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研究生:吳承勳
研究生(外文):Cheng-Shiun Wu
論文名稱:從台灣電子佈告欄中看「語碼轉換」現象
論文名稱(外文):Transference on a BBS website in Taiwan
指導教授:黃麗蓉黃麗蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-jung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010/08/
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:電腦中介傳播語言接觸語碼移轉語碼移轉過程電子佈告欄系統
外文關鍵詞:language contacttransferComputer-mediated Communication (CMC)transferenceBulletin Board System (BBS)
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中文摘要
由於科技的進步,電腦中介傳播(Computer-mediated Communication, CMC)逐漸成為廿一世紀最重要的溝通媒介。因此,也吸引了許多學者對此領域的注意。尤其是當語言相互接觸後,透過CMC做為媒介的語言使用現象更獲得許多語言學者的注意。而語碼轉換(Code switching)一直以來都是研究語言接觸(language contact)現象時的重要課題之一。而語碼轉換經常被用來說明當在一個單一語境中兩種語言或其變體相互交換的現象。為了要連結這兩個的研究領域(CMC及語言接觸),本研究藉由收集於CMC環境下的語料庫,即收集台灣電子佈告欄系統(Bulletin Board System, BBS)上之文章及回應,再以Clyne (2003)提出的概念語碼移轉過程(transference)去發掘在CMC環境之下,語言接觸時,語言特徵是如何受其BBS成員所使用。
根據Clyne (2003),語碼移轉(transfer)是語碼移轉過程(transference)後的產物,可以由語言的使用者從其他語言中以語言形式、語言特徵、或語言結構來展現。因此,語碼移轉過程可以看成是一個過程。語碼移轉則為其產物。基於本概念,語碼移轉過程可以區分為不同的語言層次,例如詞彙上,構詞上,句法上,語意上及其他等等層次。
根據語碼移轉過程的概念與分類,本研究探究在CMC使用環境下,語言特徵在語碼移轉過程中的角色。由BBS收集的語料庫中,分別涵蓋了六種常在BBS上討論的主題,十種因書寫系統所產生的語碼移轉形式,以及三種因使用語言不同所產生的語碼移轉形式。此研究中收集的2834個使用詞數 (tokens)分別來自6個討論主題,包含了性愛、好笑經驗、女性愛美、閒聊、棒球,及魔獸世界(World of Warcraft,WOW)等。
研究結果發現在台灣的BBS使用環境下有六種主要的層次在語碼移轉過程上。這些層次與討論的主題,書寫的方式的形式都相互關連著。同時研究也發現,BBS使用者透過書寫系統的不同而產生出許多表達上的創意。
Abstract
Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) has become one of the most important mediums of communication in the 21st century and consequently it has drawn much attention from researchers in many fields. Specifically, language use in CMC has interested many linguists, especially those studying language contact phenomena. Code switching is one of the most researched topics in the field of language contact. It is a linguistic term used to describe the alternate use of two or more languages or varieties of a language in a single discourse. To link these two research areas (CMC and language contact) together, the aim of this study is to analyze a corpus of collected postings from one of the most commonly used CMC mediums – a Bulletin Board System (BBS) website – in Taiwan based on Clyne''s (2003) notion of transference in order to find out which aspects of languages are affected when languages are in contact. A transfer is “an instance of transference, where the form, feature or construction has been taken over by the speaker from another language, whatever the motives or explanation for this” (Clyne 2003:76). Transference is the process and a transfer the product. Base on this notion, transference can be classified into several linguistic levels such as lexical, morphological, syntactic, semantic, lexicosyntactic and so on.
Base on the notion of transference and its classification, this study explores the linguistic distribution of transferences in BBS environment. The corpus identifies six major topics, ten representation patterns from three writing systems, three transfer patterns, and six linguistic levels from the BBS conversation. In this study, 2,834 tokens of transferences are found from the six topics identified in the corpus, including sex, silly experience, beauty, gossiping, baseball, and World of Warcraft (WOW), a kind of online games.
The results show there are six transference levels employed in Taiwan BBS conversation. These transference levels interact with the six discussed topics, the ten representation patterns from the three writing systems, and the three transfer patterns. The study also discusses how BBS users employ different writing systems to represent different languages creatively.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENGLISH ABSTRACT………………………………….……….………... i
CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………….……….…...…… iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………………………………….……….……… iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………….……….………. v
LIST OF TABLES………………………………….……….………..…… vii
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………….……….……….…… viii
LISTS OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………………… ix
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION
1.1. Language Use in Taiwan …………………………………………….… 1
1.2. Phenomena in language contact and bilingualism……..………………… 3
1.3. Computer-Mediated Communication in Taiwan ……...………………… 3
1.4. Purpose………………………………….………………….…….…… 5
1.5. Research Questions……………………………………………..……… 6
1.6. Thesis Structure………………………………………………………... 6
CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Language contact phenomena……...…………………………………… 7
2.1.1. Definition of Terminology ………………………….……………. 8
2.1.2. Borrowing…………………………………………….…………. 8
2.1.3. Code-switching (CS) ………………………………………...….. 9
2.1.4. Code-Mixing (CM) ..………………………….………………… 9
2.1.4.1. CS vs. borrowing ..………………………………………… 11
2.1.4.2. CS vs. CM ..……….……………………………………… 11
2.1.5. Transference …..……………………….……………………..… 12
2.2. Previous studies on CS………………………….……….…..………… 14
2.2.1. Approaches on CS studies………………………..……………… 14
2.2.1.1. Socio-pragmatic approach…………………..….…….…… 14
2.2.1.2. Structural approach ………………………..….………….. 16
2.2.2. Previous research on CS in Taiwan ..………………………….…. 18
2.3. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) ……….……………..…… 20
2.3.1. Definition for CMC…………………..……………………….… 20
2.3.2. Studies on CMC in Taiwan…………..………………………….. 21

CHAPTER THREE:METHODOLOGY
3.1. Frameworks…………………………..……………….…..………….. 24
3.2. Overview of Methodology…………..……………….……….……….. 25
3.2.1. Data Collection……………..…………….…………………….. 27
3.2.2. Data Classification………..………………….……………….… 29
3.2.3. Data Analysis…………………..……….…………………….… 30
CHAPTER FOUR:FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
4.1. Transference and topic in BBS ..……………..……...……….………… 31
4.2. Writing systems in BBS …..………………………..………..………… 38
4.2.1. Standard Written Chinese (SWC) ..…………………………....… 45
4.2.1.1. Taiwanese represented by SWC ..………………………….. 45
4.2.1.2. English represented by SWC …..…………………….….… 47
4.2.3. English alphabets …..………………………………………….… 48
4.2.4. Zhuyin system…………………………….…..……………….… 49
4.3. Transfers …………..……..………………………….……….…….… 53
4.3.1. Transference Levels …………………………………...………… 53
4.3.2. Six transference levels …..……………………….……………… 54
4.3.3. Transfer patterns and transference levels in six topics……………… 68
4.3.3.1. Sex ……..……………….…….……………………….… 68
4.3.3.2. Gossiping ..…………………………….……………….… 69
4.3.3.3. Silly experience ..………………………...……….…….… 70
4.3.3.4. Beauty………..…………………….……….……………. 71
4.3.3.5. Baseball ……..……………….………………..……….… 72
4.3.3.6. WOW ..…………………….………………………….…. 73
4.4. Summary of findings and research questions………………………….… 74
4.4.1. Summary of findings………………..………………..……….… 74
4.4.2. Answers for research questions………..…………….…………… 76
CHAPTER FIVE:CONCLUSION
5.1. Summary of the research findings …………………....……………..…… 78
5.2. Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study ...….………………….… 80
5.3. Significance of this study ……………………………………………………… 81
REFERENCES ..…………………………….……………………………. 82

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables Page
Table 1.1 ITU prevalence rate on computer and net use in 2005……………..… 4
Table 3.1 Ten patterns of transferences represented by three writing systems…… 29
Table 4.1 Transfers in six topics………………………..…………………….. 31
Table 4.2 tokens shown by writing systems…………………………………… 39
Table 4.3 types of token in six topics………………………….……………… 42
Table 4.4 Numbers of tokens of transfers at six levels……………………….… 62
Table 4.5 Numbers of tokens between languages at six transfer levels…………. 64
Table 4.6 Transference levels at the six topics…………………………….…… 66
Table 4.7 Transfer patterns and transference levels in the topic of sex………….. 68
Table 4.8 Transfer patterns and transference levels in the topic of gossiping…… 69
Table 4.9 Transfer patterns and transference levels in the topic of silly experience ……………………………………………………………………… 70
Table 4.10 Transfer patterns and transference levels in the topic of beauty……… 71
Table 4.11 Transfer patterns and transference levels in the topic of baseball……. 72
Table 4.12 Transfer patterns and transference levels in the topic of WOW……… 73

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures Page
Figure 3.1 the flow chart for overview of methodology……………………….. 26
Figure 3.2 Age statistics on PTT BBS………………………………………… 27
Figure 3.3 Boards from discussion sections on PTT BBS……………………… 28
Figure 3.4 The hottest topics on Instant Hot Boards…………………………… 28
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Website reference:
Monthly Bulletin of Interior Statistics (2009): http://www.moi.gov.tw/stat/english/monthly.asp
E-Taiwan program (2007): http://www.etaiwan.nat.gov.tw/content/application/etaiwan/generala/guest-cnt-browse.php?cnt_id=1170
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