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研究生:任光瑞
研究生(外文):Ren, Guang-Ruei
論文名稱:數位影像驗證與浮水印之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Techniques of Digital Image Authentication and Watermarking
指導教授:吳汶涓
指導教授(外文):Wu, Wen-Chuan
口試委員:林智揚吳汶涓梁祐銘
口試委員(外文):Lin Chih-Yang LinWu, Wen-ChuanLiang Yu-Ming
口試日期:100/06/27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:真理大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:30
中文關鍵詞:向量量化編碼法邊緣吻合預測數獨四元樹分割影像完整性
外文關鍵詞:Vector QuantizationTorus AutomorphismSide-Match PredictionSudokuQuad-Tree PartitionImage Integrity
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為了驗證經由網路傳輸的數位影像之完整性,本學位論文提出兩個影像驗證技術,第一個方法為植基於壓縮與預測機制之影像驗證技術,主要針對影像區塊產生特殊的壓縮驗證碼,接著,將驗證碼與相關還原資訊嵌入於數位影像。當之後接收到可疑的數位影像時,可以藉由檢查驗證碼之完整性來檢驗該影像是否遭到竄改,並且利用從該影像中取出的還原資訊來大致恢復那些被竄改之區塊;第二個方法為改良且植基於數獨規則的影像驗證技術,主要根據每個影像區塊的特徵來修改區塊中的像素值,使其符合數獨之規則,當接收者收到可疑的影像時,便可以藉由數獨規則來檢查個別區塊是否遭受惡意竄改。實驗結果顯示,提出的兩個影像驗證技術皆能使得加入驗證碼後的影像仍維持不錯的品質,而且能有效地、精準地標示出影像中被竄改的位置。
In order to verify the integrity of digital images that are transmitted via the Internet, this thesis proposed two image authentication schemes. One of them is an image authentication technique based on a data compression and prediction mechanism. For image blocks, first is to produce special verification codes, and next, these codes and other information related to data recovery will be embedded into the
image. When someone receives a suspicious image, he/she can check the integrity of embedded verification codes to judge whether the image was tampered with or not. Further, the recovery information extracted from images can be used to restore the tampered area. Another is an improved image authentication scheme based on Sudoku rules. Each image block is first performed the quad-tree analysis according to its unique characteristic, and then pixels in the block are modified to fit in with Sudoku rules. When a receiver obtains a suspicious image, he/she can check if an individual block has been tampered with by using the same Sudoku rules. Experimental results show that the proposed two schemes not only maintain good quality of the images, but also are able to point out the tampered area accurately and efficiently.
第1章 緒論 .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 ............................................................................................................. 1
1.2 論文架構 ......................................................................................................................... 3
第2章 背景知識 ...................................................................................................................... 4
2.1 向量量化編碼法(Vector Quantization, VQ) .................................................................. 4
2.1.1 編碼簿的訓練 .......................................................................................................... 5
2.1.2 影像編碼 .................................................................................................................. 6
2.1.3 影像解碼 .................................................................................................................. 8
2.2 Torus Automorphism ....................................................................................................... 8
2.3 數獨 (Sudoku) ................................................................................................................ 9
2.4 影像品質評估 ............................................................................................................... 10
2.5 植基於Fuzzy C-Means (FCM)分群法之影像驗證研究 ............................................ 10
2.5.1 FCM分群法 ........................................................................................................... 11
2.5.2 驗證碼嵌入 ............................................................................................................ 12
2.5.3 竄改偵測處理 ........................................................................................................ 12
第3章 植基於壓縮與預測機制之影像驗證與還原技術 .................................................... 14
3.1 驗證碼與還原資訊之嵌入 ........................................................................................... 14
V
3.2 竄改偵測 ....................................................................................................................... 16
3.3 影像還原 ....................................................................................................................... 18
3.4 實驗結果與討論 ........................................................................................................... 20
第4章 以四元樹為基礎改良數獨表示之影像驗證技術 .................................................... 22
4.1 四元樹分割 ................................................................................................................... 22
4.2 驗證碼嵌入 ................................................................................................................... 23
4.3 竄改偵測 ....................................................................................................................... 25
4.4 實驗結果與討論 ........................................................................................................... 27
第5章 結論 ............................................................................................................................ 29
參考文獻 .................................................................................................................................. 30
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[7]D.O. Hamnes, and B.A. Julstrom, “Iterated mutation in an evolutionary algorithm for sudoku,” Proceedings of the 26th IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications, USA, 2008, pp. 595-062.
[8]H.J. He, J.S. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Adjacent-block based statistical detection method for self-embedding watermarking techniques,” Signal Processing, Vol. 89, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1557-1566.
[9]Y. Linde, A. Buzo, and R.M. Gray, “An algorithm for vector quantizer design,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1980, pp. 84-95.
[10]W. Lin, Y. Wang, S. Horng, T. Kao, and Y. Pan, “A blind watermarking method using maximum wavelet coefficient quantization,” Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 36, No. 9, 2009, pp. 11509-11516.
[11]N.M. Nasarabadi, and R.A. King, “Image coding using vector quantization: a review,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 36, No. 8, 1988, pp. 957-971.
[12]E.J. Pegg, “Math Games: Sudoku Variations,” http://www.maa.org/editorial/mathgames/mathgames_09_05_05.html.
[13]Z. Qian, G. Feng, X. Zhang, and S. Wang, “Image self-embedding with high-quality restoration capability,” Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2011, pp. 278-286.
[14]G. Voyatzis, and I. Pitas, “Chaotic mixing of digital images and applications to watermarking,” Proceedings of European Conference on Multimedia Applications, Services and Techniques ‘96, Belgium, 1996, pp. 687-695.
[15]W.C. Wu, and G.R. Ren, “A New Approach to Image Authentication Using Chaotic Map and Sudoku Puzzle,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, Kyoto Japan, 2009, pp. 628-631.
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