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研究生:吳慧敏
研究生(外文):Hui-min Wu
論文名稱:髒話使用之性別與年齡差異
論文名稱(外文):Swear Word Usage: A Study of Gender and Age Differences
指導教授:賴春燕賴春燕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-yen Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:文化禁忌污辱字詞咒罵髒話
外文關鍵詞:swear wordscursingoffensive languagecultural prohibition
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髒話在日常生活常被使用,但是語言學研究卻對研究髒話興趣缺缺,即使在西方語言學研究,髒話研究也仍不受重視。有鑑於髒話是如此常見的語言應用,研究髒話使用的相關研究更顯其必要性。本論文研究中文以及台語髒話使用的年齡與性別差異,進而了解從髒話本身所反映的文化禁忌。
本論文以錄音方式收集語料並使用改編自髒話研究專家Timothy Jay的調查表分類語料,而語料又根據語意的不同歸到不同的分類:猥褻、污辱、詛咒、粗話、禁忌以及排泄物相關字詞。本研究共有154人參與,包含101名男性以及53名女性。
研究結果顯示,男性與女性偏向使用不同類別之髒話來咒罵—男性較常用猥褻字句而女性較常用侮辱字眼。不同年齡層使用不同類別的髒話—孩童偏向使用污辱以及排泄物相關字詞;青少年也使用排泄物相關字詞,但他們也開始使用猥褻字詞;年輕成人並無偏向任何特定類別,但他們咒罵的比例以及次數最多;中年人以及老年人都偏向使用大量的猥褻字詞。髒話之種類與使用亦反映出性、死亡以及不符社會規範之行為在中華文化皆被視為禁忌。
Swear words are commonly used in daily life, but it has earned little attention in the linguistic field. Few works on swearing have been done in the west, and investigation conducted in the eastern culture is still lacking. In the present study, Mandarin Chinese and Taiwanese dirty words were investigated in relation to different gender and age ranges. There were 154 participants involved in this study, and they were divided into five age groups—2-11, 12-18, 18-30, 30-50, and more than 50 years old.
This study adapted Jay’s field card method (1992) during data collection. The field card (see Appendix) helped to record the speakers and listeners’ gender, age, utterances, and the functions of using dirty words. A total set of 520 dirty words were recorded, and there were 51 different dirty words found in the data. These 51 swear words were assigned to 6 categories, namely, obscenity, insults, cursing, vulgarity, taboo, and scatology.
Based on the data, it was found that males and females tend to curse with swear words belonging to different categories. For males, they tend to use more obscenity in public than females, while females tend to use more insults when they swear. Also, males use more dirty words which are considered more offensive. As for the role of age, swearing was found occur in all age groups and people in different age groups display different characteristics. Children tend to use more insults and scatology when they swear. As for teenagers, the dirty words they use are more adult-like. The young adults’ group was found to have the highest frequencies of using dirty words. In the middle-aged and old-aged groups, more obscenity and cursing are used when they swear, and the frequencies of using dirty words and offensiveness are dramatically different.
On the other hand, the data also showed that the main purpose of swearing is to abuse others. The result of the data also reflected that things, such as sex and death, and behaviors that go against social norms, are considered taboo in Chinese culture.
Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………………………iv
English Abstract……………………………………………………………………….v
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………..vii
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………...viii

Chapter One: Introduction…………………………………………………………..1
1.1 What is Swearing?............................................................................................... 2
1.2 Swearing and Cultural Prohibitions in Different Languages …………………...3
1.3 Swearing and Age ……………………………………………………………….6
1.4 Linguistic Studies of Swear Words ……………………………………………..6
1.5 Outline of the Chapters …………………………………………………………7

Chapter Two: Literature Review……………………………………………………8
2.1 Defining Swearing ………………………………………………………………8
2.1.1 Functions of Swearing ……………………………………………………8
2.1.2 Classifying Swearing Language ………………………………………….9
2.2 The Neuro-Psycho-Social Theory ……………………………………………..10
2.2.1 Neurological Perspectives on Swearing ………………………………...11
2.2.2 Psychological Perspectives on Swearing ……………………………….12
2.2.3 Sociocultural and Pragmatic Perspectives on Swearing ………………..15

Chapter Three: Social and Cultural Background of Chinese Swear Words……18
3.1 Chinese Culture and Religions ………………………………………………...18
3.1.1 Confucianism …………………………………………………………...19
3.1.2 Chinese Folk Religions and Taoism …………………………………….21
3.2 Chinese Euphemisms ………………………………………………………….22
3.3 Swear Words in Chinese Culture ………………………………………………23
3.3.1 Death-related Terms……………………………………………………..24
3.3.2 Animal-related Terms……………………………………………………24
3.3.3 Swear Words Targeting Males and Females …………………………….25

Chapter Four : Methodology……………………………………………………….27
4.1 Data Collection ………………………………………………………………...27
4.1.1 Participants of the Study ………………………………………………...28
4.2 Organization of the Data ………………………………………………………29
4.3 Lexicon of Dirty Words ………………………………………………………..31
4.3.1 Dirty Word Usage and Gender ………………………………………….35
4.3.2 Dirty Word Usage by Children ………………………………………….37
4.3.3 Dirty Word Usage by Teenagers ………………………………………...38
4.3.4 Dirty Words Used by Young Adults …………………………………….40
4.3.5 Dirty Words Used by the Middle-aged ………………………………….42
4.3.6 Dirty Word Usage by the Old-aged ..……………………………………43
4.4 The Functions of Dirty Word Usage …………………………………………..45

Chapter Five: Results and Discussion……………………………………………..49
5.1 Dirty Word Usage and Gender ………………………………………………...49
5.1.1 Dirty Word Lexicon and the Frequencies of Swearing for Both Sexes ...51
5.1.2 Gender-related Swearing ………………………………………………..52
5.2 Dirty Word Usage in Different Age Groups …………………………………...53
5.2.1 Dirty Words Used by Children (2-11) …………………………………..54
5.2.2 Dirty Word Usage by Teenagers (12-18) ………………………………..55
5.2.3 Dirty Word Usage by Young Adults (19-30) …………………………....56
5.2.4 Dirty Word Usage by the Middle-aged (31-50) ………………………...57
5.2.5 Dirty Word Usage by the Old-aged (more than 50) …………………….58
5.3 Functions of Using Dirty Words ………………..……………………………...59
5.4 Cultural prohibitions …………………………………………………………..64
5.4.1 Sex-related Words and the Society ……………………………………...64
5.4.2 Death-related Words, Religions, and Chinese Culture ………………….65
5.4.3 Taboos that Other Swear Words Reflected ……………………………...66

Chapter Six: Conclusion……………………………………………………………68
6.1 Swearing and Gender ………………………………………………………….68
6.2 Dirty Word Usage and Age …………………………………………………….69
6.3 Functions of Swearing …………………………………………………………70
6.4 Limitations of the Study ……………………………………………………….70
6.5 Suggestions for Further Studies ……………………………............................71

References …………………………………………………………………………..72
Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………76
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顧立雅 (H.C. Creel) (2003)。孔子與中國之道 (Confucius and the Chinese Way)。
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