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研究生:謝明宜
研究生(外文):Ming-yi Hsieh
論文名稱:從故事教學看英語習得:學校教材與故事書之語料分析與比較
論文名稱(外文):English Acquisition through Storytelling: A Corpus-based Analysis of and Comparison between Materials and Authentic Storybooks
指導教授:李思穎李思穎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sy-ying Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:故事書教科書字彙文法結構文化
外文關鍵詞:storybookstextbooksvocabularystructuretarget culturesource culture
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此研究採用語料庫為基礎,分析比較小學階段學校教科書與65本故事書之語言輸入。65本故事書為Wang & Lee (2007)研究之選書,該研究為一為期四年之觀察研究,探討故事書朗讀對十位台灣小學生英語習得之影響。本研究試圖藉由語料庫之分析進一步比較台北地區學校教科書與65本故事書所能提供之語言輸入以及故事書對於以英語為外語學習者之潛在優勢。
兩種語言教材分析皆分為三類:字彙、句型、及文化知識。字彙分析分為總字彙量、字彙詞族、詞類、故事主題相關字詞彙量、以及故事中重複字之出現量五項分析。句型部份,依據台北市政府教育局所訂立的九年一貫課程綱要句型參考表,分析兩種語言材料中之句法是否提供較佳的語言學習內容。最後,兩種教材中的文化知識皆以質化分析呈現其比較與討論結果,分析結果盼能指出兩種教材之中何種教材涵蓋較豐富並多元的學習內容。
結論指出,65本故事書在字彙、句型與文化知識上皆提供了比公立學校所使用的教科書較為豐富的語言內容。此研究結果對於Wang & Lee (2007)的研究增加了實證證據,證明故事朗讀在以英文為外語學習之(EFL)學生的語言習得上提供了正面的影響。而就實際應用層面而言,此研究結果呼籲有關當局需刻不容緩地將此自然及真實之語言教材融入正式的語言課程中。
The present study applied the corpus-based approach to analyze and compare the language input in the elementary school textbooks and sixty-five storybooks used in Wang and Lee (2007), a four year longitudinal exploratory-observational study practicing storytelling with 10 pupils in Taiwan. This study was an attempt to investigate the potential advantages of using picture books to help young children’s English acquisition by examining the corpora in the 65 storybooks and three representative textbook series used in Taipei area.
A series of analyses were conducted on three main categories with both types of material: vocabulary, sentence patterns and cultural knowledge. Five measures used for the vocabulary analyses and comparisons were: (a) total number of word tokens, (b) total number of headwords, (c) parts of speech, (d) theme related word usage, and (e) frequency of word recurrence in the stories. The analyses of sentence patterns compared the sentence structures contained in both types of material based on the sentence patterns regulated by the Taipei Department of Education (DOE, 2006, 2007) so as to determine which type provides better source for syntactic learning. Finally, the cultural knowledge in the texts was compared and discussed qualitatively to examine the quality of cultural information provided in the materials and to determine which type of material better serves the due purpose outlined by our foreign language policy (MOE, 2003).
The results indicated that the language input obtained from the 65 picture storybooks was far richer than that provided in any textbook series used in public schools in terms of vocabulary, structure, and cultural knowledge. These results added empirical evidence to Wang & Lee (2007), verifying the power of reading storybooks aloud on EFL acquisition in the aspects of vocabulary, structure, and the knowledge on culture. In the practical sense, the findings of this corpus-based research urge the pressing need to include picture storybooks, the type of material with more natural, compelling, and authentic input, into the current curriculum.
Table of Contents
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………… i
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………… iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………… v
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………... viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION……………………………………….. 1
1.1 The Structure of the Thesis…………………………………………….... 7
1.2 The Significance of the Study………………………………………….... 8
1.3 The Limitation of the Study……………………………………………... 8
1.4 Definitions of Terms Referred to………………………………………… 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………….. 10
2.1 Current Situation: The Policies of Elementary School English Course and the Use of Textbooks……………………………………………….. 10
2.2 Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………. 13
2.2.1 Comprehension Hypothesis……………………………………... 13
2.2.2 The Pleasure Hypothesis………………………………………… 14
2.2.3 The Reading Hypothesis………………………………………… 15
2.3 Phonics Teaching and Reading Development…………………………... 16
2.4 Storytelling: A Blooming Trend in Teaching and Learning……………… 19
2.5 Reading Alound and sustained Silent Reading: The Natural Partners….. 21
2.6 Narrow Reading………………………………………………………… 26
2.7 Culture Embedded in Teaching Materials………………………………. 27
2.8 Corpus and English Acquisition……………………………………….... 29
2.9 Research Questions……………………………………………………... 31
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………………… 33
3.1 Materials………………………………………………………………..... 33
3.1.1 Storybooks………………………………………………………... 33
3.1.2 Textbooks………………………………………………………..... 34
3.2 Three Main Categories of Analyses and Comparisons………………….. 35
3.2.1 Vocabulary………………………………………………………... 37
3.2.1.1 Identifications of Words to be Analyzed………………….. 38
3.2.1.2 Rationale of the Three Aspects of Analyses and Comparisons…………………………………………….
39
3.2.1.3 Data Analysis…………………………………………….. 41
3.2.1.4 Software………………………………………………….. 42
3.2.2 Sentence Patterns………………………………………………... 43
3.2.2.1 Identifications of the Analysis of Sentence Patterns……... 44
3.2.3 Culture and Customs…………………………………………….. 44
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………………... 47
4.1 Results of Vocabulary…………………………………………………... 47
4.1.1 Total Number of Word Tokens, Headwords, and Word Families in Each Type of Texts……………………………………………… 47
4.1.2 Parts of Speech: Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives…………………. 49
4.1.3 Theme-Related Words…………………………………………… 50
4.1.4 Word Frequency in Storybooks and Textbooks…………………. 51
4.1.5 The GSL Wordlist……………………………………………….. 53
4.1.6 The Academic Wordlist………………………………………….. 54
4.2 Results of Sentence Patterns……………………………………………. 56
4.2.1 Simple Declarative Sentences…………………………………… 58
4.2.2 Interrogatives……………………………………………………. 60
4.2.3 Wh-questions…………………………………………………….. 62
4.2.4 Imperatives………………………………………………………. 66
4.2.5 Exclamations…………………………………………………….. 66
4.2.6 Introductory Sentences………………………………………….. 69
4.2.7 Passive Voice Sentences………………………………………… 72
4.2.8 Story Genres…………………………………………………….. 72
4.3 Culture: Holidays, Festivals, and Customs……………………………... 77
4.3.1 Content on the Target Culture…………………………………… 80
4.3.2 Content on the Source Culture…………………………………... 89
4.3.3 Others: Sample Content on Birthday Celebration in Both Types of Material…………………………………………………………. 93
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION…………………………………………….. 100
5.1 Summaries of the Research Findings…………………………………… 100
5.2 Responses to the Research Questions………………………………....... 102
5.3 Conclusion……………………………………………………………… 104
5.4 Implications……………………………………………………………… 106
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………. 107
APPENDIX Storybooks Selected for Corpus Analysis………………… 116
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