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研究生:賴雅瑜
研究生(外文):Ya-Yu Lai
論文名稱:電腦輔助聽寫練習對聽力之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effect of computerized dictation practice on the listening ability of Taiwanese EFL students
指導教授:王鶴巘王鶴巘引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:電腦輔助聽寫練習對聽力之影響
外文關鍵詞:The effect of computerized dictation practice on the listening ability of Taiwanese EFL students
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聽寫方法被廣泛的使用在第二語言聽力教學及學生聽力測驗上。科技的日新月異,改變語言學習方式,電腦成為教室中重要的教學輔助工具。語言學家指出,創造一個接收目標語言的環境是學好外語的指標。結合聽寫及電腦輔助成為當今競爭市場上聽力訓練課程的趨勢。本研究在探討教室內使用電腦輔助聽寫練習課程對英語學習者聽力發展之影響,並對聽寫試卷進一步分析影響聽力之二種因素。此外本研究進行訪談大綱以瞭解英語教師對聽力教學的認知和課堂上使用聽力教學的現況。本研究的受試者為台灣某美語連鎖補習班台中分校40位參與課程之國小學生,學生每週於教室進行兩次聽寫練習,每次1小時,實驗為期四週。研究結果可提供老師作為聽力訓練之參考。本研究結果顯示:學生的聽力成績於統計上達顯著性,然而,比較高程度與低程度組錯誤類型表現,除了低程度組單字上於後測達顯著水準,幾乎未達顯著差異。實驗發現,低程度較容易犯單字類型錯誤,但改善的效果最明顯,同時,低程度者於文法類型錯誤改善效果亦優於高程度者。此外,低程度者容易對同音異義字混淆。實驗更進一步發現,低程度及高程度學習者常犯的聽力錯誤出現學習者原本已知的單字,同時,出現機率高的文法類型單字,經過練習有表現更好的趨勢。根據以上結果,此研究對聽力教學上有以下建議:(1)聽寫不僅是教室中聽力訓練的好方法,更是測驗聽者在語言不同方面能力的呈現。(2)學生所犯的錯誤類型能夠反映一般學習者的聽力錯誤,結果可供聽力教學上參考。(3)老師可透過文法及單字上的錯誤類型線索,給予學生聽力上的指導,降低同樣的錯誤再次發生。(4)透過電腦教學於教室中的輔助,可提升聽力教學於教室裡的幫助。(5)在電腦教學的教室裡,老師仍舊扮演知識傳達的重要角色,而不能完全被電腦取代。(6)從學生的錯誤表現中,可當作接下來的補助教學依據。結合聽寫及電腦輔助可供聽力教學上正面的幫助。
Dictation has been considered as a method of teaching and testing listening. Since we live in an age of technology, people rely on computer to organize their work. Krashen (1982) stated that teachers must create an environment and language input to make classroom learning more effective. There is a growing trend toward computerized dictation program on the market. The training course was introduced. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of practice with computerized dictation program on the listening ability. In addition, the researcher wanted to find out the most efficient way to enhance listeners’ ability from two categories of the function word and the content word. On the other hand, the researcher collected data from an interview for further analysis and discussion of teachers’ viewpoints concerning the computerized dictation program. The subjects of the study consisted of 40 elementary school students enrolled in Best Language Institute Chains in central of Taiwan. The experiment proceeded for four weeks and was carried out twice per week, with one-hour session. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between the results of the pretest and posttest. However, looking at the errors of the two tests, there was no significant difference between the low proficiency group and the high proficiency group, except for the word misformation. That is, the low proficiency group made much improvement in content word than the high proficiency group after training. In addition, the subjects of low proficiency group were liable to misspell certain words for non-existing words. On the other hand, both groups performed better in function word. The study further found the low proficiency students tended to confuse by the similar sounds or morphemes. This research also found that a number of misunderstanding items took place in vocabulary and grammar that were already learned by the students. Furthermore, both groups performed better on high frequency words than low frequency words particularly in function words. The interview result showed that both of teachers and students highly valued the computer-assisted instruction and computer-assisted language learning. Based on the major findings, some pedagogical implications were provided: (1) The result of the data supported the use of dictation both as a listening learning activity and as a vehicle for testing language proficiency. Thus, it combined the interaction with phonology, grammar, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. (2) The errors inferred a conclusion from the fact students may make similar mistakes in general conditions. All of the error evidences can be useful to teaching guidelines. (3) As a result, this study gave teachers some insight into the listening problem regarding to lexis and grammar knowledge. To judge from these cues, teachers can realize students’ error types in general while listening and help avoid making the same types of errors in their listening performance. (4) The improvement of students’ listening comprehension under the computer-based environment in the present study gave evidence for the positives of computer-assisted language learning (CALL). (5) Nonetheless, we have to admit that listening can not be acquired simply through the exposure. The results of the interview showed that teachers played a central role to control the application of CALL in the classroom. In addition, teachers should avoid blaming the students for their faults. (6) The most important is how a teacher gained the information for error performance to remedial teaching. It is hoped that language teachers can get a better understanding on the approach of dictation combined with computer-assisted instruction through the results of this study.
Table of Contents
Page
Chinese abstract...................................................................................................... . i
English abstract....................................................................................................... . ii
Acknowledge ................................................................................................................ iv
Table of contents..................................................................................................... . iv
List of Tables ............................................................................................................ viii
List of Figures .......................................................................................................... x
Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................... . 1
1.1 Background and motivation......................................................................... . 1
1.2 Purposes of the study.................................................................................... . 4
1.3 Research questions........................................................................................ . 4
1.4 Significance of the study.............................................................................. . 5
1.5 Definition of terms........................................................................................ . 5
Chapter 2 Literature Review.................................................................................. . 7
2.1 Nature of listening......................................................................................... . 7
2.2 The listening process..................................................................................... . 9
2.2.1 Bottom up versus top down process..................................................... . 10
2.3 The importance of listening comprehension............................................... . 12
2.4 Review of literature on dictation................................................................. . 13
2.4.1 Types of dictation.................................................................................... . 15
2.4.2 The value of dictation............................................................................. . 17
2.4.3 Studies on dictation................................................................................. . 20
2.5 Approaches to assessing listening................................................................ . 22
2.5.1 The discrete-point approach................................................................... . 22
2.5.2 Integrative testing................................................................................... . 23
2.5.3 Communicative testing........................................................................... . 24
2.6 Developing listening ability through technology....................................... . 25
2.6.1 Computers and language learning......................................................... . 25
2.6.2 The role of the teacher in CALL........................................................... . 26
2.6.3 Effects of CALL...................................................................................... . 27
Chapter 3 Methodology.......................................................................................... . 30
3.1 Subjects.......................................................................................................... . 30
3.2 The setting...................................................................................................... . 31
3.2.1 The application of the computerized dictation program..................... . 33
3.3 Instrument...................................................................................................... . 37
3.4 Data collection............................................................................................... . 39
3.5 Procedure....................................................................................................... . 41
3.6 Data analysis.................................................................................................. . 42
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion......................................................................... . 43
4.1 Demographic information of the subjects................................................... . 43
4.2 Error taxonomy.............................................................................................. . 44
4.3 The procedure for the error analysis............................................................ . 48
4.4 The Descriptive statistics of the test performance..................................... . 50
4.4.1 The error distribution and frequency of occurrence in pretest........... . 50
4.4.2 The Error distribution and frequency of occurrence in posttest......... . 52
4.4.3 The distribution of errorless performance in the pretest and posttest 54
4.4.4 The distribution of total number of errors in pretest and posttest 55
4.4.5 The distribution of mean score in pretest and posttest........................ . 56
4.5 Effects of dictation practice through computer technology on listening 57
4.5.1 T-test result on dictation test.................................................................. . 57
4.5.2 T-test result on errorless performance in pretest and posttest............. . 58
4.5.3 T-test result on the total number of errors in pretest and posttest 59
4.6 The difference in error performance between LPL and HPL in pretest 60
4.6.1 The difference in word misselection between LPL and HPL............. . 60
4.6.2 The difference in word misformation between LPL and HPL........... . 62
4.6.3 The difference in word omission between LPL and HPL................... . 63
4.6.4 The difference in structure addition between LPL and HPL.............. . 64
4.6.5 The difference in structure misformation between LPL and HPL 65
4.6.6 The difference in structure misordering between LPL and HPL 67
4.7 The difference in error performance between LPL and HPL in posttest 68
4.7.1 The difference in word misselection between LPL and HPL............. . 68
4.7.2 The difference in word misformation between LPL and HPL........... . 69
4.7.3 The difference in word omission between LPL and HPL................... . 70
4.7.4 The difference in structure addition between LPL and HPL.............. . 71
4.7.5 The difference in structure misformation between LPL and HPL 72
4.7.6 The difference in structure misordering between LPL and HPL 73
4.8 The summary of the result............................................................................ . 75
4.9 Results of the interview data........................................................................ . 77
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Implications.............................................................. . 89
5.1 Conclusions.................................................................................................... . 89
5.2 Pedagogical Implications and Suggestions................................................. . 93
5.3 Recommendation for further study.............................................................. . 96
References............................................................................................................... . 98
Appendices.............................................................................................................. .
Appendix A Dictation Test (Beginning Level) ................................................ . 103
Appendix B Dictation Test (Advanced Level) ................................................ . 105
Appendix C Interview Guide (Chinese Version) ............................................. . 107
Appendix D Interview Guide (English Version) ............................................. . 108
Appendix E Interview Transcript ...................................................................... . 109
Appendix F Placement Test ............................................................................... . 114
Appendix G Curriculum .................................................................................... . 116
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