(3.239.33.139) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/07 23:24
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃惠玲
研究生(外文):Huang Huei-Ling
論文名稱:英語系主修生英語閱讀焦慮與英語閱讀能力之相關研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship Between English Reading Anxiety and English Reading Proficiency of University English Major Students
指導教授:陳怡真陳怡真引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen I-Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:281
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
本研究的目的旨在探討英語系主修生英語閱讀焦慮與英語閱讀能力之相關、高低閱讀焦慮群學生在英語閱讀成就上的差異、英語閱讀焦慮的來源以及減輕英語閱讀焦慮的解決方法。
參與本研究的對象為150位南台科技大學英語系主修生。所有的學生都是於97學年度入學應用英語系的大一新生,並且每週都修讀一門兩小時的初級英語閱讀課程。研究工具包括了「英語閱讀經驗問卷」、「英語閱讀焦慮量表」以及「訪談問題」。藉由SPSS12.0中的敘述統計、相關係數和單因子變異數分析來分析問卷資料。並且從高閱讀焦慮群中選10位學生進行訪談,並將訪談紀錄做質化分析。
本研究結果顯示英語系主修生英語閱讀焦慮與英語閱讀成就呈現負相關。 高低閱讀焦慮群學生在英語閱讀表現上有顯著差異。而導致英語閱讀焦慮的因素有低英語能力、閱讀文章本身以及考試。其中低英語能力包括字彙量不足、無法分析複雜的文法、無法理解文章的結構和英語背景知識的不足。閱讀文章則包含了文章的長度和難易度。而考試部分則是以問答題的題型最易引起閱讀焦慮。學生們建議能減輕閱讀焦慮的方法為增加字彙量、上課前要做好準備、上課時要專心聽講以及養成每天閱讀英語文章的習慣。
期望本研究的結果能對英語閱讀相關課程有所助益。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between English reading anxiety and English reading proficiency of university English major students, differences in English reading proficiency among students with different English reading anxiety levels, the sources of English reading anxiety, and the solutions of reducing English reading anxiety.
The participants of the study consisted of 150 English major undergraduate students of Southern Taiwan University in Tainan County. All the participants were freshmen who enrolled in Applied English Department in Academic year 2008 and received a beginning English reading course for two hours per week. The instruments employed in this study were“Background Information & English Reading Experiences”, “Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale”, and “interview questions”. The questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and One-way ANOVA. Ten students from high-anxious groups were selected for the interview and their interview records were analyzed qualitatively.
The study findings revealed that there was a modest negative correlation between English reading anxiety and English reading proficiency. There was a significant difference in English reading proficiency among students with different English reading anxiety levels. Students with high reading anxiety tended to get lower reading scores and students with low reading anxiety tended to get higher reading scores. The factors that led to English reading anxiety contained low English proficiency, reading texts, and the tests. Low English proficiency included insufficient vocabulary size, inability to analyze complicated grammar, inability to comprehend the structure of the texts, and deficient knowledge of English. Reading texts included the problem of the length and the difficulty. Open-ended questions were the most anxiety-provoking section in a test. The solutions of reducing English reading anxiety from the perspectives of those students were increasing vocabulary size, being well-prepared before the class, paying special attention to the teacher, and building the habit of reading English every day.
It is hoped that the study findings can be conducive to English reading courses and English learning.
Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgement
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figure ix


Chapter One Introduction 1
Background and Motivation 1
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions 5
Significance of the Study 6
Definition of Terms 6
Organization of the Study 7

Chapter Two Literature Review 9
Affective Variables on Language Learning 9
Definition of Anxiety 10
Anxiety Theories 12
Trait Anxiety 12
State Anxiwey 12
Situation Specific Anxiety 13
Foreign Language Anxiety 14
Constructs of Foreign Language Anxiety 15
Communication Apprehension 16
Test Anxiety 17
Fear of Negative Evaluation 17
Measures of Foreign Language Anxiety 18
Effect of Anxiety on Foreign Language Learning 20
Congitive Aspect 20
Facilitating and Debilitating Anxiety 21
Reading Anxiety 22
Studies of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety 24

Chapter Three Methodology 29
Research Design 29
Participants 30
Instruments 31
Questionnaire 31
English Reading Comprehension Test 33
Interview 33
Procedure of the Study 34
Data Analysis 36
Data Analysis of Questionnaire 36
Data Analysis of Interview 36

Chapter Four Results and Discussion 37
Results from the Questionnaire 37
Participants’ English Reading Experience 38
Results from the FLRAS 42
Results and Discussion of Research Question 1 47
Results and Discussion of Research Question 2 49
Results from the Interview 53
Causes of English Reading Anxiety 53
Solutions for Reducing English Reading Anxiety 57
Teachers’ assistance of alleviating English Reading Anxiety 58

Chapter Five Conclusion 60
Summary of the Major Findings 60
Pedagogical Implications 62
Limitations and Suggestions 67

References 69
Appendices 81
Appendix A: Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale 81
Appendix B: Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (Chinese version) 83
Appendix C: Interview Questions 85
Appendix D: Interview Questions (Chinese version) 86
Appendix E: English Reading Comprehension One (beginning level) 87
Appendix F: English Reading Comprehension Two (intermediate level) 88
Appendix G: English Reading Comprehension Three (high-intermediate level) 90
References
Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 155-168.
Albert, R., & Haber, R. N. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61, 207-215.
Au, Shun Y. (1988). A critical of Gardner’s social-psychological theory of
Second-language (L2) learning. Language Learning, 38(1), 75-100.
Bailey, K. M. (1995). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies. In H. D. Brown, & S. T. Gonzo (Ed), Readings on Second Language Acquisition (pp. 161-205). London: Prentice Hall.
Bailey, P., Daley, C. E., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2000). The Validation of three scales measuring anxiety at different stages of the foreign language learning process: The input anxiety scale, the processing anxiety scale, and the output anxiety scale. Language Learning, 50(1), 87-117.
Beeman, P., Martin, R., & Meyers, J. (1972). Interventions in relation to anxiety in school. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: current trends in theory and research (pp. 40-50). New York: Academic Press.
Beebe, L. (1983). Risk-taking and the language learner. In H.W. Selinger & M. H. Long (Ed.), Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition. Rowley, M. A.: Newbury House.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1983). Three approaches to reading comprehension in intermediate German. The Modern Language Journal, 67, 111-115.
Briere, E. J. (1972). Are we really measuring proficiency with our ofreign language tests? In H. B. Allen, & R. N. Campell (Ed.), Teaching English as a second language: A book of readings. (pp. 321-330). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Brown, H. D. (1987). Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Campell, C. M., & Ortiz, J. (1991). Helping students overcome foreign language anxiety: A foreign language anxiety workshop. In E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young. (Ed.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. (pp. 153-168). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
Chan, Yu-ching Daniel & Wu Guo-cheng (2000). A study of foreign language anxiety of elementary school EFL learners in Taiwan. Preceedings of the 2000 National Taipei Teachers College Educational Academic Conference, (pp. 85-100). Taipei: National Taipei Teachers College.
Chang, S. F., & Huang, S. C. (1999). Taiwanese English learners’ learning motivation and language learning strategies. Preceedings of the sixteenth conference on English teaching and learning in the Republic of China (pp. 111-128). Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.
Chastain, K. (1975). Affective and ability factors in second language acquisition. Language Learning, 25, 153-161.
Cheng. Y. S. (1998). A qualitative inquiry of second language anxiety: Interviews with Taiwanese EFL students. The Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on English Teaching (pp. 309-320). Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Cheng, Y.S., Horwitz, E., & Schallert, L. (1999). Language anxiety: differentiating writing and speaking components. Language Learning, 49(3), 417-466.
Cheng, Y. S. (2002). Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 35(5), 647-655.
Chen, T. Y., & Chang, G. B.Y. (2004). The relationship between foreign language anxiety and learning difficulties. Foreign Language Annals, 37(2), 279-287.
Chen, M. L. (2007). Test anxiety, reading and reading performance among university English as second language learners. Unpublished M. A. thesis, Ming Chuan University.
Cl’ement, R., Dornyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohension in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44(3), 417-448.
Cohen, L., & Holliday, M. (1982). Statisitcs for social scientists, London: Harper & Row.
Crookall, D., & Oxford, R. (1991). Dealing with anxiety: Some practical activities for language learners and teachers trainees. In E. k. Horwitz, & D. J. Young. (Ed.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. (pp.141-150). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
Culler, R. E., & Holahan, C. J. (1980). Test anxiety and academic performance: The effects of study-related behaviors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 16-20.
Daly, J. (1991). Understanding communication apprehension: An introduciton for language educators. In E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young (Ed.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 3-14). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1980). Worry and emotionality in test anxiety. In I. G. Sarason (Ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research, and application (pp. 111-128). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbuum Assoc.
Ehtman, M. & Oxgord, R. (1990). Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting. The Modern Language Journal, 74(3), 311-327.
Ehrman, M. & Oxgord, R. (1995). Congition plus: correlates of adult language proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 67-89.
Ewald, J. D. (2007). Foreign language learning anxiety in upper-level classes: involving students as researchers. Foreign Language Annals, 40(1), 122-142.
Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 363-385.
Ely, C. (1986). An analysis of discomfort, risktaking, sociability, and motivation in L2 classroom. Language Learning, 36, 1-25.
Foss, Karen A., Reitzel, Armeda C. (1998). A relational model for managing second language anxiety. TESOL Quarterly, 22(3), 437-454.
Frantzen, D., & Magnan, S. S. (2005). Anxiety and the true beginner-false beginner dynamic in beginning French and Spanish classes. Foreign Language Annals, 38(2), 171-186.
Ganschow, L., Sparks, R. L., Anderson, R., Javorsky, J., Skinner, S., & Patton, J. (1994). Differences in language performance among high-, average, and low-anxious college foreign language learners.The Modern Langauge Journal, 78, 41-55.


Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. (1996). Anxiety about foreign language learning among high school women. The Modern Language Journal, 80(2), 199-212.
Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993b). On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning, 43(2), 157-194.
Gardner, R. C., Tremblay, P. F., & Masgoret, A. M. (1997). Towards a full model of second language learning: an empirical investigation. The Modern Language Journal, 81(3), 344-362.
Gregersen, T. S. (2005). Nonverbal cues: clues to the detection of foreign language anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 38(3), 388-397.
Hamayan, Else, Genesee Fred, & Tucker, G. Richard. (1977). Affective factors and language exposure in second language learning. Language Learning, 27(2), 225-241.
Horwitz, E., Horwitz, M., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132.
Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language language students. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 283-94.
Horwitz, E. K. (1991). Preliminary evidence for reliability and validity of a foreign language anxiety scale. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implication (pp. 37-39). Englewood Cliffts, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986) Foreign language classroom anxiety. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implication (pp. 27-39). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Horwitz, E. K. & Young, D. (1991). Language anxiety: from theory and research to classroom implications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hsu, Y. C. (2004). A study on junior college students’ reading anxiety in English as a foreign language. Unpublished M. A. thesis, National Chung Cheng University.
Huang, S.L. (2005). A comparative study on English reading comprehension of urban and rural junior high school students. Unpublished M. A. thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Kitano, K. (2001). Anxiety in the college Japanese language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 85, iv, 549-566.
Kleinmann, H. H. (1977). Avoidance behavior in adult second language acquisition. Language Learning, 27, 93-107.
Kern, Richard G. (1995). Students’ and teachers’ beliefs about language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 28(1), 71-92.
Koch, A., & Terrell, T. D. (1991) Affective reactions of foreign language students to natural approach activities and teaching techniques. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Ed.) Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. (pp. 109-126). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Krashen, Stephen D. (1987). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (1986). Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Leary, M. (1983). Understanding social anxiety: Social, personality, and clinical perspectives. Beverly Hill: Sage.
Lin, M. C. (2005). A case of interrelation between language anxiety and English proficiency of vocationsl high school students at national TasoTun commerical & industrial vocational high school. M. A. thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39, 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991a). Language anxiety: Its relationship to other anxieties and to processing in native and second languages. Language Learning, 41, 513-543.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991b). Anxiety and second language learning toward a theoretical clarification. In E. K. Horwitz. & D. J. Young(Eds.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 41-53). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991b). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41, 85-117.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991c). Investigating language class anxiey using the focused essay technique.The Modern Language Journal, 75, 296-304.
MacIntyre, P. D. (1995). How does anxiety affect second langague anxiety? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 90-99.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994a). The effects of induced anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 1-17.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994b). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44, 283-305.
MacIntyre, P. D., Noels, K. A., & Cl’ement, R. (1997). Biases in self-rating of second language proficiency: the role of language anxiety. Language Learning, 47(2), 265-287.
Madsen, H. S., Brown, B. L., & Jones, R. L. (1991). Evaluating student attitudes toward second-language tests. In E. K. Horwitz., & D. J. Young (Ed.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 65-86). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mills, N., Pajares, F., &Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 39(2), 276-293.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J., Bailey, Phillip, & Dailey, Christine E. (2000). The validation of three scales measuring anxiety at different stages of the foreign language learning process: the input anxiety scale, the processing anxiety scale, and the output anxiety scale. Language Learning, 50(1), 87-117.
Oxford, R. L. (1990a). Language learning strategies and beyond: A look at strategies in the context fo styles. In S. S. Magnan (Ed.), Shifting the instructional focus to the learner. Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 35-55.
Oxford, R. L. (1999). Anxiety and the language learner: new insights. In J. Aronld, (Ed.) Affect in Language Learning. (pp. 58-67). UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pan, P. S. (2002). A study of interrelationship between language anxiety and English proficiency for the students in different grades in junior high school. Unpublished M. A. thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Phares, E. J. (1991). Anxiety, stress, and health. Introduction to personality. N.Y. Harper Collins Publishers Inc.
Phillips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. The Modern Language Journal, 76, 14-26.
Plass, J. A., & Hill, K. T. (1986). Children’s achievement strategies and test performance: the role of time pressure, evaluation, anxiety, and sex. Developmental Psychology, 22(1), 31-36.
Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety interviews with high-anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young. (Ed.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classrom implications. (pp.101-108). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1992). Dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics. Singapore: Longman Group UK Limited.
Samimy, K., & Rardin, J. P. (1994). Adult language learners’ affective reactions to community language learning: A descriptive sutdy. Foreign Language Annals, 27(3), 379-390.
Saito, Y., & Samimy, K. K. (1996). Foreign language anxiety and language performance: a study of learner anxiety in beginning, intermediate, and advanced-level college students of Japanese. Foreign Language Annals, 29, 239-251.
Saito, Y., & Garza, T. J. (1999). Foreign language reading anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 83(2), 202-218.
Sapp, M. (1993). Test Anxiety. London: University Press of America, Inc.
Sarason, I. G. (1978). The test anxiety scale: Concept and research. In C. D. Spielberger, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 5, pp. 193-216). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Sarason, I. G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: Reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 929-938.
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning; a review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 28(1), 129-142.
Seliger, H. W., & Shohamy, E. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L. (1991). Foreign language learning differences: affective or native language aptitude differences ? The Modern Language Journal, 75, 3-16.
Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L. (1993a). The impact on native language learning problems on foreign language learning: Case study illustrations of the linguistic coding deficit hypothesis. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 58-74.
Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L. (1993b). Searching for the cognitive locus of foreign language learning difficulties: Linking first and second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 289-302.
Sparks, R. L., Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 235-244.
Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (2007). Is the foreign language classroom anxiety scale measuring anxiety or language skills? Foreign Language Annals, 40(2), 260-287.
Spielberger, C. D. (1966a). Theory and research on anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger(Ed.), Anxiety and behavior (pp.3-20). New York : Academic Press.
Sellers, V. D. (2000). Anxiety and reading comprehension in Spanish as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 512-521.
Tobias, S. (1979). Anxiety research in educational psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 573-582.
Tuan, H. J. (1995). The effects of language anxiety on language proficiency: A study of Chinese ESL students. In The Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on English teaching, 281-308. Taipei: Crane Publishing.
Tobias, S. (1986). Anxiety and cognitive processing of instruction. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognition in anxiety and motivation (pp. 35-54). Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoicates.
Watson, D. & Friend, R. (1969). Measurment of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448-451.
Wolf, D. F. (1993). A comparison of assessment tasks used to measure FL reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 473-489.
Wu, G. C. (2002). Foreign language anxiety of EFL elementary school learners: a case study in Taipei County. Unpublished M. A. thesis, National Taipei Teachers college.

Young, D. J. (1986). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 439-445.
Young, D. J. (1990). An investigation of students’ perspectives on anxiety and speaking. Foreign Language Annals, 23, 539-553.
Young, D. J. (1991b). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: what does language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 426-439.
Young, D. J. (1992). Language anxiety from the foreign language specialist’s perspectives: interview with Krashen, Omaggio, Hadley, Terrell, and Rardin. Foreign Language Annals, 25(2), 157-172.
Zbornik, J. L., & Wallbrown, F. H. (1991). The development and validation of a scale to measure reading anxiety. Reading Improvement, 28(1), 2-12.
賴世雄 、李橋 (2004) 。全民英檢GEPT : 初級全真模擬試題。台北市。長春藤。
賴世雄 、李橋 (2004) 。全民英檢GEPT : 中級全真模擬試題。台北市。長春藤。
賴世雄 、李橋 (2004) 。全民英檢GEPT : 中高級全真模擬試題。台北市。長春藤。
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔