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研究生:鍾珞筠
研究生(外文):Chung Lo Yun
論文名稱:以當代藝術活化博物館的策略研究:以美國嘉德納博物館藝術家駐館計畫為例
論文名稱(外文):Contemporary Art as a Museum Revitalization Strategy: A Case Study of Artist-In-Residence Program of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
指導教授:賴瑛瑛賴瑛瑛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lai Ying Ying
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣藝術大學
系所名稱:藝術與文化政策管理研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:藝術行政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:204
中文關鍵詞:當代藝術博物館活化策略嘉德納博物館藝術家駐館計畫
外文關鍵詞:contemporary artmuseum revitalization strategythe Isabella Stewart Gardner Museumartist-in-residence program
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博物館如有機生命體一般,隨著外在環境的改變而必須調整其機能。博物館活化的最大意義在於使其豐富的館藏、研究成果、相關服務為人所善用,以促進人們的文化生活品質,博物館作為一文化和社會機構的生命始具有意義。本研究的問題意識在於當代博物館如何活用其機構資源,讓觀眾從中咀嚼出新意,進而促使博物館內涵重獲新生。
本研究從博物館活化的概念界定和背景探討出發,首先梳理研究個案成立於1903年、位於美國波士頓的嘉德納博物館 (The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum) 的創立背景和其經營管理之演變過程。隨後則以當代藝術的引進作為博物館活化策略的展現,探討研究個案自1992年開始執行的藝術家駐館計畫 (Artist-In-Residence Program) 在推動博物館走向反映當代社會、鼓勵多元詮釋,並強化博物館社會角色上的效益和影響。在探討過程上,本研究採用半結構式訪談、參與觀察和書面、檔案資料的收集為個案研究之方法,並透過三個藝術家駐館案例檢視藝術家駐館計畫在引進當代藝術上的實踐方式,最後則聚焦於分析三個案例對博物館活化所帶來的效益和影響。
本研究共提出三項研究發現:一、當代藝術的介入為觀眾建立起過去與當代社會的連結,藝術家的詮釋為觀眾提供嶄新視野,並發揮其輔助觀眾對博物館內涵的理解和使用、引導和鼓勵觀眾思考和互動的功能,牽引和帶動博物館內的意義生產活動。二、藝術家對博物館資源的活用使博物館的整體內涵轉型為富有生命力、啓發的主體,並持續衍生產出,博物館的社會效用亦成為博物館經營者所關注的焦點。三、當代藝術的引進促使博物館對組織使命和營運思維進行反思,進一步達到提升組織機能、與社會同步更新的目標。
Museum resembles organic entity in the natural world and adjusts its functions according to the changing environment. The notion of “museum revitalization” suggests that museums expand utilization of their collection, research and relevant services, and serve as facilitator of a better cultural life for people; what justifies museums as cultural and social institutions lies above. This study departs from exploring how contemporary museums make good use of their resources in the service of bringing new perspectives to their audience, thus, revitalizing the content a museum has to offer.
This study commences with the definition of the notion of revitalization, and explores the background of museum revitalization. Continually, the study examines the establishment and changing process of the case of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, United States, founded in 1903. Furthermore, the study focuses on the intervention of contemporary art in traditional museums as a revitalization strategy, investigating the impact and effect of Gardner Museum’s long-standing “Artist-In-Residence Program” that initiated in 1992, especially in prompting the museum to reflect the contemporary society, to encourage diversified interpretation, and to increase utilization. In analyzing the program, semistructured interviews, observations, and information gathered from documents are utilized as methods of data collecting. The study selects three case studies of artist-residency from the program, and investigates how the untervention of contemporary art influences museum practice, and gradually contributes to the revitalization of the museum.
Three findings are drawn from the study: 1) The intervention of contemporary art builds connection between the past and present; artist’s interpretation provides audience a brand new and diversified point of view, while serving the function of aiding audience in understanding and appreciating the content of the museum, guiding and encouraging the thinking and interaction process, stimulating the meaning-making activities in the museum. 2) Artists taking advantage of museum resources transform the content of the museum into living subjects and sources of inspiration, and keep the production of creative outcomes going, while highlighting the social utility of museums to museum managers. 3) Contemporary art enables museums to ponder upon their missions and core values, urging museums to elevate their functions and to renew themselves as the society moves on.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 2
第三節 研究方法 5
一、研究方法 5
(一)半結構式訪談 6
(二)參與觀察與直接觀察 9
(三)書面和檔案資料 9
二、研究流程 10
第四節 研究範圍與限制 12
第五節 名詞解釋 13
第六節 論文章節說明 15
第二章 博物館的宗旨與活化策略 16
第一節 博物館與創始人:Gardner Museum相關研究回顧 16
一、創始人:Gardner夫人之收藏與贊助史研究 16
二、主體的投射:博物館之收藏與展示研究 19
第二節 博物館活化之概念 20
一、博物館活化的概念 20
(一)「活化」的使用脈絡 20
(二)「活化」的相似詞 21
(三)「活化」在博物館學研究中的意義 21
二、博物館活化的發展與背景 22
(一)新博物館學理論思潮 23
(二)國際和地域性博物館組織的規範與實踐 24
(三)組織變革理論的興起 26
(四)Gardner Museum的活化背景 27
第三節 博物館的活化策略 29
一、活化策略的相關論述 29
二、Gardner Museum的活化策略 31
(一)藝術家駐館計畫 32
(二)學校合作計畫教育推廣活動初探 34
三、小結 37
第三章 歷史的包袱與啓示:Gardner Museum的創立與演變 39
第一節 Isabella Stewart Gardner:收藏家、慈善家和博物館創立者 39
一、品味的養成:早期經歷 40
二、異國文化和知識的滋養:文化生活的形成期 42
三、波士頓的「米西納斯」:藝術收藏與贊助生涯的展開 44
(一)收藏初期 (1885-1892) 44
(二)收藏盛期 (1894-1898) 45
(三)慈善事業和文化贊助 46
四、“Musée Gardner”:興建博物館的起點 47
第二節 Gardner Museum:波士頓的文化瑰寶 48
一、博物館的誕生 48
二、博物館的對外開放 50
三、館藏和空間的持續演變 52
(一)一樓空間分布 56
(二)二樓空間分布 56
(三)三樓空間分布 57
(四)空間的限制 59
四、「永遠為大眾教育和休閒而存在」的博物館 59
第三節 限制與超越:Gardner慈善信託基金 60
一、Gardner夫人的遺囑 60
(一)宗旨與服務對象 61
(二)「不可變動條款」 62
(三)「沒收條款」 62
二、限制與超越 63
第四節 啓動改革的開關:領導與組織分工 64
一、領導結構 65
(一)館長 65
(二)董事會 67
二、組織分工 70
三、小結 75
第四章 當代博物館的活化策略:Gardner Museum的藝術家駐館計畫 76
第一節 博物館與藝術家的合作模式 76
第二節 藝術家駐館計畫的緣起和內涵 79
一、計畫背景 79
二、目標與對象 80
三、駐館計畫之內涵 85
第三節 藝術家駐館計畫的營運變遷 92
一、實驗期 92
二、形成期 92
三、發展期 93
四、穩定期 95
第四節 藝術家駐館計畫的活化角色 95
第五章 藝術家駐館計畫:案例探討與分析 98
第一節 李明維,2000年,《客廳》 100
第二節 Luisa Rabbia,2008年,《隨Isabella旅行:旅遊札記1883/2008》 104
第三節 Joseph Kosuth,2003年,《藝術家、策展人、收藏家:James McNeill Whistler, Bernard Berenson and Isabella Stewart Gardner創造過程之三個所在地》 110
第四節 藝術家駐館計畫的效益與影響 116
一、駐館計畫的目標達成度 117
二、駐館計畫對博物館整體產出的貢獻 119
三、駐館計畫作為博物館活化的策略 123
(一)駐館藝術家的觀點 125
(二)當代藝術部策展人和館員的觀點 125
(三)館外專業人士的觀點 126
第六章 結論與建議 128
一、研究發現 128
二、研究限制 133
三、對未來研究的建議 134
四、結語 135
參考文獻 137
附錄一:訪談問題 147
附錄二:訪談逐字稿 160
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