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研究生:鄭雅文
研究生(外文):Ya-Wen Cheng
論文名稱:國中學生字彙學習策略之研究
論文名稱(外文):Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used and Taught in Junior High School
指導教授:陳桂容陳桂容引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuei-Jung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:98
語文別:英文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:字彙學習字彙學習策略字彙教學
外文關鍵詞:vocabulary learningvocabulary learning strategyvocabulary teaching
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和其他方面的語言學習比較起來,字彙學習相對變的不是那麼重要。但,事實上,字彙學習在聽、說、讀、寫這四種技巧上扮演著重要的角色。本研究主要的目的,是在探討台灣國中生在學習字彙時使用字彙學習策略的情形。首先,探究學生在使用字彙學習策略的頻率,並找出較常和較少用的字彙學習策略。此外,比較好的語言學習者和不好的語言學習者在使用字彙學習策略的情形和差異。最後,老師在課堂上是使用什麼樣的方法,幫助學生學習字彙。本研究以35位國中一年級的學生和一位老師為調查對象。研究工具主要為字彙學習策略問卷、個人資料問卷、字彙程度測驗、教室觀察和口頭訪談。資料的分析採用SPSS,包含描述性統計和獨立樣本t檢定。本研究結果如下: (1)國中學生使用字彙學策略的頻率並不高。 (2)國中學生偏向使用記憶策略和認知策略的某些項目,並且較少使用記憶策略和認知策略的某些項目。 (3)國中生較常使用表層策略,較少使用深層策略,例如,學生比較著重單字的念法和拼法,而且偏愛反覆背誦的方式。相反的,他們很少使用語言輔助的工具或是動作,像是筆記本。 (4)高成就者和低成就者在策略使用有明顯的不同,高成就者使用的策略較多樣化,而且也比較常使用策略。 (5) 高成就的學生使用猜測上下文,分析字根字首等深層策略發現新單字的意思。然而,低成就的學生則常使用較簡單和直接的表層策略,例如,向同學詢問字的意思。 (6)高成就的學生有比較高的學習動機,學習動機來自於內在,所以他們會主動去涉略其他有關語言的相關知識。相對的,低成就的學生學習動機較低,而且學習動機是來自於外在,例如,考試,所以在學習上比較被動。 (7)高成就的學生參加課後補習,著重在課外的語文知識像是聽、說和寫。然而,低成就的學生則沒有,即使有參加課後補習,也著重在學校的上課內容。 (8)老師根據不同的單字則使用不同的策略,不同的課堂活動,有時敘述一些個人的經驗,使學生加深對單字的印象。
Compared to other aspects of language learning, teachers pay less attention to vocabulary leaning. In fact, it plays an important role in four learning skills. The main purpose of the study is to research the kinds of vocabulary learning strategies usage by junior high school students in first grade. First of all, vocabulary learning strategy is used to survey the frequency of vocabulary learning strategies used by students and the most and least used strategies. In addition, the difference of vocabulary learning strategy used between high proficient students and low proficient students is compared. At last, the research also examines the way of teacher’s facilitation on students’ vocabulary learning. The data was collected from 35 the first grade students and a teacher in the junior high school in Tainan. The instrument consists of vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire, personal information questionnaire, vocabulary proficiency test, classroom observation and interview. The data was analyzed by SPSS, including descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The major findings of the study were summarized as follows. (1) JHS students are moderate users of vocabulary learning strategies. (2) JHS students have preference for using some items of memory strategies and cognitive strategies. In addition, they use some items of memory strategies and cognitive strategies least frequently. (3) JHS students employed shallow strategies more often than deep strategies. For example, they focus on words’ pronunciation and spelling and particularly favor repetition strategies. In contrast, they rarely employ study aids or physical action, such as notebooks. (4) There is a significant difference of using vocabulary learning strategies between high proficient students and low proficient students. High proficient students use a variety of strategies and they use them more often. (5) High proficient students use deep strategies to discover a new word’s meaning like guess from the text and analyze affixes and roots. However, low proficient students use more direct shallow strategies like asking classmates’ meaning. (6) High proficient students have high motivation which belongs to intrinsic motivation so they are active in obtaining other related knowledge. Nevertheless, low proficient students have low motivation which belongs to extrinsic motivation so they are passive in learning. (7) After school, high proficient students go to cram school or have a tutor and their content focus on listening, speaking and writing. Even though some low proficient students go to cram school, the content focus on what they learn in school. (8) The teacher takes advantage of different strategies and classroom activities to teach vocabulary. Sometimes she tells students her personal experience to make them have deep impression in the words.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………..i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………….ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………..iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………...v
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………...ix
LIST OF APPENDIXES………………………………………………………………x
Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………….1
Background…………………………………………………………………….....1
Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………...2
Research Questions……………………………………………………………….3
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………3
Definition of the Terms…………………………………………………………...3
The Organization of Thesis……………………………………………………….4
Chapter 2 Literature Review…………………………………………………..6
Motivation………………………………………………………………………..6
Vocabulary Learning Strategies ………………………………………………….7
Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes………………………………………………12
Skills of Memory in Vocabulary Learning………………………………...15
Related Studies of Vocabulary Learning Strategies…………………………….16
The Good Language Learners and Poor Language Learners…………………...17
Why Should Strategies be Taught? ……………………………………………..19
The Importance of Vocabulary Teaching and Its Implications………………….21
Chapter 3 Method……………………………………………………………….25
Qualitative and Quantitative Study……………………………………………..25
Participants……………………………………………………………………...26
Participants Selection……………………………………………………...26
Background and Characteristics…………………………………………..26
Teaching Instruction of Vocabulary……………………………………….27
Instruments……………………………………………………………………..28
Questionnaires……………………………………………………………..29
Proficiency Test……………………………………………………………30
Classroom Observation……………………………………………………31
Oral Interview……………………………………………………………..31
Procedures………………………………………………………………………32
Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………33
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions………………………………………......34
The Frequency of Overall Strategy Use and Each Strategy Category Use……..34
The Frequency of Determination Strategy Use……………………………35
The Frequency of Social Strategy Use……………………………….........36
The Frequency of Memory Strategy Use…………………………….........37
The Frequency of Cognitive Strategy Use………………………………...40
The Frequency of Metacognitive Strategy Use……………………………41
The Most and the Least Frequently Used Vocabulary Learning Strategies…….42
The Comparison of Overall Strategy Use between High Proficient Students and Low Proficient Students………………………………………………………...44
The Comparison of Strategy Category Use Between High and Low
Proficient Students………………………………………………………...45
A Comparison of Ten Most Frequently Used Strategies Between High
Proficient Students and Low Proficient Students………………………….46
Conclusion for the Differences of Vocabulary Learning Strategies using Between high proficient students and low proficient students………….....49
Oral Interview of High and Low Proficient Students……………………...49
The Teaching Instruction and Situation in the Classroom………………………51
Students’ Reaction to the Teacher’s Teaching…………………………………..53
Discussions for Frequencies of Overall Strategies Use…………………………53
Discussions for Frequencies of Determination Strategy Use……………...53
Discussions for Frequencies of Social Strategy Use………………………55
Discussions for Frequencies of Memory Strategy Use……………………55
Discussions for Frequencies of Cognitive Strategy Use…………………..56
Discussions for Frequencies of Metacognitive Strategy Use……………...57
Discussions for the Most and Least Frequently Used Vocabulary Learning
Strategies………………………………………………………………………..57
Discussions for the Difference in Strategy Use and Other Factors Affecting
Learning between High Proficient and Low Proficient Students……………….61
Discussions for the Teaching Instruction and Situation in the Classroom……...63
Chapter 5 Discussions and Conclusions
Summary of the Findings……………………………………………………….65
Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………...67
Suggestions for Future Study…………………………………………………...67
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………68
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………...69

List of Tables

Table 1 A simple taxonomy of vocabulary learning strategies………………………10
Table 2 A taxonomy of Schmitt’s Vocabulary Learning Strategies…………………..11
Table 3 Basic Background Information of Participants……………………………...27
Table 4 Strategies used in the classroom……………………………………………..28
Table 5 The frequency of overall strategy use and each strategy category use………35
Table 6 The average frequency of each determination strategy use………………….36
Table 7 The average frequency of each social strategy use…………………………..37
Table 8 The average frequency of each memory strategy use……………………….39
Table 9 The average frequency of each cognitive strategy use………………………40
Table 10 The average frequency of each metacognitive strategy use………………..41
Table 11 The most frequently used vocabulary learning strategies………………43
Table 12 The least frequently used vocabulary learning strategies………………44
Table 13 A comparison of overall strategy use between high proficient students and
low Proficient students……………………………………………………...45
Table 14 A Comparison of Strategy Category Use between High and Low Proficient
Students……………………………………………………………………..46
Table 15 The Ten Most Used Strategies by High & Low Proficient Students……….48
Table 16 The times of Strategies Using in the Classroom……………………………52
Table 17 The most frequently used strategies………………………………………..58
Table 18 The least frequently used strategies………………………………………...60


List of Figures

Figure 1 The description of affix (only for English)…………………………………13
Figure 2 Diagram of new information from sensory data to long-term memory…….16

List of Appendices

Appendix A: Personal information questionnaire (students)………………………...76
Appendix B: Vocabulary learning strategy questionnaires (students)………………..77
Appendix C: Personal information questionnaire (teacher)……………………….....80
Appendix D: Interview……………………………………………………………….82
Appendix E: Consent form…………………………………………………………...83
Appendix F: Observation record……………………………………………………..84
Appendix G: Classroom setting……………………………………………………...89
Appendix H: Proficiency test………………………………………………………...90
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