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研究生:林品貝
研究生(外文):Pin-Pei Lin
論文名稱:美國國會對台之作為與態度(1991-2008)
論文名稱(外文):Congressional Actions and Attitudes toward Taiwan, 1991-2008
指導教授:羅致政羅致政引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Cheng Lo
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:417
中文關鍵詞:美國國會對台政策政黨分立政府遊說
外文關鍵詞:U.S. CongressTaiwan policypartisanshipdivided governmentlobby
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美國國會對台之行為與態度(1991-2008)
摘要
本文主要探討1991年至2008年間美國國會在台灣問題上的態度與作為。與東亞地區其他國家之關係相較下,美國國會有強大的意願挑戰行政機關界定的美台關係,也願意表述與總統相違的台灣政策,因此,美國國會被認為是美台關係中最強大、也最積極的支持者。儘管如此,各界對何者影響國會對台灣之作為與態度有著各種不同的看法。因此,本文以政黨、分立政府、以及遊說三個變數切入,了解這三者與國會對台之作為與態度間之相關性。
本文發現,政黨與參議員之行為與態度有關,但與眾議員之行為與態度則無關。共和黨參議員較積極於各種與台灣相關之立法活動,包括發言與連署等,且也較關心美台安全合作。民主黨參議員較不積極於台灣議題,且關心之議題與台灣的權利,如參與國際組織、不受中國威脅等較相關。在眾議院內,兩黨議員不僅在行為上毫無差異,關心的議題也大致相同。此外,分立政府則與參眾議員之行為與態度皆無關連。文獻指出,分立政府可能激化國會與行政機關間的對立,主要因為分立政府時期國會較有動機利用政黨分歧獲取政治上的好處。然本研究發現國會在分立政府時期對台之言行及態度與一致性政府時期並無差異。這樣的結果主要歸因於台灣案例具有低成本、高效益的特性,以及參眾兩院的制度設計。前者使得兩黨議員隨時皆有動機使用台灣議題來獲取公眾注意。後者使得兩院對民意之回應性不同,造就了參議院較容易表達自身立場而在政黨變數方面顯現出兩黨差異的結果。
在遊說方面,本文發現台灣官方與民間之遊說在國會內有很高的滲透力,亦即台灣觀點往往可以傳達至國會並表現於提案與發言內容上。然而,議題本身的敏感度、以及台灣遊說管道的多重使得國會在台灣問題上無法凝聚共識,也因此遊說可對台灣產生之實質影響較為有限。
In past decades, the U.S. Congress has shown its willingness to defend Taiwan’s interests, regardless if it is at the expense of a stable U.S-Sino relation. Congress thus is considered as the strongest supporter of Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to examine if partisanship, divided government, and “Taiwan lobby” correlate with Congressional actions and attitudes toward Taiwan in the period of 1991 to 2008.
It is found that Republican Senators were more active in working on Taiwan issues, such as making statements, introducing and/or cosponsoring bills or resolutions related to Taiwan. They also focus more on U.S-Taiwan military ties. While Democratic Senators were less active, and they were more concerned with Taiwan’s rights, such as the right to join international organizations and to be free from the China threat. Though party divergence was found in the Senate, there were no party differences in House’s actions or attitudes toward Taiwan.
A divided government affected neither the Senate nor the House in almost every dimension. When the government was divided, it did not provide motivations for law-makers to confront the President, as literature suggested it would. In addition, although there were more resolutions passed during periods of divided government, the overall passage rate was higher when the government was unified. Therefore, an unified government appears to be more in Taiwan’s interest.
As to Taiwan lobby, it is found that messages from Taiwan could be delivered successfully to Capital Hill, as shown in contexts of various bills and statements. However, Taiwan lobby has it limits, especially when it involves sensitive topics such as one China policy, and(or) when there are multiple lobby groups that carry different messages to the congress. Overall, Taiwan lobby accounts for partial congressional actions and attitudes toward Taiwan.
表次.............................................................................................................................
第一章 研究設計.........................................................................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的..................................................................................1
第二節 文獻檢閱............................................................................................. 4
壹、國會對台灣的基本態度...................................................................7
貳、台灣連線與台灣的遊說...................................................................8
第三節 研究問題、範圍、與限制............................................................... 11
第四節 章節安排........................................................................................... 18

第二章 理論檢閱與研究假說. .................................................................................21
第一節 影響國會決策之變數.......................................................................21
壹、黨派與外交決策............................................................................21
貳、國會與總統的關係........................................................................28
參、選區因素........................................................................................39
肆、小結................................................................................................44
第二節 美國的兩岸政策(1991-2008)............................................................47
壹、1991-2000年美國的兩岸政策.......................................................47
貳、2001-2008年美國的兩岸政策 ................................................... ..52 第三節 影響美國國會對台立場之變數....................................................... 56
壹、政黨................................................................................................57
貳、分立政府與台灣............................................................................59
參、選區因素........................................................................................60
肆、遊說:另一個可能的變數............................................................61
第四節 研究方法與假說................................................................................64

第三章 政黨對國會行為與態度之影響...................................................................73
第一節 兩黨與台灣問題.............................................................................. 73
第二節 政黨對國會作為之影響.................................................................. 76
壹、發言................................................................................................76
貳、國會法案........................................................................................83
第三節 政黨對國會態度之影響.................................................................. 92
第四節 小結................................................................................................ 102

第四章 分立政府對國會行為與態度之影響.........................................................109
第一節 分立政府與台灣問題..................................................................... 109
第二節 分立政府對國會作為之影響......................................................... 111
壹、發言...............................................................................................111
貳、法案...............................................................................................119
參、小結...............................................................................................128
第三節 分立政府對國會態度之影響......................................................... 130
壹、發言內容 ......................................................................................130
貳、投票取向.......................................................................................137
第四節 小結................................................................................................. 143

第五章 台灣之國會遊說與對台法案.................................................................... 149
第一節 台灣遊說行為之行為者................................................................. 149
壹、 台北經濟暨文化代表處..............................................................150
貳、FAPA.............................................................................................151
參、政黨辦公室...................................................................................155
第二節 台灣之國會遊說與國會行動......................................................... 157
壹、台灣參與聯合國...........................................................................157
貳、台灣參與WHO.............................................................................161
參、台灣安全加強法...........................................................................169
第三節 台灣遊說國會之成效..................................................................... 171
壹、 聯合國..........................................................................................171
貳、 台灣參與WHO............................................................................174
參、台灣安全加強法 ..........................................................................178
第四節 小結................................................................................................. 180
第六章 結論............................................................................................................ 183
第一節 研究發現..........................................................................................183
壹、政黨...............................................................................................184
貳、分立政府.......................................................................................186
參、遊 說..............................................................................................189
第二節 理論與政策意涵.............................................................................190
壹、理論意涵 ......................................................................................190
貳、政策意涵......................................................................................193
第三節 未來研究方向..................................................................................195

附錄一 參議院提案(1991-2008).............................................................................197

附錄二 眾議院提案 (1991-2008)...........................................................................205

附錄三 參議院與台灣相關之發言(1991-2008).....................................................221

附錄四 眾議院與台灣相關之發言(1991-2008).....................................................257

附錄五 法案編碼.....................................................................................................389

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錢復。2005。《錢復回憶錄卷一:外交風雲動》。台北:天下文化。
魏軍。2005。〈後“冷戰”時期的美國國會與台灣問題〉 。孫哲主編《美國國會與
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三、網路資料
美國國會圖書館Thomas資料庫 http://thomas.loc.gov.
中華民國外交部www.mofa.gov.tw
台灣鄉訊 www. taahouston.org.
台灣人公共事務會 www.fapa.org.
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