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研究生:溫景宏
研究生(外文):Jing-hung Wen
論文名稱:現代口語中文「所以」之變異使用
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Phonological Variation of suoyi in Spoken Chinese
指導教授:黃麗蓉黃麗蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Jung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:言談標記語音弱化社會語言學文法化
外文關鍵詞:grammaticalizationVARBRULSociolinguisticsphonological reductiondiscourse marker
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本篇文章主旨在探討中文連詞「所以」在現代台灣口語中的使用情形。根據研究語料以及曾榮汾(1998)表示,「所以」在現在漢語口語中出現頻率高且具有多種的語音變異形式。因此本研究主要分析三種不同語音變體: (1)完整語音型式[suoyi],(2) 語音弱化型式 [soi] (3) 語音弱化型式 [sui]。同時這些語音變異型式與不同種類的「所以」功能具有相關連性。因此,本研究議論在口語言談中,不同的「所以」語音型式有各自對應的「所以」使用功用。本文的目的之一是測驗「所以」語音變體和三種自變項(independent)要素群的關係,而自變項要素群包括有性別、年齡和「所以」使用功能。年齡包括有較年輕族群(小於24歲)、中年族群(23-39歲)和較老族群(大於40歲)。五種「所以」使用功能分別為因果、詮釋、話題轉換、說話者轉換、以及填空作用。本文所有研究語料皆從三個不同的台灣電視訪談節目中採集、謄寫、編碼。最後由VARBRUL軟體的遞增/遞減以及一次同時執行的二元迴歸方法所分析。
研究結果顯示女性傾向使用語音弱化型式[sui],而男性傾向使用完整語音型式與另一種語音弱化型式「所以」:[suoyi]與[soi]。而較年輕和中年族群傾向使用語音弱化型式 [sui],而較老族群傾向使用完整語音型式與另一種語音弱化型式「所以」:[suoyi]與[soi]。另外從語音及功能比較結果來看,語音弱化型式「所以」[sui]傾向使用詮釋、話題轉換說話者轉換功能;而完整語音型式[suoyi] 和[soi]則傾向使用因果關係以及填空作用。再者,從語意變化結果來看,「所以」語意從原始的表示因果關係變成沒有清楚語意或是不具實質語意的言談標記語意關係。從使用功能變化結果來看,「所以」從原來的連接詞轉變為言談標記功用。最後,根據以上要點及研究結果,作者推論「所以」在現代台灣口語使用中經歷了語法化過程,此外作者亦推論語音弱化型式[sui]正處於一個特殊語法系統發展的其中一個特定階段,而該特殊語法有別於[suoyi]與[soi]兩者的語法。
The current study investigates the use of suoyi in spoken Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan. According to a previous study (Zeng, 1998), suoyi is one of the most frequently used item in spoken Mandarin. There are different phonological variations of suoyi. The three suoyi variants investigated in this study include one full form [suoyi] and two reduced forms [soi] and [sui], and these suoyi phonological variations are hypothesized to relate to different functions of suoyi. The current study argues that the different phonological forms of suoyi in spoken discourse correlate to specific suoyi functions. Specifically, this study examines the relationship between suoyi phonological variations and three independent factor groups which are gender, age, and functions of suoyi. The age group includes three: younger group (<24), middle-aged group (25-39), and older group (>40). There are five functions of suoyi being identified. They are result function, paraphrasing function, topic taking function, turn taking function, and filler/holder function. All the research data were collected from three TV programs in Taiwan. They were then transcribed, coded, and analyzed by step-up/step-down binomial and one-level binomial regression of the VARBRUL program (Goldvarb X 3.0b3 version).
The result shows that females tend to use the reduced form [sui] while males tend to use the full form and the reduced form: [suoyi] and [soi]. Meanwhile, the younger and the middle-aged groups tend to use the reduced form [sui] whereas and the older group tends to use the full and reduced forms, i.e. [suoyi] and [soi]. The reduced form [sui] is favored to be used in the paraphrasing, topic taking, and turn taking functions while the full form [suoyi] and the reduced form [soi] are favored to be used in the result and filler/holder functions. In terms of semantic change, suoyi changes from causative/noncausative propositions to interpersonal/discourse expression. In functional shift, suoyi changes from conjunction to discourse marker. The result of the three factor groups not only provides evidence for suoyi undergoing grammaticalization but also implies the reduced form [sui] might be on a specific stage in the development of the particular system of grammar which is different from the grammar of [suoyi] and [soi].
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
List of Tables v
List of Abbreviations vi

Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Research background 1
1.2 Research purpose and questions 3
1.3 Language use in Taiwan 3
1.4 Organization of this study 4


Chapter Two Literature Review 5
2.1 Previous studies of Chinese suoyi 5
2.1.1 Hsieh (1999): A study of Chinese causal connectives suoyi 5
2.1.2 Huang and Wang (2006): Grammaticalization of Mandarin connective suoyi 8
2.2 Discourse markers (DM) 14
2.2.1 Definition of discourse marker 14
2.2.2 Characteristics of discourse marker (DM) 15
2.2.3 Function of discourse markers 17
2.3 Grammaticalization 19
2.3.1 Definition of grammaticalization 19
2.3.2 Types of grammaticalization 20
2.3.2.1 Semantic bleaching 20
2.3.2.2 Cline 23
2.3.2.3 Subjectification 24
2.3.2.4 Frequency 25
2.3.3 Criteria for grammaticalization 26
2.4 The concept of linking 27
2.5 Sociolinguistic variables 28
2.6 Summary 29

Chapter Three Methodology 30
3.1 Research questions 30
3.2 Data collection 31
3.2.1 The analytic unit 32
3.2.2 The phonological variants of suoyi 32
3.3 Data analysis 34
3.3.1 Sample size 35
3.3.2 The VARBRUL program 35
3.3.3 The coding 36
3.3.3.1 Dependent Variables 36
3.3.3.2 Independent variables 36
3.3.4 Coding independent variables 37
3.3.5 Re-coding factors of functions of SUOYI 44
3.4 Summary 46


Chapter Four Results 47
4.1 The overall distribution 47
4.2 Recoding 52
4.3 Interpreting VARBRUL output 53
4.3.1 Statistical significance 55
4.3.1.1 Gender 55
4.3.1.2 Age 56
4.3.2 Functions of suoyi and constraint hierarchy 57
4.3.3 Relative strength and range among independent factor groups 61
4.4 Summary 64


Chapter Five Discussion 65
5.1 Suoyi variations from VARBRUL result 65
5.2 Relationship between phonological variants and specific functions 66
5.3 Grammaticalization of suoyi 72
5.3.1 Frequency and phonological reduction 73
5.3.2 Semantic bleaching and functional change 73
5.3.3 Hopper''s (1991) grammatical criteria for the grammaticalization of suoyi 76
5.3.4 Motivation for grammaticalization 79
5.4 Sociolinguistic influence on suoyi variation 81
5.4.1 Gender 81
5.4.2 Age 83
5.5 Further discussion for suoyi phonological variation 85
5.6 Summary 88

Chapter Six Conclusion 89
6.1 Summary of the findings and the contribution of this study 89
6.2 Contributions of this study and suggestions for future research of suoyi 90


References 93

Appendix 101
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