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研究生:李宗翰
研究生(外文):Tzung-Han, Li
論文名稱:利用氧化鈣固體鹼性觸媒於滴流床反應器製備生質柴油
論文名稱(外文):Production of biodiesel using CaO as Basic Solid Catalyst in Trickle Bed reactor
指導教授:林昭任林昭任引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jau-Ren, Lin
口試委員:張傑銘喻家駿
口試委員(外文):Chieh-ming,JangJya-Jyun, Yu
口試日期:2011-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:化學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:生質柴油轉酯化反應非均相觸媒滴流床反應器
外文關鍵詞:biodieselheterogeneous catalysttransesterificationTrickle Bed reactor
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本研究是利用滴流床式反應器進行非均相轉酯化反應用以製備生質柴油,滴流床為三相反應器,相較於其他反應器滴流床具有較佳的氣液分散效果,較高的熱含量,且較低的液層薄膜的阻力;本實驗所使用的滴流床反應器為可拆解的裝置,反應器每一節均為直徑4.3cm,長度為20cm的圓柱體,共六節用以調整反應床長度,反應時將甲醇蒸發成為氣體連續相,液體進料採用食用級的沙拉油,固體觸媒則使用便宜的氧化鈣觸媒。首先本實驗利用SEM與XRD分析觸媒特性,並於批次反應中找出最佳觸媒條件,實驗發現油醇莫耳數比1:9、添加10wt%觸媒、反應溫度110℃下、反應時間4小時,可得到轉酯化反應轉化率約為85.39%,且於反應時間達48小時後即失去活性;然後利用於滴流床反應器,探討與轉酯化反應相關的實驗參數,於反應時間2小時後即達平衡,觸媒床高度80cm、植物油通量為0.3cm/min、反應溫度110℃、直徑2mm觸媒圓柱粒子、油醇莫耳數比1:60,其轉化率約為85%。
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XI
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 各章節簡介 2
第2章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 常見的反應器 3
2.1.1 滴流床反應器 3
2.1.2 滴流床反應器之操作方式 4
2.1.3 泛溢現象簡介 6
2.1.4 液體分散器 6
2.1.5 液體進料量的影響 8
2.1.6 反應床溫度 8
2.1.7 觸媒填料的影響 9
2.2 何謂生質柴油 11
2.2.1 生質柴油品質規範 13
2.2.2 生質柴油的製程方法 18
2.3 轉酯化反應 20
2.3.1 轉酯化反應機制 20
2.3.2 鹼性觸媒轉酯化反應 21
2.4 轉酯化反應觸媒 22
2.4.1 鹼性觸媒 22
2.4.2 酸性觸媒 23
2.4.3 階段混合觸媒 23
2.4.4 生物酶(脂解酶) 23
2.4.5 超臨界轉酯 24
2.5 依照觸媒型態區分 25
2.5.1 均相觸媒 25
2.5.2 非均相觸媒 25
2.6 轉酯化反應實驗參數探討 26
2.6.1 游離脂肪酸與含水率 26
2.6.2 油醇種類與比例 26
2.6.3 觸媒與油脂比例 29
2.6.4 反應時間與溫度 29
2.6.5 添加劑/界面活性劑 30
2.7 實驗動機與目的 31
第3章 實驗藥品、設備與方法 32
3.1 實驗藥品與設備 32
3.1.1 實驗藥品 32
3.1.2 分析儀器 32
3.1.3 實驗設備 37
3.2 氧化鈣觸媒製作方法 38
3.2.1 氧化鈣與碳酸鈣 38
3.3 實驗方法 40
3.3.1 批次轉酯化反應 40
3.3.2 滴流床反應器之轉酯化反應 42
3.4 GC分析方法 46
第4章 結果與討論 47
4.1 活性氧化鈣觸媒 47
4.1.1 觸媒原料於TGA中分析 47
4.1.2 氧化鈣觸媒於XRD分析 49
4.1.3 圓柱狀觸媒於電子顯微鏡分析 51
4.2 批次反應 53
4.2.1 不同觸媒於批次反應中 53
4.2.2 圓柱狀觸媒活性評估 57
4.2.3 真空煅燒觸媒 61
4.3 連續操作之滴流床反應器 62
4.3.1 不同的開車方式對滴流床之影響 62
4.3.2 反應床溫度對滴流床反應之影響 64
4.3.3 液氣油醇莫耳數比對滴流床反應之影響 66
4.3.4 反應床長度對滴流床反應之影響 67
4.3.5 觸媒填料對滴流床反應之影響 68
4.3.6 大豆油進料量對滴流床反應之影響 71
4.3.7 油品中不同含水量對生質柴油產率的影響 72
4.3.8 連續操作之滴流床反應器對生質柴油產率的影響 73
第5章 總結與未來展望 75
5.1 總結 75
5.2 未來展望 77

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