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研究生:包洵瑜
研究生(外文):Hsun-yu Pao
論文名稱:教師課堂內詢問策略之個案研究:以一位研究所教師為主體
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study on a Teacher's Questioning Practices:Focusing on a Graduate Teacher
指導教授:劉德烜
指導教授(外文):Dr. Teh-suan Liou
口試委員:劉德烜陳玉美鄭勝耀
口試委員(外文):Dr. Teh-suan LiouDr. Yuh-mei ChenDr. Sheng-yao Cheng
口試日期:2011-01-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:154
中文關鍵詞:課室言談教師提問提問策略
外文關鍵詞:classroom discourseteacher questionsquestioning strategies
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本研究旨在探討一位台灣研究所教師的課堂詢問策略,包括教師提問的形態、功能,以及當學生沒有回應,或是回應不理想時,教師如何修正其問題以鼓勵學生回應。本研究試圖更進一步認識教師在研究所課堂中如何應用提問策略。
參與本研究的教師是一位國立大學研究所教師,以及十五位研究生。觀察時間從98年10月至99年1月,資料蒐集時間共計22.5小時。資料蒐集方式以教室觀察為主,輔以研究者的觀察紀錄,以及參與者背景的問卷調查。上課情形予以錄音,並轉譯成逐字稿供後續資料分析。資料分析方式包括將教師問題的型態、功能及策略分類,計算其使用頻率,並且討論教師提問如何增進學生學習的情形。
研究結果發現在問題型態方面,疑問詞問句為最常使用之問題,其次為是非問句、系列問句、語調問句、不完整問句、選擇問句;在問題功能方面,教師問題最主要目的在檢視學生是否已擁有此方面的知識,其次為教室管理、修辭目的、要求學生提供自己的意見或提出假設、確認教師對學生的回答是否解讀正確、要求學生澄清答案、確認學生是否理解。其次,教師鼓勵學生回答的六種策略中,最常使用的為重複問句,其次為縮小答題範圍、改述問句、提供暗示、換句換說、舉例說明。
本研究認為教師提問在教室互動中扮演了一個重要的角色。根據不同的情境,教師的提問會有不同的型態,並展現不同的功能。此外,當學生沒有回應或是給予非預期的答案時,教師會採用不同的策略鼓勵學生回應。藉由有效的教師提問可以輔助學生學習並且促進批判性思考。

This study aims to investigate questioning practices of a teacher who instructed in a graduate class in Taiwan. The teacher questions were identified and classified in terms of form and function; moreover, the modification of previous question, namely, questioning strategies for eliciting more students’ responses was examined when students gave no response or unsatisfied answers. The researcher attempted to gain a better understanding of how teacher questions elicited students’ responses in a graduate class.
One teacher and 15 graduate students from a graduate institute in central Taiwan participated in this study. The class was observed and 22.5 hours of the lessons were audio-taped from October 2009 to January 2010. The data sources consisted of classroom observations, field notes, and questionnaires concerning the background information of the participants. The data from audio-tapes were transcribed verbatim as the main basis of analysis. The analysis of the data included identifying the teacher questions in terms of form and function and calculating the frequency distribution of each type of question; besides, the questioning strategies were also examined, and ranked with the frequency. All of the types of teacher questions and questioning strategies were discussed thoroughly.
The results first revealed that the most frequently asked question form was WH-questions, followed by Yes/No questions, Serial questions, Intonation questions, Incomplete questions, and Alternative questions; in addition, the most commonly used question function was Know Information Demanding, followed by Classroom Management, Being Rhetorical, Speculation Requesting, Confirmation Checking, Clarification Requesting, and Comprehension Checking. Secondly, six questioning strategies were frequently adopted by the teacher for eliciting more students’ responses when they gave no response or unsatisfied answers. The findings revealed that the most commonly used was Repetition, followed by Scope narrowing, Rephrasing, Giving Clues, Paraphrasing, and Exemplifying.
This study concludes that the teacher’s questioning plays a significant role in classroom interaction. The teacher questions occurred in various forms and served different functions based on diverse contexts. Moreover, the teacher would employ various questioning strategies to encourage the students to respond when no reply or unexpected answers were given. Through effective teacher’s questioning practices, teachers may provide students with scaffolding on their learning and further promote their critical thinking.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………....i
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………......................ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………………………….iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………......................v
LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................vii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study 2
1.2 Purpose and Research Questions of the Study 5
1.3 Significance of the Study 6
1.4 Definition of Terms 7
1.5 Overview of the Study 8

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Overview 9
2.2 The Notion of Questions 10
2.3 Questions as Scaffolding within the Sociocultural Theoretical Framework 13
2.3.1 The Notion of Scaffolding 13
2.3.2 Teacher Questions as Scaffolding 15
2.4 The Significance of Teacher Questions in Classrooms 16
2.5 Types of Teacher Questions 18
2.5.1 Types of Teacher Questions in Language Classrooms 18
2.5.2 Types of Teacher Questions in Content Classrooms 24
2.6 Relationship between Types of Teacher Questions and Students’ Learning 25
2.6.1 Relationship between Types of Teacher Questions and Students’ Learning in Language Classrooms 25
2.6.2 Relationship between Types of Teacher Questions and Students’ Learning in Content Classrooms 27
2.7 Questioning Strategies 29
2.7.1 Questioning Strategies Adopted in Language Classrooms 29
2.7.2 Questioning Strategies Adopted in Content Classrooms 32
2.8 Studies on Teacher Questions 34
2.8.1 Studies on Teacher Questions in Language Classrooms 34
2.8.2 Studies on Teacher Questions in Content Classrooms 40
2.9 Summary 42
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 47
3.1 Overview 47
3.2 Participants 48
3.3 Research Site 50
3.4 Data Collection 51
3.5 Data Analysis 54
3.6 Coding Scheme 55
3.6.1 Forms of Questions 56
3.6.2 Functions of Questions 61
3.6.3 Questioning Strategies Used for Eliciting Responses 67
3.7 Reliability 72
3.8 Summary 73

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 75
4.1 Overview 75
4.2 The Forms and Functions of Teacher Questions Occurred in the Graduate Class 75
4.2.1 The Forms of Teacher Questions 76
4.2.2 The Functions of Teacher Questions 91
4.3 Questioning Strategies Used by the Teacher to Elicit Students’ Responses 103
4.4 Summary 112

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 117
5.1 Overview 117
5.2 Summary of the Study 117
5.3 Pedagogical Implications 121
5.4 Limitations of the Study 122
5.5 Suggestions for Future Studies 123

REFERENCES 125

APPENDICES………………………………………………………….……….137
APPENDIX A: PARTICIPANT INFORMATION STATEMENT 137
APPENDIX B: PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM 139
APPENDIX C: INSTRUCTOR INFORMATIONS SHEET 140
APPENDIX D: PARTICIPANT INFORMATION SHEET 141
APPENDIX E: TRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS 142
APPENDIX F: SAMPLE TRANSCRIPTION 143
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Questioning Strategies Used by the Two Teachers to Elicit the Students’ Oral
Participation in Class………………………………………………………..31
Table 2: Frequency Distribution of the Teacher Question Forms in the Graduate
Class………………………………………………………………………...76
Table 3: Frequency Distribution of the Teacher Question Functions in the Graduate
Class…………………………………………………………………………91
Table 4: Frequency Distribution of the Teacher’s Questions Strategies in the Graduate
Class………………………………………………………………………..103

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