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研究生:周晨福
研究生(外文):Tjioe Hengky Kurniawan
論文名稱:纖維素薄膜表面改質以及分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Surface modifications on bacterial cellulose membranes
指導教授:王孟菊
指導教授(外文):Meng-jiy Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:bacterial celluloseplasma treatmentbiocompatibilitypolyethylene glycolantifouling properties
外文關鍵詞:bacterial celluloseplasma treatmentbiocompatibilitypolyethylene glycolantifouling properties
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Bacterial cellulose, a random assembled, ribbon-shaped, and nanosized fibrils is produced extracellularly by Gram negative strains of Acetobacter Xylinum. Due to its superior mechanical property and 3-d microstructure which mimics the conformation of extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose becomes one of the potential biomaterials for designing the scaffold in tissue engineering. However, beside the morphological motifs, more surface-tailoring factors such as the surface properties of materials are also essential in tissue engineering approaches.
In this study, two surface modifications were performed to achieve the goals on (i) promoting the biocompatibility of BC membranes, and (ii) the creation of anti-fouling BC membranes.
In terms of promoting the biocompatibility of BC membranes, surface modifications of bacterial cellulose were performed by plasma treatment carried out by using oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) and tetrafluorocarbon (CF4) plasmas in order to discover the optimized cell-surface interactions. The pristine and plasma-treated surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). By using oxygen and nitrogen plasmas, the wettability of bacterial cellulose increased while the tetrafluorocarbon plasma decreased the wettability of materials. By using ESCA, the presence of oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine was detected on the O2, N2 and CF4 plasma-treated bacterial cellulose and further deconvolution of C1s peak helped to discover the specific functional groups such as O-C-O and C=O, CO-NH2 and Cx-Fx bindings, incorporated by using O2, N2 and CF4 plasmas, respectively.
The biocompatibility of plasma treated BCs was evaluated by directly cultivating different kinds of cells, L-929 mouse fibroblast, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic skin fibroblast, under the condition with or without serum in cell culture medium.
Under serum containing medium, for 6h of cell incubation time, cell attachment on the BC-CF4 was about 40-50% higher than that on BC, BC-O2 and BC-N2 and nearly identical to that on TCPS. The cells show lower density on all samples under the serum free cell culture condition. The effect of serum was explained by the proteins, originated from cell culture media, which adsorbed in larger amount onto CF4 plasma-treated BC revealed by both proteins adsorption and ESCA analyses.
For long term cell cultivation time (24 and 48 hr), both L929 and CHO cells revealed elongated shape (over than 3 times of the initial cell length) and higher cell density on BC-CF4 comparing with on the pristine BC, O2 and N2 modified BCs. On the other hand, by cultivating human embryonic skin fibroblast cells on the BC membranes, the improvement of biocompatibility was shown on all the plasma treated surfaces compared to the pristine surface.
This study proposed to apply kinetic parameter to evaluate the initial cell adhesion behavior by pseudo first order Lagergren model. For both L929 and CHO cells, the cell density increased significantly on CF4 plasma treated BC than that on the pristine BC and on other plasmas treated BCs under the cell culture condition with serum. The increment of the adhered cell number can be quantified by the kinetic parameter which increased 2-3 folds for both cell types.
The second goal of this thesis, the incorporation of antifouling property onto BC membranes was facilitated by two methods to graft PEG: (i) plasma activation of PEG to graft on BC (PEG-g-BC), and (ii) chemically grafting PEG onto BC by using IPDI (mPEG-BC). The surface characterization by using SEM and FTIR indicated that the PEG was successfully incorporated onto BC for both PEG-g-BC and mPEG-BC and showed the decreasing of both protein and L-929 cell adhesion. Moreover, mPEG-BC showed particular anti-fouling effect compared to the PEG-g-BC by examining the cell density which was probably due to the brush conformation of PEG-g-BC.
Bacterial cellulose, a random assembled, ribbon-shaped, and nanosized fibrils is produced extracellularly by Gram negative strains of Acetobacter Xylinum. Due to its superior mechanical property and 3-d microstructure which mimics the conformation of extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose becomes one of the potential biomaterials for designing the scaffold in tissue engineering. However, beside the morphological motifs, more surface-tailoring factors such as the surface properties of materials are also essential in tissue engineering approaches.
In this study, two surface modifications were performed to achieve the goals on (i) promoting the biocompatibility of BC membranes, and (ii) the creation of anti-fouling BC membranes.
In terms of promoting the biocompatibility of BC membranes, surface modifications of bacterial cellulose were performed by plasma treatment carried out by using oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) and tetrafluorocarbon (CF4) plasmas in order to discover the optimized cell-surface interactions. The pristine and plasma-treated surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). By using oxygen and nitrogen plasmas, the wettability of bacterial cellulose increased while the tetrafluorocarbon plasma decreased the wettability of materials. By using ESCA, the presence of oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine was detected on the O2, N2 and CF4 plasma-treated bacterial cellulose and further deconvolution of C1s peak helped to discover the specific functional groups such as O-C-O and C=O, CO-NH2 and Cx-Fx bindings, incorporated by using O2, N2 and CF4 plasmas, respectively.
The biocompatibility of plasma treated BCs was evaluated by directly cultivating different kinds of cells, L-929 mouse fibroblast, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic skin fibroblast, under the condition with or without serum in cell culture medium.
Under serum containing medium, for 6h of cell incubation time, cell attachment on the BC-CF4 was about 40-50% higher than that on BC, BC-O2 and BC-N2 and nearly identical to that on TCPS. The cells show lower density on all samples under the serum free cell culture condition. The effect of serum was explained by the proteins, originated from cell culture media, which adsorbed in larger amount onto CF4 plasma-treated BC revealed by both proteins adsorption and ESCA analyses.
For long term cell cultivation time (24 and 48 hr), both L929 and CHO cells revealed elongated shape (over than 3 times of the initial cell length) and higher cell density on BC-CF4 comparing with on the pristine BC, O2 and N2 modified BCs. On the other hand, by cultivating human embryonic skin fibroblast cells on the BC membranes, the improvement of biocompatibility was shown on all the plasma treated surfaces compared to the pristine surface.
This study proposed to apply kinetic parameter to evaluate the initial cell adhesion behavior by pseudo first order Lagergren model. For both L929 and CHO cells, the cell density increased significantly on CF4 plasma treated BC than that on the pristine BC and on other plasmas treated BCs under the cell culture condition with serum. The increment of the adhered cell number can be quantified by the kinetic parameter which increased 2-3 folds for both cell types.
The second goal of this thesis, the incorporation of antifouling property onto BC membranes was facilitated by two methods to graft PEG: (i) plasma activation of PEG to graft on BC (PEG-g-BC), and (ii) chemically grafting PEG onto BC by using IPDI (mPEG-BC). The surface characterization by using SEM and FTIR indicated that the PEG was successfully incorporated onto BC for both PEG-g-BC and mPEG-BC and showed the decreasing of both protein and L-929 cell adhesion. Moreover, mPEG-BC showed particular anti-fouling effect compared to the PEG-g-BC by examining the cell density which was probably due to the brush conformation of PEG-g-BC.
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement v
Abreviations vi
Contents vii
List of figures xi
List of tables xvii
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. The improvement of biocompatibility on bacterial cellulose membrane 1
1.2. The creation of antifouling bacterial cellulose membranes 3
Chapter 2. Literature review
2.1. Bacterial cellulose 5
2.2. Surface modification of bacterial cellulose 9
2.3. Plasma treatment 10
2.4. Plasma treatment for biomedical research 12
2.5. Cell adhesion 14
2.6. Protein adsorption-mediated cell-surface interaction 16
2.7. Foreign body reaction 18
2.8. Antifouling Properties 19
2.8.1. Polyethylene oxide / glycol (PEO/PEG) 20
Chapter 3. Experimental
3.1. Experimental chart 22
3.2. Source of BC 23
3.3. Chemicals 23
3.3.1. Cell culture 23
3.3.2. MTT assay 24
3.3.3. LDH assay 24
3.3.4. Protein adsorption 25
3.3.5. PEG derivatization 25
3.4. Equipment and instruments 26
3.5 Experimental Procedure 27
3.5.1. Preparation of cell culture medium 27
3.5.2. Preparation of MTT solution 27
3.5.3. Plasma treatment on bacterial cellulose 27
3.5.4. Cell culture 29
3.5.5. Cell morphology (SEM) 30
3.5.6. Cell proliferation (MTT assay) 31
3.5.7. Protein adsorption (fluorescence microscope) 31
3.5.8. Protein adsorption (BSA, lyzozyme and FBS) using Bradford method 32
3.5.9. mPEG -IPDI derivatization 32
3.5.10. mPEG-IPDI grafted on BC 33
3.5.11. Plasma grafting polyethylene glycol 34
3.6. Characterization 34
3.6.1. Water contact angle 34
3.6.2. Fourrier Transform Infrared- Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) 35
3.6.3. Atomic Force Microscope Measurement (AFM) 35
3.6.4. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) 35
3.6.5. Electokinetic Analyzer 35
3.6.6. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) 36
3.6.7. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 36
3.6.8. Gel Permeation Chromatograph (GPC) 37
3.6.9. H-NMR 37
3.7. Statistical analysis 37
Chapter 4. Results and discussion
4-1. Characterization of bacterial cellulose 38
4-1-1. Appearance of BC membrane 38
4-1-2. TGA analyses of bulk BC membrane 39
4-1-3. Crystalinity of BC 39
4-2. Surface characterization on BC 40
4-2-1. Wettability (WCA) 40
4-2-2. Surface morphology (AFM) 46
4-2-3. Surface chemistry (ESCA) 49
4-2-4. Surface functionality (ATR-FTIR) 52
4-2-5. Surface charge (electro kinetic potential) 53
4-3 Cell behaviors 54

4-3-1. L929 fibroblasts: initial cell adhesion 54
4-3-2. L929 fibroblasts: proliferation 62
4-3-3 Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO): initial adhesion 66
4-3-4. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO): proliferation 68
4-3-5 Human fibroblast-cell proliferation 73
4-4. Protein adsorption 76
4-5. Protein adsorption and cell adhesion 84
4-6 Antifouling bacterial cellulose 88
4-6-1. Plasma grafting polyethylene glycol 88
4-6-1-1. SEM observation 88
4-6-1-2. FTIR 90
4-6-1-3. Protein adsorption 91
4-6-1-4. Cell behaviors on PEG-g-BC 92
4-6-2. Chemical coupling of polyethyelene glycol to BC via OH-linkage 95
4-6-2-1. FTIR 97
4-6-2-2. 1H-NMR 98
4-6-2-3. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) 99
4-6-2-4. Atomic force microscope (AFM) 99
4-6-2-5. XRD pattern 100
4-6-2-6. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) 102
4-6-2-7. Protein adsorption 103

4-6-2-8. Cell behaviors on mPEG-BC 104

Chapter 5. Conclusion 107
References 109
Authorization 120
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