(3.80.6.131) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/15 01:59
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:林附偉
研究生(外文):Lin Fu Wei
論文名稱:探討omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料對大鼠神經行為的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids deficient diet on neurobehavior in rat
指導教授:盧錫祺盧錫祺引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lu Hsi Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:多元不飽和脂肪酸憂鬱症腦衍生神經營養因子
外文關鍵詞:polyunsaturated fatty aciddepressionbrain-derived neurotrophic factor
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:394
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:78
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
現今憂鬱症已是不可輕忽的精神疾病,世界衛生組織也把憂鬱症列為二十一世紀三大疾病之一。流行病學研究發現,補充omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸可改善憂鬱症患者的臨床症狀,反之,若飲食缺乏omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸則會更加惡化憂鬱症患者的臨床症狀。這些發現暗示著omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸含量變化與憂鬱症的產生及惡化可能有極大的關係。雖然補充omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸在生理上的活性機制已被廣泛研究,但是缺乏omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸後對於神經活性影響的分子機制還不明確。本研究的目的主要探討餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料是否會影響動物神經行為及探討影響神經行為的分子作用機制,特別著重於似憂鬱症行為方面的變化。結果發現,大鼠餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料後會增加懸吊尾測試及強迫水測試的靜止時間,表示似憂鬱症行為的產生。相對於正常飼料組動物,餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料動物腦組織重量明顯下降、神經元細胞數量降低、神經元細胞相關的NeuN蛋白質表現量降低、寡樹突細胞相關的CNPase蛋白質表現量降低,但是卻增加星狀神經膠細胞相關的GFAP蛋白質表現。藉由BrdU標定探討大腦神經新生變化發現,餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料動物,腦組織中BrdU陽性細胞數量顯著低於對照組。西方轉漬分析結果顯示餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料動物,腦組織內與內源性神經幹細胞相關的特異性標誌蛋白質如Nestin、Klf4及Sox2等表現量都比對照飼料組低。進一步更發現餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料動物,腦組織及血漿中腦衍生神經營養因子含量都低於對照組。本論文的研究結果說明,餵食omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸缺乏飼料會造成動物似憂鬱症行為的表現,而似憂鬱症神經行為的表現則伴隨有內源性神經幹細胞數量下降、神經新生活性下降及腦衍生神經營養因子表現下降等。
Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder. World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the depression is one of major diseases in the twenty-first century. Epidemiological studies show that supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve clinical outcome of depression patients. In contrast, diet deficient of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exacerbates clinical outcome. These observations suggest that the alteration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content may have a role in the induction and augmentation of depression. While the action mechanisms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the physiological processes have been widely studies, the effect and potential action mechanisms of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency on neurobehavior remain largely unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet alters animal neurobehavior and what is the potential action mechanism, focusing on depression-related changes. Rats fed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet showed prolonged immobility time in tail suspension test and forced swimming test, indicating a depression-like behavior. In comparing with control normal diet, rats fed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet showed decreases in brain weight, neuronal number, and NeuN and CNPase protein expression but increase in GFAP protein expression. The BrdU incorporation assay showed a decreased number of proliferating cells in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet-fed animals. Western blot analysis revealed that rats fed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet expressed lower levels of Nestin, Klf4, and Sox 2 protein in cerebral cortices. Besides, a decreased level of BDNF was detected in cerebral cortices and plasma when rats were fed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet. In conclusion, our results show that supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient diet may cause rats expressing depression-like behavior. This diet-induced behavioral alteration was accompanied by decreased number of endogenous neural stem cells, decreased neurogenesis, and decreased BDNF expression.
中文摘要 1
Abstract 3
文獻回顧 5
壹、憂鬱症 5
一、憂鬱症分類及成因 5
二、憂鬱症治療 7
貳、脂肪酸 10
一、Omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸 11
二、Omega-3多元不飽和脂肪酸與憂鬱症 12
參、神經營養因子 13
一、腦衍生神經營養因子 14
二、腦衍生神經營養因子與憂鬱症 15
三、腦衍生神經營養因子與神經新生 16
肆、實驗目的 17
材料與方法 19
壹、材料: 19
一、飼料 19
二、實驗動物 19
三、抗體 20
四、引子序列 20
貳、實驗方法 21
一、實驗組別 21
二、行為評估 21
(一) Open field行為測試 21
(二) 懸吊尾測試(Tail Suspension Test, TST) 22
(三) 強迫水測試(Forced swimming test, FST) 22
三、組織染色 23
(一) 檢體處理 23
(二) 免疫螢光染色 23
(三) BrdU標定染色 24
四、蛋白質分析 24
(一) 蛋白質備製 24
(二) 西方轉漬 24
五、反轉錄聚合酶連鎖反應 25
(一) RNA萃取 25
(二) mRNA 反轉錄 26
(三) 聚合酶連鎖反應 26
六、酵素連結免疫分析法 27
七、統計分析 28
結果 29
討論 37
結論 45
圖表 46
參考文獻 65


圖表目次 頁數

圖一、飼料配方。 48
圖二、母鼠攝食及體重變化量 49
圖三、每胎平均仔鼠數 50
圖四、母鼠活動量及似憂鬱症行為測試 51
圖五、3週齡仔鼠似憂鬱症行為測試 52
圖六、3週齡仔鼠體重及腦組織重變化 53
圖八、3週齡仔鼠腦部神經元細胞數及新生神經元細胞 57
圖九、3週齡仔鼠腦部細胞型態分析 59
圖十、3週齡仔鼠腦衍生神經營養因子變化 61
圖十一、3週齡仔鼠腦部CREB磷酸化程度 62
圖十二、3週齡仔鼠腦部內源性神經幹細胞特異性標誌蛋白質表現量 64
參考文獻
Ahmad A, Moriguchi T, Salem N (2002) Decrease in neuron size in docosahexaenoic acid-deficient brain. Pediatr Neurol 26(3): 210-8

Ahmad SO, Park JH, Radel JD, Levant B (2008) Reduced numbers of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area of rats fed an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient diet: a stereological study. Neurosci Lett 438(3): 303-7

Altar CA, DiStefano PS (1998) Neurotrophin trafficking by anterograde transport. Trends Neurosci 21(10): 433-7

Angelucci F, Brenè S, Mathé AA (2005) BDNF in schizophrenia, depression and corresponding animal models. Mol Psychiatry 10(4): 345-52

Bonni A, Sun Y, Nadal-Vicens M, Bhatt A, Frank DA, Rozovsky I, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD, Greenberg ME (1997) Regulation of gliogenesis in the central nervous system by the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Science 278(5337): 477-83

Buntinx M, Moreels M, Vandenabeele F, Lambrichts I, Raus J, Steels P, Stinissen P, Ameloot M (2004) Cytokine-induced cell death in human oligodendroglial cell lines: I. Synergistic effects of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on apoptosis. J Neurosci Res 76(6): 834-45

Calder PC (2006) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 83(6 Suppl): 1505S-1519S

Carrié I, Clément M, de Javel D, Francès H, Bourre JM (2000) Phospholipid supplementation reverses behavioral and biochemical alterations induced by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in mice. J Lipid Res 41(3): 473-80

Chermat R, Thierry B, Mico JA, Steru L, Simon P (1986) Adaptation of the tail suspension test to the rat. J Pharmacol 17(3): 348-50

Church MW, Jen KL, Dowhan LM, Adams BR, Hotra JW (2008) Excess and deficient omega-3 fatty acid during pregnancy and lactation cause impaired neural transmission in rat pups. Neurotoxicol Teratol 30(2): 107-17

Connor B, Dragunow M (1998) The role of neuronal growth factors in neurodegenerative disorders of the human brain. Brain Res Rev 27(1): 1-39

Conti AC, Cryan JF, Dalvi A, Lucki I, Blendy JA (2002) cAMP response element-binding protein is essential for the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription, but not the behavioral or endocrine responses to antidepressant drugs. J Neurosci 22(8): 3262-8

Cordain L, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O'Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J (2005) Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 81(2): 341-54

Coti Bertrand P, O'Kusky JR, Innis SM (2006) Maternal dietary (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alters neurogenesis in the embryonic rat brain. J Nutr 136(6): 1570-5

Cryan JF, Mombereau C, Vassout A (2005) The tail suspension test as a model for assessing antidepressant activity: review of pharmacological and genetic studies in mice. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29(4-5): 571-625

Czéh B, Welt T, Fischer AK, Erhardt A, Schmitt W, Müller MB, Toschi N, Fuchs E, Keck ME (2002) hronic psychosocial stress and concomitant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: effects on stress hormone levels and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Biol Psychiatry 52(11): 1057-65

Delion S, Chalon S, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, Durand G (1996) alpha-Linolenic acid dietary deficiency alters age-related changes of dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission in the rat frontal cortex. J Neurochem 66(4): 1582-91

DeMar JC, Ma K, Bell JM, Igarashi M, Greenstein D, Rapoport SI (2006) One generation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation increases depression and aggression test scores in rats. J Lipid Res 47(1): 172-80

Di Matteo V, Di Giovanni G, Di Mascio M, Esposito E (2000) Effect of acute administration of hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine and serotonin release in the rat central nervous system. Pharmacopsychiatry 33(1): 14-8

Dinan T, Siggins L, Scully P, O'Brien S, Ross P, Stanton C (2009) Investigating the inflammatory phenotype of major depression: focus on cytokines and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Psychiatr Res 43(4): 471-6

Faraone SV, Kremen WS, Tsuang MT (1990) Genetic transmission of major affective disorders: quantitative models and linkage analyses. Psychol Bull 108(1): 109-27

Finkbeiner S (2000) CREB couples neurotrophin signals to survival messages. Neuron 25(1): 11-4

Frances H, Monier C, Clement M, Lecorsier A, Debray M, Bourre JM (1996) Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency on habituation. Life Sci 58(21): 1805-16

Freeman MP, Hibbeln JR, Wisner KL, Davis JM, Mischoulon D, Peet M, Keck PE Jr, Marangell LB, Richardson AJ, Lake J, Stoll AL (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry 67(12): 1954-67

Gavillet M, Allaman I, Magistretti PJ (2008) Modulation of astrocytic metabolic phenotype by proinflammatory cytokines. Glia 56(9): 975-89

Gonul AS, Akdeniz F, Taneli F, Donat O, Eker C, Vahip S (2005) Effect of treatment on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in depressed patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 255(6): 381-6

Hempstead BL (2006) Dissecting the diverse actions of pro- and mature neurotrophins. Curr Alzheimer Res 3(1): 19-24

Hibbeln JR. (1998) Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet 351(9110): 1213

Hibbeln JR, Nieminen LR, Blasbalg TL, Riggs JA, Lands WE (2006) Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity. Am J Clin Nutr 83(6 Suppl): 1483S-1493S

Hu Y, Russek SJ (2008) BDNF and the diseased nervous system: a delicate balance between adaptive and pathological processes of gene regulation. J Neurochem 105(1): 1-17

Huang SY, Yang HT, Chiu CC, Pariante CM, Su KP (2008) Omega-3 fatty acids on the forced-swimming test. J Psychiatr Res 42(1): 58-63

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (2002) Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 287(14): 1807-14

Ikemoto A, Nitta A, Furukawa S, Ohishi M, Nakamura A, Fujii Y, Okuyama H (2000) Dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency decreases nerve growth factor content in rat hippocampus. Neurosci Lett 285(2): 99-102

Innis SM (2007) Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr 137(4): 855-9

Jiang LH, Shi Y, Wang LS, Yang ZR (2009) The influence of orally administered docosahexaenoic acid on cognitive ability in aged mice. J Nutr Biochem 20(9): 735-41

Karege F, Perret G, Bondolfi G, Schwald M, Bertschy G, Aubry (2002) JM Decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in major depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 109(2): 143-8

Kitajka K, Sinclair AJ, Weisinger RS, Weisinger HS, Mathai M, Jayasooriya AP, Halver JE, Puskás LG (2004) Effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(30): 10931-6

Lee KM, Kim YK (2006) The role of IL-12 and TGF-beta1 in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Int Immunopharmacol 6(8): 1298-304

Lendahl U, Zimmerman LB, McKay RD. (1990) CNS stem cells express a new class of intermediate filament protein. Cell 60(4): 585-95

Levinson DF (2006) The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry 60(2): 84-92

Li J, Ramenaden ER, Peng J, Koito H, Volpe JJ, Rosenberg PA (2008) Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial toxicity to developing oligodendrocytes when astrocytes are present. J Neurosci 28(20): 5321-30

Logan AC (2003) Neurobehavioral aspects of omega-3 fatty acids: possible mechanisms and therapeutic value in major depression. Altern Med Rev 8(4): 410-25

Marmigère F, Givalois L, Rage F, Arancibia S, Tapia-Arancibia L (2003) apid induction of BDNF expression in the hippocampus during immobilization stress challenge in adult rats. Hippocampus 13(5): 646-55

McAllister AK, Katz LC, Lo DC (1999) Neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity. Annu Rev Neurosci 22: 295-318

McTigue DM, Tripathi RB (2008) The life, death, and replacement of oligodendrocytes in the adult CNS. J Neurochem 107(1): 1-19

Miller AH, Maletic V, Raison CL (2009) Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 65(9): 732-41

Monteggia LM, Barrot M, Powell CM, Berton O, Galanis V, Gemelli T, Meuth S, Nagy A, Greene RW, Nestler EJ (2004) Essential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult hippocampal function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(29): 10827-32

Molteni R, Barnard RJ, Ying Z, Roberts CK, Gómez-Pinilla F (2002) A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning. Neuroscience 112(4): 803-14

Moore SA (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and release by brain-derived cells in vitro. J Mol Neurosci 16(2-3): 195-200

Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH (2002) Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 159(3): 477-9

Nemets H, Nemets B, Apter A, Bracha Z, Belmaker RH (2006) Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 163(6): 1098-100

Nestler EJ, Barrot M, DiLeone RJ, Eisch AJ, Gold SJ, Monteggia LM (2002) Neurobiology of depression. Neuron 34(1): 13-25

Nibuya M, Morinobu S, Duman RS (1995) Regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA in rat brain by chronic electroconvulsive seizure and antidepressant drug treatments. J Neurosci 15(11): 7539-47

Numakawa T, Suzuki S, Kumamaru E, Adachi N, Richards M, Kunugi H (2010) BDNF function and intracellular signaling in neurons. Histol Histopathol 25(2): 237-58

Okano H (2002a) Neural stem cells: progression of basic research and perspective for clinical application. Keio J Med 51(3): 115-28

Okano H (2002b) Stem cell biology of the central nervous system. J Neurosci Res 69(6): 698-707

Peet M, Stokes C (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Drugs 65(8): 1051-9

Peet M, Murphy B, Shay J, Horrobin D (1998) Depletion of omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cell membranes of depressive patients. Biol Psychiatry 43(5): 315-9

Porsolt RD, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M (1977) Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature 266(5604): 730-2

Rajan P, McKay RD (1998) Multiple routes to astrocytic differentiation in the CNS. J Neurosci 18(10): 3620-9

Rajkowska G, Miguel-Hidalgo JJ, Wei J, Dilley G, Pittman SD, Meltzer HY, Overholser JC, Roth BL, Stockmeier CA (1999) Morphometric evidence for neuronal and glial prefrontal cell pathology in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 45(9): 1085-98

Rapoport SI, Rao JS, Igarashi M (2007) Brain metabolism of nutritionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acids depends on both the diet and the liver. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 77(5-6): 251-61

Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey GC Jr (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 123(11): 1939-51

Reichardt LF (2006) Neurotrophin-regulated signalling pathways. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361(1473): 1545-64

Saarelainen T, Hendolin P, Lucas G, Koponen E, Sairanen M, MacDonald E, Agerman K, Haapasalo A, Nawa H, Aloyz R, Ernfors P, Castrén E (2003) Activation of the TrkB neurotrophin receptor is induced by antidepressant drugs and is required for antidepressant-induced behavioral effects. J Neurosci 23(1): 349-57

Sapolsky RM (1990) Glucocorticoids, hippocampal damage and the glutamatergic synapse. Prog Brain Res 86: 13-23

Sinclair AJ, Begg D, Mathai M, Weisinger RS (2007) Omega 3 fatty acids and the brain: review of studies in depression. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16(Suppl 1): 391-7

Sioen I, De Henauw S, Verbeke W, Verdonck F, Willems JL, Van Camp J (2008) Fish consumption is a safe solution to increase the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Public Health Nutr 11(11): 1107-16

Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW (2003) Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13(4): 267-71

Suarez EC, Krishnan RR, Lewis JG (2003) The relation of severity of depressive symptoms to monocyte-associated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in apparently healthy men. Psychosom Med 65(3): 362-8

Sun Y, Shi J, Lu PH (2002) Neurotrophic factors and neural stem cells. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan 33(4): 313-6
Takahashi M, Shirakawa O, Toyooka K, Kitamura N, Hashimoto T, Maeda K, Koizumi S, Wakabayashi K, Takahashi H, Someya T, Nawa H (2000) Abnormal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor in the corticolimbic system of schizophrenic patients. Mol Psychiatry 5(3): 293-300

Thase ME, Greenhouse JB, Frank E, Reynolds CF 3rd, Pilkonis PA, Hurley K, Grochocinski V, Kupfer DJ (1997) Treatment of major depression with psychotherapy or psychotherapy-pharmacotherapy combinations. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54(11): 1009-15

Thoenen H (2000) Neurotrophins and activity-dependent plasticity. Prog Brain Res 128: 183-91

Thornton P, Pinteaux E, Gibson RM, Allan SM, Rothwell NJ (2006) Interleukin-1-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by glia and requires caspase activation and free radical release. J Neurochem 98(1): 258-66

Vaidyanathan VV, Rao KV, Sastry PS (1994) Regulation of diacylglycerol kinase in rat brain membranes by docosahexaenoic acid. Neurosci Lett 179(1-2): 171-4

Venna VR, Deplanque D, Allet C, Belarbi K, Hamdane M, Bordet R (2009) PUFA induce antidepressant-like effects in parallel to structural and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(2): 199-211

West AE, Chen WG, Dalva MB, Dolmetsch RE, Kornhauser JM, Shaywitz AJ, Takasu MA, Tao X, Greenberg ME (2001) Calcium regulation of neuronal gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(20): 11024-31

Wichers M, Maes M (2002) The psychoneuroimmuno-pathophysiology of cytokine-induced depression in humans. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 5(4): 375-88

Ximenes da Silva A, Lavialle F, Gendrot G, Guesnet P, Alessandri JM, Lavialle M (2002) Glucose transport and utilization are altered in the brain of rats deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Neurochem 81(6): 1328-37

Ying SW, Futter M, Rosenblum K, Webber MJ, Hunt SP, Bliss TV, Bramham CR (2002) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces long-term potentiation in intact adult hippocampus: requirement for ERK activation coupled to CREB and upregulation of Arc synthesis. J Neurosci 22(5): 1532-40

Yuluğ B, Ozan E, Gönül AS, Kilic E (2009) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, stress and depression: a minireview. Brain Res Bull 78(6): 267-9

Zetterström TS, Pei Q, Madhav TR, Coppell AL, Lewis L, Grahame-Smith DG (1999) Manipulations of brain 5-HT levels affect gene expression for BDNF in rat brain. Neuropharmacology 38(7): 1063-73

Zigova T, Pencea V, Wiegand SJ, Luskin MB (1998) Intraventricular administration of BDNF increases the number of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb. Mol Cell Neurosci 11(4): 234-45

Zimmer L, Vancassel SD, Durand G, Guilloteau D, Bodard S, Besnard JC, Chalon S (2000) Modification of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of rats deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 41(1): 32-40

Zimmer L, Vancassel S, Cantagrel S, Breton P, Delamanche S, Guilloteau D, Durand G, Chalon S (2002) The dopamine mesocorticolimbic pathway is affected by deficiency in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 75(4): 662-7

李明濱主編 (1999) 實用精神科學. 台灣: 台大醫學院/金名圖書
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊