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研究生:廖英翔
研究生(外文):Ying-Hsiang Liao
論文名稱:0.18μmCMOS製程之低電壓壓控震盪器之研製
論文名稱(外文):Design of Low Voltage Voltage-Controlled Oscillators in CMOS 0.18 μm Process
指導教授:莊敏宏張勝良
指導教授(外文):Miin-Horng JuangSheng-Lyang Jang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:低功耗壓控振盪器哈特萊壓控振盪器阿姆斯壯壓控振盪器
外文關鍵詞:VCOLow PowerHartley VCOArmstrong VCO
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在無線通訊系統中,頻率合成器是用來做訊號頻率的升降之用。其中,壓控振盪器與除頻器更是頻率合成器電路裡的核心電路之ㄧ。對壓控振盪器而言,必須提供低相位雜訊的輸出,以避免相鄰雜訊訊號經由混波轉換產生干擾。而壓控振盪器的輸出會經由除頻器降頻至與參考訊號相同的等級,與相位頻率偵測器做比較以校正壓控振盪器的輸出,故除頻器需要有高頻操作的能力。由於應用於無線通訊系統中,壓控振盪器與除頻器都必須要有低功耗的特性。
本論文提出了共兩個壓控振盪器與一個除頻器電路。其一壓控振盪器是使用自我鎖定阿姆斯壯架構的振盪器。其二使用一n-型哈特來架構的壓控振盪器。以上電路使用台積電0.18微米CMOS製程來完成。
首先,我們提出一個利用兩個單端阿姆斯壯震盪器,加上自我鎖定的特性來降低電路的相位雜訊。當控制電壓由0到2 V變化時,壓控振盪器的頻帶可由6.42 GHz調到7.58 GHz,而在頻帶輸出頻率7.45 GHz,所量測到的相位雜訊在1 MHz位移時為-110.9 dBc/Hz。
其次,我們呈現一個使用n-型哈特來架構的震盪器,電壓從0V-0.8V為高頻帶,頻率可調範圍由6.36GHz至7.09GHz。由0.9V-2.0V時,低頻帶可調範圍由2.12GHz至2.32GHz。而在高頻帶與低頻帶在1 MHz位移所量測到的相位雜訊分別為-116.74 dBc/Hz與-124.71 dBc/Hz。
In wireless communication system, frequency synthesizers are used to implement the frequency up/down converting of signal. In a frequency synthesizer, voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and frequency divider are the key blocks. For VCOs, low phase-noise output is required to avoid corrupting the mixer-converted signal by close interfering tones. The frequency of output signal of VCO is divided down to the level of reference signal, and is compared with reference signal by a phase frequency detector (PFD) to adjust the output of VCO. Therefore the dividers must have the ability of high frequency operation. Because of wireless application, both of them should operate at low power consumption.
This thesis proposes two VCOs. The first VCO is a self-injection-locked Armstrong oscillator. The second is a Hartley type dual resonance oscillator. The above circuits are fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process.
Firstly, we propose an Armstrong voltage controlled oscillator using self-injection-locked technique. The oscillating frequency of the VCO can be tuned from 6.42 GHz to 7.58 GHz while the tuning voltage varies from 0 V to 2 V. The phase noise of the oscillation frequency at 7.45 GHz is -110.9 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset.
Secondly, we present an n-type Hartley oscillator with dual resonance. The high band tuning voltage varies from 0V to 0.8V, the oscillation frequency tuning range can be tuned from 6.36GHz to 7.09GHz; the low band tuning voltage is from 0.9V to 1.8V, and the tuning frequency ranges from 2.12GHz to 2.32GHz. The high band and low band each has a phase noise respectively of -116.74 dBc/Hz and -124.71 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset.
中文摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 V
Contents VI
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables XII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 MOTIVATION 1
1.2 THESIS ORGANIZATION 4
CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEWS OF OSCILLATORS AND INJECTION LOCKED PHENOMENON 6
2.1 INTRODUCTION 6
2.2 BASIC THEORY OF OSCILLATORS 8
2.2.1 ONE-PORT (NEGATIVE RESISTANCE) VIEW 9
2.2.2 TWO-PORT (FEEDBACK) VIEW 12
2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF OSCILLATORS 15
2.3.1 RESONATORLESS OSCILLATORS 15
I. RING OSCILLATOR 15
II. RELAXATION OSCILLATOR 17
2.3.2 LC-TANK OSCILLATORS 18
I. COLPITTS AND HARTLEY OSCILLATORS 18
II. NEGATIVE-GM OSCILLATORS 19
2.4 PARALLEL RLC TANK 20
2.4.1 RESISTORS 22
2.4.2 INDUCTOR AND TRANSFORMER 23
I. INDUCTOR 23
II. TRANSFORMER 32
2.4.3 CAPACITORS AND VARACTORS 42
I. CAPACITORS 42
II. MOSFET VARACTORS 44
2.5 DESIGN CONCEPTS OF VCOS 49
2.5.1 VCO CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS 50
2.5.2 PHASE NOISE IN OSCILLATORS 52
2.5.3 QUALITY FACTOR 60
2.5.4 Pulling in Oscillators 63
2.5.5 QUADRATURE VCO DESIGN 65
2.6 INJECTION LOCKED PHENOMENON 71
2.6.1 PRINCIPLE OF INJECTION LOCKING 72
2.6.2 OPERATION RANGE 74
CHAPTER 3 Low Power Self-Injection-Locked CMOS Armstrong Voltage-Controlled Oscillator 77
3.1 INTRODUCTION 77
3.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN 79
3.3 MEASUREMENT RESULTS 82
3.4 SUMMARY 86
CHAPTER 4 Low-Voltage Hartley CMOS Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with Dual-Resonance LC Tank 87
4.1 INTRODUCTION 87
4.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN 89
4.3 MEASUREMENT RESULTS 92
4.4 SUMMARY 97
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 98
REFERENCES 100
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