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研究生:王曉萱
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Hsuan Wang
論文名稱:恆春半島兩種陸蟹降海繁殖過程水分喪失研究
論文名稱(外文):Water loss during larval release migration of ovigerous crabs, Gecarcoidea lalandii and Metasesarma aubryi (Brachyura) in Henchun Peninsula, Taiwan
指導教授:劉烘昌劉烘昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-Chang Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:生態學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:紫地蟹奧氏後相手蟹釋幼遷徙體液滲透壓水分蒸散喪失
外文關鍵詞:Gecarcoidea lalandiievaporative water lossMetasesarma aubryihaemolymph osmolaritylarval release migration
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抱卵陸蟹行降海釋放幼蟲為其生活史中的重要大事,但會讓陸蟹暴露在惡劣的氣候條件下並容易受到天敵的攻擊。本研究以恆春半島的紫地蟹(Gecarcoidea lalandii)與奧氏後相手蟹(Metasesarma aubryi)兩種陸蟹的抱卵雌蟹的體液滲透壓變化探討其降海繁殖過程的水分蒸散喪失。研究結果顯示香蕉灣樣區的紫地蟹抱卵雌蟹釋幼前的體液滲透壓值為886 ± 10.4 mOsm kg-1(n = 64),與在實驗室內自由進出淡水兩天後的已釋幼雌蟹體液滲透壓值 772 ± 7.4 mOsm kg-1(n = 18)相比,二者有顯著差異。而同一樣區的奧氏後相手蟹抱卵雌蟹釋幼前的體液滲透壓值為 737 ± 9.9 mOsm kg-1(n = 71),港口溪樣區的奧氏後相手蟹抱卵雌蟹釋幼前的體液滲透壓值為783 ± 21.6 mOsm kg-1(n = 15),皆顯著高於實驗室內自由進出淡水兩天後的奧氏後相手蟹體液滲透壓值655 ± 6.5 mOsm kg-1(n = 23)。紫地蟹與奧氏後相手蟹的釋幼前抱卵雌蟹都呈現出體型愈小,體液滲透壓值愈高之趨勢,然而體型大小與體液滲透壓的相關性卻很低。兩種陸蟹釋幼前的體液滲透壓與釋幼期間的氣溫、相對濕度與風速等環境因子之間的相關性低。在脫水實驗中,同種內體型小者較體型大者失水率高,而不同種間體型較小的奧氏後相手蟹較體型較大的紫地蟹失水率高。透過滲透壓研究與脫水實驗顯示兩種陸蟹在香蕉灣樣區的降海釋幼族群並未遭遇劇烈的水分喪失,與野外觀察結果相符。
Larval release migration is an important event in the life history of land crabs. During the migration, ovigerous females are apt to expose themselves to extreme environments and the risk of predation. The aim of this study is to investigate the evaporative water loss through the changes of haemolymph osmolarity during larval release migration of two ovigerous crabs, Gecarcoidea lalandii and Metasesarma aubryi, in Hengchun Peninsula, Taiwan. The results showed that in G. lalandii at Hsiangchiaowan, the haemolymph osmolarity of ovigerous females (886 ± 10.4 mOsm kg-1, n = 64) and spawned females provided with fresh water for two days in laboratory (772 ± 7.4 mOsm kg-1, n = 18) were significantly different. As for M. aubryi, the haemolymph osmolarities of ovigerous females both at Hsiangchiaowan (737 ± 9.9 mOsm kg-1, n = 71) and seashore near Gangkou River (783 ± 21.6 mOsm kg-1, n = 15) were significantly higher than spawned females provided with fresh water for two days in laboratory (655 ± 6.5 mOsm kg-1, n = 23). Both in G. lalandii and M. aubryi, the smaller ovigerous females had higher haemolymph osmolarities than the larger ones. However, body sizes showed low statistical correlation with haemolymph osmolarities. Environmental factors such as ambient temperature, relative humidity and air flow velocity during larval release period had little influence on haemolymph osmolarity of ovigerous females. When dehydrated, the smaller crabs lost more water than the larger conspecifics; the smaller M. aubryi suffered from more water loss than the larger G. lalandii. The data of measurements and desiccation experiments in laboratory indicated that the ovigerous females both species at Hsiangchiaowan may not experience severe water loss during larval release migration, which coincided with the field observation.
謝誌 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
壹、前言 1
1.1 短尾類概說 1
1.2 蟹類的陸生適應 1
1.3 陸蟹的水分平衡 3
1.4 滲透壓調節作用 5
1.5 蒸散作用的水分喪失 6
1.6 陸蟹的繁殖 7
1.7 實驗動物的選擇 9
1.8 實驗目的及假說 10
貳、材料與方法 11
2.1 樣區概述 11
2.2 實驗設計及步驟 11
2.2.1 野外採集 11
2.2.2 脫水實驗 12
2.2.3 資料分析 13
參、結果 14
3.1 體液滲透壓 14
3.1.1 體型大小與體液滲透壓之間的關係 15
3.1.2 遷移及釋幼對紫地蟹體液滲透壓的影響 15
3.1.3 遷移、釋幼及地點對奧氏後相手蟹體液滲透壓的影響 16
3.1.3.1 香蕉灣的個體 17
3.1.3.2 港口溪的個體 18
3.1.3.3 地點差異的影響 18
3.1.4 環境因子 19
3.2 脫水實驗 20
3.2.1 體重下降 20
3.2.2 脫水實驗期間體液滲透壓的變化 21
3.2.3 釋幼遷徙期間水分喪失的推估 22
肆、討論 23
4.1 野外個體 23
4.1.1 釋幼前抱卵雌蟹在遷徙期間的水分喪失 23
4.1.2 觸碰海水對於體液滲透壓的影響 26
4.1.3 溫度、濕度與風速等環境因子的影響 26
4.2 脫水實驗 27
4.2.1 失水率 27
4.2.2 體液滲透壓的變化 28
4.2.3 以行為判定個體脫水情形 29
4.2.4 結論 30
伍、引用文獻 31
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