, D.R., Thomson, T.D., 2004, Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium sbsp paratuberculosis to monensin sodium or tilmicosin phosphate in vitro and resulting infectivity in a murine model. Can J Vet Res 68, 175-181.
Buergelt, C.D., Duncan, J.R., 1978, Age and milk production data of cattle culled from a dairy herd with paratuberculosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 173, 478-480.
Bull, T.J., McMinn, E.J., Sidi-Boumedine, K., Skull, A., Durkin, D., Neild, P., Rhodes, G., Pickup, R., Hermon-Taylor, J., 2003a, Detection and verification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fresh ileocolonic mucosal biopsy specimens from individuals with and without Crohn''s disease. J Clin Microbiol 41, 2915-2923.
Bull, T.J., Sidi-Boumedine, K., McMinn, E.J., Stevenson, K., Pickup, R., Hermon-Taylor, J., 2003b, Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from other species of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Mol Cell Probes 17, 157-164.
Chi, J., VanLeeuwen, J.A., Weersink, A., Keefe, G.P., 2002a, Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum. Prev Vet Med 55, 137-153.
Chi, J., VanLeeuwen, J.A., Weersink, A., Keefe, G.P., 2002b, Management factors related to seroprevalences to bovine viral-diarrhoea virus, bovine-leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy herds in the Canadian Maritimes. Prev Vet Med 55, 57-68.
Chiodini, R.J., Van Kruiningen, H.J., Merkal, R.S., 1984, Ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne''s disease): the current status and future prospects. Cornell Vet 74, 218-262.
Clark, D.L., Jr., Koziczkowski, J.J., Radcliff, R.P., Carlson, R.A., Ellingson, J.L., 2008, Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: comparing fecal culture versus serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and direct fecal polymerase chain reaction. J Dairy Sci 91, 2620-2627.
Collins, M.T., 2003, Paratuberculosis: review of present knowledge. Acta Vet Scand 44, 217-221.
Collins, M.T., Gardner, I.A., Garry, F.B., Roussel, A.J., Wells, S.J., 2006, Consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 229, 1912-1919.
Collins, M.T., Sockett, D.C., 1993, Accuracy and economics of the USDA-licensed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for bovine paratuberculosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 203, 1456-1463.
Collins, M.T., Sockett, D.C., Ridge, S., Cox, J.C., 1991, Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Johne''s disease. J Clin Microbiol 29, 272-276.
Collins, M.T., Wells, S.J., Petrini, K.R., Collins, J.E., Schultz, R.D., Whitlock, R.H., 2005, Evaluation of five antibody detection tests for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12, 685-692.
Cook, K.L., Britt, J.S., 2007, Optimization of methods for detecting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in environmental samples using quantitative, real-time PCR. J Microbiol Methods 69, 154-160.
Cox, J.C., Drane, D.P., Jones, S.L., Ridge, S., Milner, A.R., 1991, Development and evaluation of a rapid absorbed enzyme immunoassay test for the diagnosis of Johne''s disease in cattle. Aust Vet J 68, 157-160.
Croft, A.M., Baker, D., von Bertele, M.J., 2001, An evidence-based vector control strategy for military deployments: the British Army experience. Med Trop (Mars) 61, 91-98.
Dargatz, D.A., Byrum, B.A., Barber, L.K., Sweeney, R.W., Whitlock, R.H., Shulaw, W.P., Jacobson, R.H., Stabel, J.R., 2001, Evaluation of a commercial ELISA for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218, 1163-1166.
Dieguez, F.J., Arnaiz, I., Sanjuan, M.L., Vilar, M.J., Yus, E., 2008, Management practices associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection and the effects of the infection on dairy herds. Vet Rec 162, 614-617.
Dieguez, F.J., Gonzalez, A.M., Menendez, S., Vilar, M.J., Sanjuan, M.L., Yus, E., Arnaiz, I., 2009, Evaluation of four commercial serum ELISAs for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy cows. Vet J 180, 231-235.
Dorshorst, N.C., Collins, M.T., Lombard, J.E., 2006, Decision analysis model for paratuberculosis control in commercial dairy herds. Prev Vet Med 75, 92-122.
Dunn, J.R., Kaneene, J.B., Grooms, D.L., Bolin, S.R., Bolin, C.A., Bruning-Fann, C.S., 2005, Effects of positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis as determined by microbial culture of feces or antibody ELISA on results of caudal fold tuberculin test and interferon-gamma assay for tuberculosis in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226, 429-435.
Eishi, Y., Suga, M., Ishige, I., Kobayashi, D., Yamada, T., Takemura, T., Takizawa, T., Koike, M., Kudoh, S., Costabel, U., Guzman, J., Rizzato, G., Gambacorta, M., du Bois, R., Nicholson, A.G., Sharma, O.P., Ando, M., 2002, Quantitative analysis of mycobacterial and propionibacterial DNA in lymph nodes of Japanese and European patients with sarcoidosis. J Clin Microbiol 40, 198-204.
El-Sayed, A., Hassan, A.A., Natour, S., Abdulmawjood, A., Bulte, M., Wolter, W., Zschock, M., 2009, Evaluation of three molecular methods of repetitive element loci for differentiation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). J Microbiol 47, 253-259.
Ellingson, J.L., Anderson, J.L., Koziczkowski, J.J., Radcliff, R.P., Sloan, S.J., Allen, S.E., Sullivan, N.M., 2005, Detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail pasteurized whole milk by two culture methods and PCR. J Food Prot 68, 966-972.
Ellingson, J.L., Cheville, J.C., Brees, D., Miller, J.M., Cheville, N.F., 2003, Absence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis components from Crohn''s disease intestinal biopsy tissues. Clin Med Res 1, 217-226.
Eltholth, M.M., Marsh, V.R., Van Winden, S., Guitian, F.J., 2009, Contamination of food products with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: a systematic review. J Appl Microbiol 107, 1061-1071.
Ezanno, P., van Schaik, G., Weber, M.F., Heesterbeek, J.A., 2005, A modeling study on the sustainability of a certification-and-monitoring program for paratuberculosis in cattle. Vet Res 36, 811-826.
Feil, E.J., Li, B.C., Aanensen, D.M., Hanage, W.P., Spratt, B.G., 2004, eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data. J Bacteriol 186, 1518-1530.
Gearry, R.B., Aitken, J.M., Roberts, R.L., Ismail, S., Keenan, J., Barclay, M.L., 2005, Images of interest. Gastrointestinal: Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and Crohn''s disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20, 1943.
Groenendaal, H., Nielen, M., Jalvingh, A.W., Horst, S.H., Galligan, D.T., Hesselink, J.W., 2002, A simulation of Johne''s disease control. Prev Vet Med 54, 225-245.
Harris, N.B., Barletta, R.G., 2001, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Veterinary Medicine. Clin Microbiol Rev 14, 489-512.
Hines, M.E., 2nd, Stabel, J.R., Sweeney, R.W., Griffin, F., Talaat, A.M., Bakker, D., Benedictus, G., Davis, W.C., de Lisle, G.W., Gardner, I.A., Juste, R.A., Kapur, V., Koets, A., McNair, J., Pruitt, G., Whitlock, R.H., 2007, Experimental challenge models for Johne''s disease: a review and proposed international guidelines. Vet Microbiol 122, 197-222.
Hunter, P.R., Fraser, C.A., 1989, Application of a numerical index of discriminatory power to a comparison of four physiochemical typing methods for Candida albicans. J Clin Microbiol 27, 2156-2160.
Hunter, P.R., Gaston, M.A., 1988, Numerical index of the discriminatory ability of typing systems: an application of Simpson''s index of diversity. J Clin Microbiol 26, 2465-2466.
Johnson-Ifearulundu, Y.J., Kaneene, J.B., Sprecher, D.J., Gardiner, J.C., Lloyd, J.W., 2000, The effect of subclinical Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on days open in Michigan, USA, dairy cows. Prev Vet Med 46, 171-181.
Kalis, C.H., Collins, M.T., Barkema, H.W., Hesselink, J.W., 2004, Certification of herds as free of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection: actual pooled faecal results versus certification model predictions. Prev Vet Med 65, 189-204.
Kalis, C.H., Hesselink, J.W., Barkema, H.W., Collins, M.T., 2001, Use of long-term vaccination with a killed vaccine to prevent fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Am J Vet Res 62, 270-274.
Kanazawa, K., Haga, Y., Funakoshi, O., Nakajima, H., Munakata, A., Yoshida, Y., 1999, Absence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis DNA in intestinal tissues from Crohn''s disease by nested polymerase chain reaction. J Gastroenterol 34, 200-206.
Kennedy, D.J., Benedictus, G., 2001, Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in agricultural species. Rev Sci Tech 20, 151-179.
Keswani, J., Frank, J.F., 1998, Thermal inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. J Food Prot 61, 974-978.
Khare, S., Adams, L.G., Osterstock, J., Roussel, A., David, L., 2008, Effects of shipping and storage conditions of fecal samples on viability of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 46, 1561-1562.
Kopecky, K.E., Larsen, A.B., 1975, Intravenous johnin and tuberculin tests in cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells and subsequently inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis. Am J Vet Res 36, 1727-1729.
Kovich, D.A., Wells, S.J., Friendshuh, K., 2006, Evaluation of the Voluntary Johne''s Disease Herd Status Program as a source of replacement cattle. J Dairy Sci 89, 3466-3470.
Kudahl, A., Nielsen, S.S., Sorensen, J.T., 2004, Relationship between antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and shape of lactation curves. Prev Vet Med 62, 119-134.
Kudahl, A.B., Nielsen, S.S., Ostergaard, S., 2008, Economy, efficacy, and feasibility of a risk-based control program against paratuberculosis. J Dairy Sci 91, 4599-4609.
Kudahl, A.B., Sorensen, J.T., Nielsen, S.S., Ostergaard, S., 2007, Simulated economic effects of improving the sensitivity of a diagnostic test in paratuberculosis control. Prev Vet Med 78, 118-129.
Lepper, A.W., Wilks, C.R., Kotiw, M., Whitehead, J.T., Swart, K.S., 1989, Sequential bacteriological observations in relation to cell-mediated and humoral antibody responses of cattle infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and maintained on normal or high iron intake. Aust Vet J 66, 50-55.
Li, L., Bannantine, J.P., Zhang, Q., Amonsin, A., May, B.J., Alt, D., Banerji, N., Kanjilal, S., Kapur, V., 2005, The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 12344-12349.
Lombard, J.E., Wagner, B.A., Smith, R.L., McCluskey, B.J., Harris, B.N., Payeur, J.B., Garry, F.B., Salman, M.D., 2006, Evaluation of environmental sampling and culture to determine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis distribution and herd infection status on US dairy operations. J Dairy Sci 89, 4163-4171.
Lozano-Leon, A., Barreiro-de Acosta, M., Dominguez-Munoz, J.E., 2006, Absence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Crohn''s disease patients. Inflamm Bowel Dis 12, 1190-1192.
Lu, Y.S., Tsai, H.J., Kwang, M.J., Lai, S.Y., Lee, Y.L., Lin, D.F., Lee, C., 1987, A serological survey on mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in Taiwan. Taiwan Veterinary Journal 13, 11-15.
Lu, Z., Mitchell, R.M., Smith, R.L., Van Kessel, J.S., Chapagain, P.P., Schukken, Y.H., Grohn, Y.T., 2008, The importance of culling in Johne''s disease control. J Theor Biol 254, 135-146.
Lund, B.M., Donnelly, C.W., Rampling, A., 2000, Heat resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Lett Appl Microbiol 31, 184-185.
Manning, E.J., Collins, M.T., 2001, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: pathogen, pathogenesis and diagnosis. Rev Sci Tech 20, 133-150.
Mazars, E., Lesjean, S., Banuls, A.L., Gilbert, M., Vincent, V., Gicquel, B., Tibayrenc, M., Locht, C., Supply, P., 2001, High-resolution minisatellite-based typing as a portable approach to global analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 1901-1906.
McKenna, S.L., Keefe, G.P., Barkema, H.W., McClure, J., Vanleeuwen, J.A., Hanna, P., Sockett, D.C., 2004, Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine. J Dairy Sci 87, 3770-3777.
McKenna, S.L., Keefe, G.P., Tiwari, A., VanLeeuwen, J., Barkema, H.W., 2006, Johne''s disease in Canada part II: disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers. Can Vet J 47, 1089-1099.
McNab, W.B., Meek, A.H., Martin, S.W., Duncan, J.R., 1991, Associations between dairy production indices and lipoarabinomannan enzyme-immunoassay results for paratuberculosis. Can J Vet Res 55, 356-361.
Milner, A.R., Mack, W.N., Coates, K.J., Hill, J., Gill, I., Sheldrick, P., 1990, The sensitivity and specificity of a modified ELISA for the diagnosis of Johne''s disease from a field trial in cattle. Vet Microbiol 25, 193-198.
Moloney, B.J., Whittington, R.J., 2008, Cross species transmission of ovine Johne''s disease from sheep to cattle: an estimate of prevalence in exposed susceptible cattle. Aust Vet J 86, 117-123.
Motiwala, A.S., Li, L., Kapur, V., Sreevatsan, S., 2006, Current understanding of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Microbes Infect 8, 1406-1418.
Muskens, J., Elbers, A.R., van Weering, H.J., Noordhuizen, J.P., 2003, Herd management practices associated with paratuberculosis seroprevalence in Dutch dairy herds. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50, 372-377.
Nielsen, S.S., Bjerre, H., Toft, N., 2008, Colostrum and milk as risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 91, 4610-4615.
Nielsen, S.S., Toft, N., 2007, Assessment of management-related risk factors for paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds using Bayesian mixture models. Prev Vet Med 81, 306-317.
Obasanjo, I.O., Grohn, Y.T., Mohammed, H.O., 1997, Farm factors associated with the presence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds on the New York State Paratuberculosis Control Program. Prev Vet Med 32, 243-251.
Ott, S.L., Wells, S.J., Wagner, B.A., 1999, Herd-level economic losses associated with Johne''s disease on US dairy operations. Prev Vet Med 40, 179-192.
Overduin, P., Schouls, L., Roholl, P., van der Zanden, A., Mahmmod, N., Herrewegh, A., van Soolingen, D., 2004, Use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for typing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 42, 5022-5028.
Pavlik, I., Bartl, J., Dvorska, L., Svastova, P., du Maine, R., Machackova, M., Yayo Ayele, W., Horvathova, A., 2000, Epidemiology of paratuberculosis in wild ruminants studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Czech Republic during the period 1995-1998. Vet Microbiol 77, 231-251.
Pavlik, I., Horvathova, A., Dvorska, L., Bartl, J., Svastova, P., du Maine, R., Rychlik, I., 1999, Standardisation of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. J Microbiol Methods 38, 155-167.
Pinedo, P.J., Rae, D.O., Williams, J.E., Donovan, G.A., Melendez, P., Buergelt, C.D., 2008, Association among results of serum ELISA, faecal culture and nested PCR on milk, blood and faeces for the detection of paratuberculosis in dairy cows. Transbound Emerg Dis 55, 125-133.
Raizman, E.A., Wells, S.J., Godden, S.M., Bey, R.F., Oakes, M.J., Bentley, D.C., Olsen, K.E., 2004, The distribution of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in the environment surrounding Minnesota dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 87, 2959-2966.
Raizman, E.A., Wells, S.J., Godden, S.M., Fetrow, J., Friendshuh, K., Michael Oakes, J., 2006, Characterization of Minnesota dairy herds participating in a Johne''s disease control program and evaluation of the program risk assessment tool. Prev Vet Med 75, 22-33.
Rankin, J.D., 1962, The experimental infection of cattle with Mycobacterium johnei. IV. Adult cattle maintained in an infectious environment. J Comp Pathol 72, 113-117.
Romano, M.I., Amadio, A., Bigi, F., Klepp, L., Etchechoury, I., Llana, M.N., Morsella, C., Paolicchi, F., Pavlik, I., Bartos, M., Leao, S.C., Cataldi, A., 2005, Further analysis of VNTR and MIRU in the genome of Mycobacterium avium complex, and application to molecular epidemiology of isolates from South America. Vet Microbiol 110, 221-237.
Rozen, S., Skaletsky, H., 2000, Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Methods Mol Biol 132, 365-386.
Ryan, P., Bennett, M.W., Aarons, S., Lee, G., Collins, J.K., O''Sullivan, G.C., O''Connell, J., Shanahan, F., 2002, PCR detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Crohn''s disease granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection. Gut 51, 665-670.
Schonenbrucher, H., Abdulmawjood, A., Failing, K., Bulte, M., 2008, New triplex real-time PCR assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 74, 2751-2758.
Sechi, L.A., Gazouli, M., Sieswerda, L.E., Molicotti, P., Ahmed, N., Ikonomopoulos, J., Scanu, A.M., Paccagnini, D., Zanetti, S., 2006, Relationship between Crohn''s disease, infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in Sardinian patients. World J Gastroenterol 12, 7161-7164.
Sockett, D.C., Conrad, T.A., Thomas, C.B., Collins, M.T., 1992, Evaluation of four serological tests for bovine paratuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 30, 1134-1139.
Stabel, J.R., 2000, Johne''s disease and milk: do consumers need to worry? J Dairy Sci 83, 1659-1663.
Stabel, J.R., Bannantine, J.P., 2005, Development of a nested PCR method targeting a unique multicopy element, ISMap02, for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in fecal samples. J Clin Microbiol 43, 4744-4750.
Stabel, J.R., Whitlock, R.H., 2001, An evaluation of a modified interferon-gamma assay for the detection of paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 79, 69-81.
Streeter, R.N., Hoffsis, G.F., Bech-Nielsen, S., Shulaw, W.P., Rings, D.M., 1995, Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from colostrum and milk of subclinically infected cows. Am J Vet Res 56, 1322-1324.
Sweeney, R.W., 1996, Transmission of paratuberculosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 12, 305-312.
Sweeney, R.W., Whitlock, R.H., Buckley, C.L., Spencer, P., Rosenberger, A.E., Hutchinson, L.J., 1994, Diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. Am J Vet Res 55, 905-909.
Sweeney, R.W., Whitlock, R.H., Buckley, C.L., Spencer, P.A., 1995, Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 7, 488-493.
Sweeney, R.W., Whitlock, R.H., Hamir, A.N., Rosenberger, A.E., Herr, S.A., 1992, Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis after oral inoculation in uninfected cattle. Am J Vet Res 53, 1312-1314.
Tavornpanich, S., Munoz-Zanzi, C.A., Wells, S.J., Raizman, E.A., Carpenter, T.E., Johnson, W.O., Gardner, I.A., 2008, Simulation model for evaluation of testing strategies for detection of paratuberculosis in midwestern US dairy herds. Prev Vet Med 83, 65-82.
Thibault, V.C., Grayon, M., Boschiroli, M.L., Hubbans, C., Overduin, P., Stevenson, K., Gutierrez, M.C., Supply, P., Biet, F., 2007, New variable-number tandem-repeat markers for typing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains: comparison with IS900 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. J Clin Microbiol 45, 2404-2410.
Tiwari, A., VanLeeuwen, J.A., Dohoo, I.R., Stryhn, H., Keefe, G.P., Haddad, J.P., 2005, Effects of seropositivity for bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum on culling in dairy cattle in four Canadian provinces. Vet Microbiol 109, 147-158.
Tiwari, A., VanLeeuwen, J.A., McKenna, S.L., Keefe, G.P., Barkema, H.W., 2006, Johne''s disease in Canada Part I: clinical symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevalence in dairy herds. Can Vet J 47, 874-882.
Toracchio, S., El-Zimaity, H.M., Urmacher, C., Katz, S., Graham, D.Y., 2008, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn''s disease granulomas. Scand J Gastroenterol 43, 1108-1111.
van Roermund, H.J., Bakker, D., Willemsen, P.T., de Jong, M.C., 2007, Horizontal transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in an experimental setting: calves can transmit the infection to other calves. Vet Microbiol 122, 270-279.
VanLeeuwen, J.A., Keefe, G.P., Tremblay, R., Power, C., Wichtel, J.J., 2001, Seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in maritime Canada dairy cattle. Can Vet J 42, 193-198.
Weber, M.F., Groenendaal, H., van Roermund, H.J., Nielen, M., 2004, Simulation of alternatives for the Dutch Johne''s disease certification-and-monitoring program. Prev Vet Med 62, 1-17.
Wells, S.J., Wagner, B.A., 2000, Herd-level risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in US dairies and association between familiarity of the herd manager with the disease or prior diagnosis of the disease in that herd and use of preventive measures. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216, 1450-1457.
Whitlock, R.H., Buergelt, C., 1996, Preclinical and clinical manifestations of paratuberculosis (including pathology). Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 12, 345-356.
Whitlock, R.H., Wells, S.J., Sweeney, R.W., Van Tiem, J., 2000, ELISA and fecal culture for paratuberculosis (Johne''s disease): sensitivity and specificity of each method. Vet Microbiol 77, 387-398.
Whittington, R.J., Marshall, D.J., Nicholls, P.J., Marsh, I.B., Reddacliff, L.A., 2004, Survival and dormancy of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 2989-3004.
Wilson, D.J., Rossiter, C., Han, H.R., Sears, P.M., 1993, Association of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection with reduced mastitis, but with decreased milk production and increased cull rate in clinically normal dairy cows. Am J Vet Res 54, 1851-1857.
Windsor, P.A., Whittington, R.J., 2010, Evidence for age susceptibility of cattle to Johne''s disease. Vet J 184, 37-44.
Yokomizo, Y., Yugi, H., Merkal, R.S., 1985, A method for avoiding false-positive reactions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi 47, 111-119.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 沈清松(1993)詮釋學方法評介。國立政治大學研究通訊,5-17。
2. 李隆盛; 賴春金(2007)。技職教育現況及其未來發展。國家菁英。3, 135-45 。
3. 于宗先(2004)。台灣幼少年人口銳減的警訊-語云:人無遠慮,必有近憂。經濟前瞻,93,26-31。
4. 李隆盛(2003)。綜高可做高職轉型的好方案。技術及職業教育雙月刊,78,26-30。
5. 林海清(2007)。少子化效應對技職教育發展之衝擊與因應策略。教育研究 月刊。151,32-45。
6. 吳清山;簡惠閔(2008)。臺灣高等技職教育改革分析:1996~2007 年。教育研究月刊。167, 47-67。
7. 祝若穎(2009)。日本高等教育對少子化衝擊的因應及其啟示。教育資料與研究,86,175-198。
8. 徐明珠(2003)。全球化時代,臺灣高等教育之改革與創新。國家政策論壇 季刊,92,258-267。
9. 秦夢群、濮世緯(2006)。學校創新經營理念與實施之研究。教育研究與發展期刊,2:3,123-150。
10. 湯志民(2006)。政大附中創新經營的理念與策略。教育研究月刊,145。60-72。
11. 曾瑞譙(2006)。大專技職校院面對「出生率降低」的學校經營管理壓力與因應之道。學校行政雙月刊,46,317-319。
12. 黃能堂(2007)。台灣人口結構變遷對技職教育的衝擊與因應。教育資料與研究,74,97-114。
13. 黃義良(2002)。淺析學校行銷策略適用於中小學的具體做法。教育資料與研究,45,112-119。
14. 鄧進權、張鈿富(2007)。台灣義務教育階段學生數與班級規模之預測與因應:面對「少子化」。教育資料與研究,72,115-132。
15. 蔡秀美(2003)。「全民終身教育思潮與台灣社區大學發展的省思」,成人教育雙月刊,76,2-9。鄭秀貞(2009)。提升專科學校整體教學品質。高教技職簡訊。036,16。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔