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研究生:邱熙惠
研究生(外文):Hsi-Hui Chiu
論文名稱:德國特里爾大教堂建築形式之演進
論文名稱(外文):The Evolution of Architectural Form on Trier Cathedral in Germany
指導教授:賴瑞鎣賴瑞鎣引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北藝術大學
系所名稱:美術史研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:美術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:特里爾君士坦丁巴西利卡教堂仿羅馬式建築
外文關鍵詞:Trierconstantinebasilican churchRomanesque architecture
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在今日德國最古老的城市特里爾城內,矗立著一座宏偉的教堂─特里爾大教堂。自西元326年君士坦丁時期開始興建以來,歷經朝代的流轉和幾次的翻修,如今以莊嚴穩重、猶如堡壘一般的仿羅馬式建築呈現於世人面前,其悠遠的歷史背景和低調沉靜的建築風格,深具引人入勝的魅力。每種風格反映的是每個不同時代的各種變遷,舉凡社會、風俗、文化、思想等,都是不可忽視的變化因素。教堂作為一種精神象徵,其無形的力量因為堅定的信仰而得以永垂不朽,但作為有形的藝術形式,仍不免遭受天災或人為的破壞而改變原有的風貌,尤其像特里爾大教堂跨越了將近一千七百年的歷史,因應宗教儀式的增加和時代風格的影響所做的增修整建,必然無法免之;然而,如何在修建的過程中融合不同的風格元素、取得平衡,並保有原來的特色,無論是在精神思想上或是形式樣貌的層面上,特里爾大教堂都是一個極好的例子。
特里爾大教堂在每一階段的興建過程和改建重點,都有其產生的背景,這背後促成的原因,即是本論文所致力探討的。例如:雙巴西利卡教堂特殊的形式安排和主要的功能用途為何?如何從這點來看君士坦丁的巴西利卡教堂,以及其所代表的意義?葛拉先皇帝改建的特里爾大教堂東端,其中央集中式的立方體結構,又反映了何種時代背景和建築趨勢?在進入仿羅馬式建築之前,歷經了查理曼大帝擬古取法的卡洛林王朝文藝復興運動和歐托王朝的繼承與試驗,因而造就了仿羅馬式風格的形成,這一段變化進程對特里爾大教堂的仿羅馬式風格有何影響?其與同一地區的仿羅馬式教堂之間,又有何異同之處?這些異同的特色如何反映在建築語彙的組合上?都是極富意義而值得探究的問題。
就歷史的角度來說,特里爾大教堂擁有悠久而豐富的歷史淵源;以建築的角度來看,特里爾大教堂就如同其外觀一般,於樸實無華中顯現真實偉大。在本論文中,將藉由研究特里爾大教堂的發展,從中體會與感受其豐富的歷史意義與藝術內涵。過去歷朝歷代的榮光會褪色、會消逝,但屬於特里爾大教堂的歷史、藝術和宗教精神則會永恆存在,那是令人再三流連、感懷讚嘆的。


In the oldest city in Germany, Trier, where stands a magnificent architecture – Trier Cathedral. It was built by Constantine in A.D. 326, and as time went by, there were restoration and renovation due to the barbarian’s invasion and destruction. Now Trier Cathedral survives with stern, castle-like Romanesque church in this old roman city, its historical background and serene, stated architectural style are full of irresistible and amazing charms for people who are interested in history and architecture. Every single architectural style reflects different kinds of changes on different ages, such as society, custom, culture and thought, which are the important factors and could never be overlooked easily. The cathedral as a sacred symbol, its invisible and invincible power would last forever because of the firm and loyal faith; however, as a visible and breakable art form, it would be destroyed by the natural and human disaster more or less, especially a grand architecture like Trier Cathedral which has been there for almost 1700 years. It is inevitable that there must be the restoration and reconstruction for the increasing ceremonies on religion and the influences by different styles. Nevertheless, how to get those different styles and factors merge together appropriately and make them look balanced on one architecture during the construction and renovation, and then keep the original characters, whether in the spirit of the thought or art forms, they are all tough and tricky, but it seems that Trier Cathedral had demonstrated a fine example.
There are some crucial causes and problems on every building stage when constructing and reconstructing Trier Cathedral, those are the key points in this thesis. For instance, what are the unique form and arrangement with actual functions when concerning about Trier’s double basilica in Constantinian age? How to explore Constantine’s basilican church style and figure out its representation when applying them to discuss Trier’s double basilica? What kind of the trends did the centralized square structure which Gratian renovated on east side of Trier Cathedral reveal at that time? Before the Romanesque times, the promotion of Charlemagne’s Carolingian Renaissance and the successive Ottonian arts had come up with the splendid Romanesque art. How could this progress work on Trier Cathedral? And what were the similarities and differences between those Romanesque churches in the same region when comparing them to Trier Cathedral? How could these architectural characters be displayed when combining the different architectural languages? These mean a lot and are worth researching.
In the historical respect, Trier Cathedral had attended so many events for a long time; and from the architectural points of view, Trier Cathedral is just as its unsung look, telling the true greatness with mere simplicity and humbleness. In this thesis, the significance and the spirit of art will be presented by researching the history and development of Trier Cathedral. The honor of the old empires would fade out and disappear, but the history, religion and art which belong to Trier cathedral would live with eternity, and make people wander and marvel again and again.


目錄

前言 …………………………………………………………………………… 01

緒論 ……………………………………………………………………………. 03

第1章 羅馬古城特里爾
1-1 特里爾城之興起 …………………………………………………………… 12
1-2 君士坦丁與特里爾 ………………………………………………………… 15

第2章 羅馬帝國時代的特里爾大教堂
2-1 特里爾大教堂的起源 ……………………………………………………… 18
2-2 君士坦丁時期特里爾大教堂之雙巴西利卡 ……………………………… 26
2-3 瓦倫提尼安到葛拉先時期對特里爾大教堂的改建 ……………………… 31

第3章 特里爾大教堂仿羅馬式建築風格的形成
3-1 北方民族入主歐洲和新建築形式的出現 ………………………………… 34
3-2 西元五到十世紀特里爾大教堂的破壞與重建 …………………………… 39
3-3 西元十一到十三世紀特里爾大教堂的增修 ……………………………… 44

第4章 特里爾大教堂之形式與結構分析
4-1 萊茵河地區的仿羅馬式風格 ……………………………………………… 48
4-2 西正面 ……………………………………………………………………… 51
4-3 東端和南北二側 …………………………………………………………… 53
4-4 特里爾大教堂後續的修建部分─哥德時期和巴洛克時期的建造 ……… 56

結論 …………………………………………………………………………….. 60
參考書目 ………………………………………………………………………. 64

附錄
1 特里爾大教堂歷任主教 ……………………………………………………… 68
2 特里爾大教堂建築史 ………………………………………………………… 72

圖版 …………………………………………………………………………… .. 74


參考書目

西文:
‧Altet, Xavier Barral i. The Romanesque: towns, cathedrals and monasteries. Taschen, 2001.
‧Calkins, Robert G.. Medieval Architecture in Western Europe-from A.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
‧Clapham, A. W.. Romanesque Architecture in Western Europe. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936.
‧Conant, Kenneth John. Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture 800-1200. Yale University Press, 1978.
‧Doig, Alan. Liturgy and Architecture: From the Early Church to the Middle Ages. Ashgate Pub Co, 2008.
‧Eusebius/ Williamson, G. A. Eusebius: The History of the Church from Christ to Constantine. Penguin USA, 1990.
‧Focillon, Henri. The Art of the West in the Middle Ages. Vol. I. Romanesque Art. Oxford: Phaidon, 1963.
‧Grant, Michael. History of Rome. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978.
‧Heichelheim, Fritz M. and Yeo, Cedric A.. A History of the Roman People. New Jersey: Eaglewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1962.
‧Holloway, R. Ross. Constantine & Rome. Yale University Press, 2004.
‧Kempf, Theodor Konrad. Untersuchungen und Beobachtungen am Trierer Dom 1961-1963. Sonderdruck aus Germania 42, 1964. 1.-2. Halbband, S. 126-141.
‧Kostof, Spiro. The City Shape: urban patterns and meanings through history. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
‧Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. Yale University Press, 1986.
‧Krautheimer, Richard. Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art. New York: New York University Press, 1969.
‧Kubach, Hans Erich. Romanesque Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1975.
‧MacDonald, William. Early Christian & Byzantine Architecture. New York: George Braziller, 1985.
‧Norman, Edward R.. The House of God: church architecture, style and history. London: Thames & Hudson, 2005.
‧Ronig, Franz. Der Dom zu Trier. Taunus: Die Blauen Bücher, 1982.
‧Ronig, Franz. Der Dom zu Trier. Trier: Paulinus-Verlag, 1982.
‧Saalman, Howard. Medieval Architecture. New York: George Braziller, 1962.
‧Stalley, Roger. Early Medieval Architecture. Oxford University Press, 1999.
‧Toman, Rolf. Romanesque: architecture, sculpture, painting. Koln: Koneman, 1997.
‧Ward-Perkins, J.B.. Roman Imperial Architecture. Yale University Press, 1994.
‧Yarwood, Doreen. A Chronology of Western Architecture. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1987.
‧Zevi, Bruno. Architecture as Space: how to look at architecture. New York: Horizon Press, 1957.

中文:
‧王任光,《中古歐洲史上之政教關係》,臺北市:臺灣商務,民61。
‧王任光,《羅馬帝國與基督教》,臺北市:臺灣學生,民66。
‧王維潔,《方舟之石:基督教堂千禧之演》,臺北市:田園城市,民98。
‧吉朋(Gibbon, Edward)著;席代岳譯,《羅馬帝國衰亡史》(The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire),臺北市:聯經,民93。
‧克特金(Kotkin, Joel)著;蔡佩妏譯,《城市的歷史》(The City: A Global History),臺北市:左岸文化,民95。
‧孟福(Lewis Mumford)著;宋俊嶺、倪文彥譯,《歷史中的城市─起源、演變與展望》(The City in History – Its Origins, Transformations, and Its Prospects),臺北市:建築與文化出版,民83。
‧波爾桑德(Pohlsander, Hans A.)著;許綬南譯,《君士坦丁》(The Emperor Constantine)。臺北市:麥田,民88。
‧威廉斯(Williams, Brian),《透視要塞與城堡》,臺北市:正傳,民83。
‧范毅舜,《德國文化遺產行旅》,臺北市:積木文化,民95。
‧柯霍(Koch, Wilfried),《建築風格學:歐洲建築藝術的典型─從古典到當代》,臺北市:龍溪,民89。
‧陣內秀信等著;蔡青雯譯,《圖說西洋建築史》,臺北市:臉譜,民98。
‧馮作民,《西洋全史(五):中古歐洲》上、下冊,臺北市:燕京文化,民68。
‧褚瑞基,《建築歷程:建築歷史.建築理論.建築評論,從遠古時期到文藝復興》,臺北市:田園城市,民89。
‧漢斯維爾納‧格茨(Hans-Werner Goetz)編;王亞平譯,《歐洲中世紀生活》,東方出版社,民91。
‧赵鑫珊,《罗马风建筑─信仰与象征》,上海:上海辞书出版社,民97。
‧潘諾夫斯基(Erwin Panofsky),《造型藝術的意義》。臺北市:遠流,民85。
‧諾伯格‧舒爾斯(Norberg-Schulz, Christian),《西方建築的意義》(Meaning in the western architecture),北京:中國建築工業,民94。
‧賴瑞鎣,《早期基督教藝術》,臺北市:雄獅,民90。

期刊:
‧Armstrong, Gregory T. “Constantine’s Churches”. Gesta, vol. 6, 1967, pp.1-9.
‧Armstrong, Gregory T. “Constantine’s Churches: Symbol and Structure”. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 33, no. 1, 1974, pp.5-16.
‧Head, Thomas “Art and Artifice in Ottonian Trier”. Gesta, vol.36, no.1, 1997, pp.65-82.
‧Krautheimer, Richard “Constantinian Basilica”. Dumbarton Oaks Paper, vol. 21, 1967, pp.115-140.
‧Rose, Marice E. “The Trier Ceiling: Power and Status on Display in Late Antiquity”. Greece & Rome, vol.5., no. 1, 2006, pp.92-109.
‧賴瑞鎣,〈中古世紀的城市─維也納新城〉,《藝術學》第十期,民82,頁77-120。
‧賴瑞鎣,〈科隆大教堂建築史〉,《藝術評論》第六期,民83-84,頁63-85。
網站資源:
http://cms.trier.de/frontend/resource/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porta_Nigra
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trier
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trier_Cathedral
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/journals/CJ/29/1/Roman_Trier*.html
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/367
http://www.clipart.com/en/search/split?q=Trier&a=i
http://www.dominformation.de/internet-en/nav/f98/f987062d-4947-8e01-54ab-d11d8bc1d2b3.htm
http://www.german-way.com/germany-trier.html
http://www.livius.org/to-ts/trier/trier.html
http://www.ricksteves.com/plan/destinations/germany/trier.htm
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/germany/trier-cathedral
http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM1ARH
http://www.world66.com/europe/germany/rhinelandpalatinate/trier/history


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