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研究生:林亭蓉
研究生(外文):Lin, Ting-Jung
論文名稱:運用繪本於英語教學:國小英語老師的看法及其教學運用
論文名稱(外文):The Application of Picture Books in the EFL Classroom: Viewpoints and Practices of Elementary School English Teachers
指導教授:陳怡真陳怡真引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, I-Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:picture bookscognitive functioneducational function
外文關鍵詞:繪本認知功能教育功能
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摘要

由於台灣以升學考試為導向,無論在老師、學生亦或家長的心中,教科書在教學上已不可或缺,然而也漸漸地忽略了繪本其彩色插圖、圖多字少、甚至只有圖沒有文字的功能。而根據研究,若老師對繪本的功用有正面的態度及看法將影響其教學方式;另外,不少研究顯示學生透過繪本教學能提升學習興趣。因此,一旦老師對繪本運用在教學上的功能有所認知,學生也能透過繪本教學快樂地學習、成長!因此啟發研究者調查:一、台南市國小英語教師對繪本功能之認同度? 二、老師們主要運用哪些種類的繪本? 三、老師們如何使用繪本教學? 四、為何有老師對繪本有基本的認知,但卻不運用在教學上?
本研究共有118位台南市國小英語老師參與問卷調查,並與5位老師進行深入的訪談。
研究結果顯示在過去兩年中,118位老師中有79 (66.9 %)位老師曾使用繪本教學,31(26.3%) 位老師對繪本有基本的認知,但未曾使用繪本於教學,8 (6.8 %)位老師不曾使用繪本於教學。此79位老師曾使用繪本教學對繪本的認知及教育功能非常肯定。老師們主要運用重覆性繪本、概念性繪本、互動式繪本於英語教學,並且主要配合課程需要、個人認為此繪本內容值得討論及教師手策上的推薦等因素實施教學。而繪本取得的途徑主要來自於自己的藏書、學校圖書館或同事互借。成果驗收則是主要透過純粹閱讀、口頭問答及寫心得報告。老師們使用繪本的動機主要為引起學生的學習興趣、補充教材的不足及增加學生閱讀量與繪本是優良的課外讀物。課程設計或資料主要來自於自己設計、網路資源及課外的參考書籍。然而老師們認為繪本適合運用在國小低年級學習階段,其次才是中年級。另外,老師們也提供了四個教學策略: 說故事(Read Aloud)、講故事(Storytelling)、共同閱讀(Shared Reading), 及討論(Book Discussion)。 最後,此31位對繪本有基本的認知但未曾使用繪本於教學的老師表示其主要原因為(1)課程內容太多,進行繪本教學會影響自己的教學進度及(2)班級人數太多,不易操作。並總結以下三點是曾使用過和未使用過繪本的老師於繪本教學所共同面臨之困難點: (1)班級人數太多(2)學校課業繁多與(3)不易選擇適當的繪本供英語程度不同的學生閱讀及與課程相輔相成。
期待研究結果能使英語老師或其它學術領域的教育者能廣範地運用繪本的功能於教學中。出版業者可以根據不同的英語學習階段,依繪本功能分門別類。老師們便能在運用教科書教學的同時附上適合此學習階段的繪本。最後,希望教育當局也能適度地調整教學及升學模式,想必將會有更多的教育者能妥善地運用繪本的功能於教學中。
ABSTRACT

Due to the test-orientation in Taiwan, textbooks are viewed as essential and vital to the entrance test, no matter in teachers’, students’ or parents’ mind. Gradually, the functions behind the features, colorful illustrations, pictures dominating words or even only illustrations no words in picture books, are depreciated. However, research shows that if instructors have positive attitudes towards the functions of picture books, their teaching methods will be influenced. Moreover, many studies indicate that learning interest can be promoted through teaching with picture books. Thus, once instructors have familiarities with the functions of picture books in teaching, students can acquire knowledge and get mature cheerfully. Consequently, the researcher is inspired to conduct the study aiming to explore elementary school English teachers’ viewpoints of the functions of picture books and their use of picture books in teaching in the EFL classroom.
The results of the study are presented by 118 participating English teachers who answered the questionnaire and 5 out of 118 taking part in the interviews. In particular, 79 (66.9 %) teachers have used picture books in teaching; 31(26.3%) teachers have basic knowledge of picture books but never use picture books in teaching; and 8 (6.8 %) teachers never use picture books in teaching in last two years. They all agree or even strongly agree in the two major functions of picture books, cognitive and educational functions. Moreover, the majority of teachers mainly use three types of picture books: pattern books, concept books and interactive books, in teaching with the reasons of curriculum needs, the books worthwhile to discuss, and recommendation in teacher’s guide. Furthermore, they obtain picture books mainly from the collection of their own, school library, and colleagues. In addition, they usually use reading only, oral Q&A, and afterthought writing to evaluate students’ learning achievement of picture books. Particularly, their motivation to use picture books in teaching are to arouse students’ interest, to supplement the lack of teaching materials, and to enhance students’ reading experiences and they also think that picture books are good extracurricular reading sources. Additionally, the sources of curriculum design and teaching materials of picture books mainly come from self-design materials, the Internet resources, and extracurricular reference books. Furthermore, they think the appropriate learning stages for picture books are low graders and middle graders of elementary schools. Besides, four teaching strategies are provided for using picture books in the EFL classroom: (a) read aloud; (b) storytelling; (c) shared reading, and (d) book discussion. Finally, teachers who have basic knowledge of picture books, but never use picture books in teaching presented their major difficulties: (a) Because of too much content of curriculum, using picture books in teaching might affect teaching progress; and (b) It is hard to use picture books, because of too many students in class. In addition, the mutual difficulties between the teachers who have used picture books in teaching and teachers who have basic knowledge of picture books, but never use picture books in the EFL classroom, are that (a) There are too many students in class; (b) Teachers’ school work is overloaded; and (c) It is hard to choose appropriate picture books for students with different English proficiency levels or to complement school curricula.
The researcher anticipates the results of the study can provide English teachers or educators in academic fields to extensively make the functions of picture books into practices. Moreover, various functions of picture books had better been categorized by publishers according to different English proficiency levels. Teachers can provide picture books appropriate for each learning stage to supplement textbooks. Last but not least, if the class size, the overload of teachers’ work and exam-orientation in Taiwan are modified by the Ministry of Education, there will be more teachers making use of picture books in teaching.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract (Chinese)……………………………………………………………….……...…i
Abstract (English) …………………………………………………………………..…….ii
Acknowledge……………………………………………………………………….…….iv
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………….………....v
List of Tables……...……………………………………………………......…………...viii
Chapter 1: Introduction
Background and Motivation…………………………………………………...….1
Purposes of the Study………………………………………………………….......6
Research Questions……………………………………….……………………….7
Significance of the Study………………………………..……..………………….8
Definition of Terms……………………………………………………..…..……..9
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Literature…………………………………………………………………………10
Children Literature……………………………………………………………….11
The Definition of Picture Books…………………………………………………13
Types of Picture Books…………………………………………………………..16
The Functions of Picture Books………………………………………………….22
The Art of Pictures Delivery………………………………………..……22
Picture Books’ Contributions in Cognitive Learning of Life………….....22
Picture Books’ Contributions in Education……………………………....23
The Impact on Inner Perception Made by Picture Books’ Content and Visual Effects…………………………….................................................23
Picture Books’ Imagination Stimulation and Creativity Inspiration……..23
Picture Books’ Culture Dimensions……………………………………...24
(Children’s) Picture Books and EFL Learning………………………………......26
Approaches to Using Picture Books in the EFL Classroom…….……………….28
The Reader-Centered Approach to Literature………………..…………..28
Teaching Strategies for Picture Books in EFL Classroom……………………….30
Reading Aloud…………………………………………………………...30
Storytelling……………………………………………………………….31
Shared Reading…………………………………………………..………32
Book Discussion…………………………………………………………32
Related Studies on Picture Books………………………………………………..34
Functions of Picture Books……………………………………………....34
Picture Books Integrated into English Learning……………………..…..36
Chapter 3: Method
Participants……………………………………………………………………….44
Research Instrument……………………………………………………………...47
Pilot Study………………………………………………………………………..48
Data Collection………………………………………………………………......50
Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………….51
Chapter 4: Results and Discussions
Elementary School English Teachers’ Background Information………………...53
Elementary School English Teachers’ Viewpoints of the Functions of Picture Books…………………………………………………………………………….58
Interview Results of Teachers’ Opinions of the Functions of Picture Books……..……………………………………………………………………...61
Discussion of Research Question One...…………………..……………………..63
Elementary School English Teachers’ Use of Picture Books in the EFL Classroom……………………………………………………………………......64
Interview Results of Teachers’ Use of Picture Books……………………..……..80
Discussion of Research Questions Two and Three………………………..……..82
Elementary School English Teachers’ Reasons for not Using Picture Books in Teaching………………………………………………………………………….87
Interview Results of the Difficulties Encountered by Teachers in Using Picture Books in Teaching……………………………………………………………......90
Discussion of Research Question Four.………………………………………….91
Chapter 5: Conclusions, Implications, and Suggestions
Conclusions………………………………………………………………………95
Implications............................................................................................................98
Suggestions…………………………………………………………………........99
References……….………………………………………………...……………………101
Appendix A Questionnaire: The study of the functions and practices of picture books (Chinese Version)………………………………………………………...……………..106
Appendix B Questionnaire: The study of the functions and practices of picture books (English Version)………………………………………………………………………..110
Appendix C Interview Guide…………………………………………………………...115


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Distributions of the Participants………………………………………………….46
2 Case Processing Summary…………………………………………………….....49
3 Reliability Statistics……………………………………………………………...49
4 Case Processing Summary…………………………………………………….....49
5 Reliability Statistics……………………………………………………………...49
6 Research Questions and Analysis of Data……………………………………….52
7 Gender……………………………………………………………………………53
8 Age…………………………………………………………………………….....54
9 Years of Teaching Experiences…………………………………………………..54
10 Educational Background…………………………………………………………55
11 Position…………………………………………………………………………...55
12 Teaching Grade in Last Two Years……………………………...……………….56
13 Frequency of Attending Picture Book Workshops…………………….….….…..56
14 Use of Picture Books in Last Two Years………………………………….……...57
15 Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers’ Viewpoints of the Functions of Picture Books (N=110)……………………………………………………………….…..59
16 Case Processing Summary………………………………………………….…....60
17 Reliability Statistics…………………………………………………………….. 60
18 Participating Teachers’ Use of Picture Books in Last Two Years………...……...65
19 Frequency of Using Picture Books per Semester………………………………..66
20 Frequency of the Top Choice of Types of Picture Books in Teaching…………...66
21 Frequency of the Second Choice of Types of Picture Books in Teaching…….... 67
22 Frequency of the Third Choice of Types of Picture Books in Teaching…………67
23 Frequency of the Top Choice of Reasons of Using Picture Books in Teaching…68
24 Frequency of the Second Choice of Reasons of Using Picture Books in Teaching………………………………………………………………………….68
25 Frequency of the Third Choice of Reasons of Using Picture Books in Teaching………………………………………………………………..………...68
26 Frequency of the Top Choice of Ways to Obtain Picture Books………………...69
27 Frequency of the Second Choice of Ways to Obtain Picture Books……………..69
28 Frequency of the Third Choice of Ways to Obtain Picture Books……………….70
29 Frequency of the Top Choice of Methods for Students’ Picture Book Achievement Assessment………………………………………………………………..……...70
30 Frequency of the Second Choice of Methods for Students’ Picture Book Achievement Assessment……………………………………………..………….71
31 Frequency of the Third Choice of Methods for Students’ Picture Books Achievement Assessment………………………………………………………...71
32 Frequency of the Top Choice of Teacher’s Motivation to Use Picture Books in Teaching……………………………………………………………………….....72
33 Frequency of the Second Choice of Teacher’s Motivation to Use Picture Books in Teaching…………………………………………………………………….........72
34 Frequency of the Third Choice of Teacher’s Motivation to Use Picture Books in Teaching……………………………………………………………………….....73
35 Frequency of the Top Choice of Sources of Curriculum Design and Teaching Materials of Picture Books…………………………………………………….....73
36 Frequency of the Second Choice of Sources of Curriculum Design and Teaching Materials of Picture Books…………………………………………………….....74
37 Frequency of the Third Choice of Sources of Curriculum Design and Teaching Materials of Picture Books…………………………………………………….....74
38 Frequency of the Top Choice of Appropriate Learning Stages for Picture Books from Teachers’ Viewpoints………………………………………………………75
39 Frequency of the Second Choice of Appropriate Learning Stages for Picture Books from Teachers’ Viewpoints……….............................................................75
40 Frequency of the Third Choice of Appropriate Learning Stages for Picture Books from Teachers’ Viewpoints………………………………………………………76
41 Frequency of Difficulties Encountered by Teachers in Using Picture Books in Teaching…………………………………………………..……………………...77
42 Frequency of the Top Choice of Difficulties Encountered by Teachers in Using Picture Books in Teaching……………………………………………………….78
43 Frequency of the Second Choice of Difficulties Encountered by Teachers in Using Picture Books in Teaching…………………………………………………….…78
44 Frequency of the Third Choice of Difficulties Encountered by Teachers in Using Picture Books in Teaching………………………………………………….……79
45 Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers’ Reasons of not Using Picture Books in Teaching (N=31)…………………………………………………………………88
46 Case Processing Summary…………………………………………………….....89
47 Reliability Statistics……………………………………………………….……..89
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