跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(100.28.132.102) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/21 22:15
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:蕭瑞殽
研究生(外文):Hsiao, Juiyao
論文名稱:亞洲腔英語對台灣學生聽力的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Asian English Accents on Taiwanese Students’ Listening Comprehension
指導教授:陳月妙陳月妙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Yuehmiao
口試委員:王啟琳林惠玲
口試委員(外文):Wang, ChilinLin, Hueiling
口試日期:2011/06/23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:亞洲腔英語聽力理解台灣學生
外文關鍵詞:Asian English aceentListening comprehensionTaiwanese students
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:717
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:119
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
腔調在溝通中扮演著重要的地位。對說話者而言,腔調顯露出他們的背景資料並且標明他們的身份。對聽者來說,腔調更是重要,因為它們是決定聽話者是否能繼續整個對話的關鍵。腔調不僅決定溝通的存續,也影響了聽者對說話者的回應。換句話說,腔調是影響聽力理解的因素。

既然腔調在聽力理解上如此的重要,它一直以來就是個廣受討論的主題。有許多研究是關於「母語非英語人士」其英語腔調對「英語為母語人士」的聽力影響,或「英語為母語的人士」其英語腔調對「母語非英語人士」的聽力影響。然而,「母語非英語人士」對「母語非英語人士」的腔調影響卻很少被提及。所以,這項研究的目的即是要調查不同的亞洲英語腔調對台灣學生聽力的影響。

在這個研究中,300名台灣的國中學生作為受試者。他們被隨機分配到五個不同的組別做聽力測驗。這個英語聽力測驗的錄製者皆是亞洲人。換句話說,受試者所聽到的皆是亞洲腔調的英語。這個聽力測驗包括聽寫及辨別「最小對立體」(minimal pairs)兩個部份。藉著這個英語的聽力測驗將瞭解亞洲腔英語對台灣學生聽力理解程度的影響。
研究結果顯示,第一,不同的亞洲腔調在聽力理解方面有顯著的差別。換句話說,不同的亞洲腔調英語的確會影響台灣學生的聽力理解程度。第二,對台灣學生而言,台灣腔調的英語是最容易理解的,而新加坡腔調的英語和馬來西亞腔調的英語則是最難理解的。這可能是因為對腔調的熟悉度不同所造成的結果。第三,研究結果也列出了哪些英語的子音或母音會導致聽力理解的困難。有些音不管在哪個亞洲腔調都會造成聽力理解的困難。而另一方面來說,有些會造成聽力困難的音則只會發生在某一腔調。最後,依據研究結論,提出了對教師教學方面,以及未來研究方向的建議。

Accent plays an important role in communication, since it reveals the background information of speakers and identifies them. Accent is even more prominent for listeners because it is the fatal key which decides whether or not they can understand the whole conversation. It not only determines the continuum of the communication, but also affects listeners’ responses to the speaker. In other words, accent is the factor which influences listening comprehension critically.
Since accent is so vital in listening comprehension, it has been a widely-discussed topic. There are many studies about the influence of non-native English speakers’ accent on native speakers’ listening comprehension or vice versa. However, there are few studies which explore the influence of non-native speakers’ accent on non-native listeners. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the five different Asian accents on Taiwanese students’ listening comprehension

The participants in this study were 300 junior high school students. They were randomly assigned to five groups and were instructed to listen to the English recordings of native Asian speakers. They were examined by a listening test to understand the influence of the Asian English accents on their listening comprehension. The listening test included dictation and the choice of minimal pairs.

The results showed that firstly, there was a significant difference in the listening comprehension of different Asian English accents. In other words, different Asian English accents indeed influenced Taiwanese students’ listening comprehension. Secondly, for Taiwanese students, Taiwanese-accented English was the most comprehensible, while Singaporean and Malaysian English accents were difficult for them to understand. This may be because they are more familiar with the Taiwanese English accent. Thirdly, the sounds which caused difficulty in listening comprehension were listed. Some sounds which influenced the Taiwanese students’ listening comprehension were the same, although they were pronounced by different Asian speakers. On the other hand, other sounds only occurred in one particular Asian English accent. Finally, limitations, implications and suggestions were made for further studies.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract iii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xiii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 5
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 Definition of Terms 8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Listening Comprehension 11
2.1.1. Importance of Listening in Language Acquisition 11
2.1.2 Development of Listening Comprehension 12
2.1.3 Importance of Listening Comprehension in Language Learning 14
2.1.4 Factors Which Affect Listening Comprehension 15
2.2 Accents 18
2.2.1 Difference Between Accents and Dialects 18
2.2.2 Native and Non-native Accents 20
2.2.3 Influence of Accent 21
2.3 Accent and Listening Comprehension 24
2.4 Focus on Asian English Accents 28
2.5 Characteristics of Asian English Accents 31
2.5.1 Japanese English Accent 32
2.5.2 Korean English Accent 33
2.5.3 Malaysian English Accent 34
2.5.4 Singaporean English Accent 36
2.5.5 Taiwanese English Accent 37
2.6 Summary 42

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 44
3.1 Research Design 44
3.2 Participants 45
3.3 Setting 47
3.4 Data Collection 47
3.4.1 Speaker 47
3.4.2 Listening Test 50
3.5 Data Analysis 55
3.6 Reliability and Validity 56

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60
4.1 Results of the Listening test 60
4.1.1 Dictation 60
4.1.1.1 Results of the One-way ANOVA 60
4.1.1.2 Results of the Error Analysis 63
4.1.2 Minimal Pairs 81
4.1.2.1 Results of the One-way ANOVA 81
4.1.2.2 Results of the Error Analysis 84
4.2 Findings and Discussion 94
4.2.1 Findings and Discussion to the First Research Question 94
4.2.2 Findings and Discussion to the Second Research Question 95
4.2.3 Findings and Discussion to the Third Research Question 98

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 117
5.1 Summary of Findings 117
5.2 Educational Implications 122
5.2.1 For Teachers 122
5.2.2 For Researchers 123
5.2.3 For Government Policy Makers 124
5.3 Limitations and Recommendations 125
5.4 Suggestion for Future Research 127

References 129

Appendixes 141
Appendix A: Rate of Asian Accented English 141
Appendix B: The Manuscript and the Minimal Pairs 142
Appendix C: The Worksheet of the Listening Test 143
Appendix D: Rate of the Content Validity of the Listening Test 145
Appendix E: Percentage of Students’ Errors in Dictation 146
Appendix F: The Rank of the Error Words in the Dictation 150
Appendix G: The Percentage of the Students Who Made Errors in the Minimal Pairs 156

References

Adank, P., & McQueen, J. M. (2007). The effect of an unfamiliar regional accent on spoken word comprehension. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1925-1928.
Ahmad, W. A. S.W. (2011).Vowels length discrimination among Malay speakers of Malaysian English: An instrumental study. Retrieve April 12, from http://research.ncl.ac.uk/ARECLS/vol4_documents/wan.pdf
Anggraeni, D. (2007). Dictation as a testing device of listening: analysis of students’ errors. Retrieved December 10, from http://digilib.unnes.ac.id/gsdl/collect/skripsi/index/assoc/HASH7eb7/63ddf6bf.dir/doc.pdf
Bao, Z. (1998). The sounds of Singapore English. In B. B. Kachru, Y. Kachru & C. L. Nelson (Eds.), The Handbook of World Englishes (pp.130-144). USA: Blackwell Publishing., Ltd.
Bauer, L. (2002). An introduction to international varieties of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Bauman, N. R. (2006). A catalogue of errors made by Korean learners of English. Retrieved from April 9, 2011 from https://nathanbauman.dc1.netfirms.com/Oldholdings/BaumanKOTESOL2006.doc
Barlow, J. A., & Gierut, J. A. (2002). Minimal pair approaches to phonological remediation. Seminars in Speech and Language 23(1), 57-67.
Baskaran, L. (2008). Malaysian English: phonology. In R. Mesthrie (Eds.), Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia (pp. 278-291). Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Behrens, S. J., & Neeman, A. R. (2004). Focus on accent: A sociolinguistic perspective of diversity in the classroom. Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 20, 40-47.
Bolton, K. (2004). World Englishes. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 369–396). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Boyle, J. P. (1984). Factors affecting listening comprehension. ELT Journal, 38(1), 34-38.
Brown, J. D. (2002). The Cronbach alpha reliability estimate. Shiken: JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 6(1), 17-18.
Buck, G. (2004). Assessing listening. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Burgess, J., & Spencer, S. (2000). Phonology and pronunciation in integrated language teaching and teacher education. System, 20, 191-215.
Bureau of International Cultural and Educational Relations R.O.C (2010). Numbers of students obtaining student Visa from foreign nations between 1998 and 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2010, from http://www.edu.tw/bicer/content.aspx?site_content_sn=6235
Butler, Y. G. (2005). Comparative perspectives towards communicative activities among elementary school teachers in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. Language Teaching Research, 9(4), 423-446.
Butler, Y. G. (2007). How are non-native-English-speaking teachers perceived by young learners? TESOL Quarterly, 41(4), 731-755.
Carlson, H. K., & McHenry, M. A. (2006). Effect of accent and dialect on employability. Journal of Employment Counseling, 43, 70-83.
Carrutbers, S. W. (2010). Pronunciation difficulties of Japanese speakers of English: Predictions based on a contrastive analysis. Retrieved November 21, 2010, from http://web1.hpu.edu/images/GraduateStudies/TESL_WPS/05Carruthers_Phono_a17236.pdf
Carver, R. H., & Nash, J. G. (2009). Doing data analysis with SPSS 16.0. Canada: Brooks/Cole.
Case, A. (2010). Pronunciation changes in Japanese English. Retrieved from April 9, 2011, from http://edition.tefl.net/articles/home-and-abroad/japanese-english-pronunciation-changes/
Chang, A. C-S., & Read, J. (2007). Support for foreign language listeners: Its effectiveness and limitations. RELC Journal, 38(3), 375-395.
Chen, W., Tan, Y. Y., Chng, E. S., & Li, H. (2010). The development of a Singapore English call resource. Retrieved from December 29, 2010, from http://desceco.org/O-COCOSDA2010/proceedings/paper_21.pdf
Cheng, Y. L. (2004). Understanding the English articulation errors of English learners in Taiwan. Journal of National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 33, 123-130.
Cheng, M. C. (2004). A study on production of English vowels by Taiwanese adult learners: An acoustic perspective. Journal of National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 33, 131-144.
Cho, J., & Park, H, K. (2006). A Comparative analysis of Korean-English phonological structures and processes for pronunciation pedagogy in interpretation training. Translators' Journal, 51(2), 229-246.
Chung, K. S. (2005). The sounds and allophones of Taiwan English III. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~karchung/intro%20page%2029.htm
Crystal, D. (1997) English as global language. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D. (2003). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. MA: Blackwell Pub.
Crystal, D. (2008). The future of English. Retrieved May 15, 2010, from http://www.davidcrystal.com/DC_articles/English70.pdf
David, N. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 589-613.
Davis, M. H., Johnsrude, I. S., Hervais-Adelman, A., Taylor, K., & McGettigan, C. (2005). Lexical information drives perceptual learning of distorted speech: Evidence from the comprehension of noise-vocoded sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 134(2), 222–241.
Deterding, D., & Hvitfeldt, R. (1994). The features of Singapore English pronunciation: Implications for teachers. Teaching and Learning, 15(1), 98-107.
Dornyei, Z. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing(2nd ED) .NY: Routledge.
Eddie, R., & Yallop, C. (1999).English: One language, different cultures. NY: Continuum.
Erdoğan, V. (2005). Contribution of error analysis to foreign language teaching. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, l(2), 261-270.
Fabricius, A. H. (2002). RP as sociolinguistic object. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 1(2). 355-372.
Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculation, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for likert-type scales. In 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education. Columbus, OH.
Goh, C. (1999). How much do learners know about the factors that influence their listening comprehension? Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistic, 4(1), 17-42. Retrieved February 10, 2011, from http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/5/500059.pdf
Graddol, D. (2006). English next. UK: The British Council.
Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension: The learners’ perspective. System, 34, 165-182.
Guo, N., & Wills, R. (2010). An investigation of factors influencing English listening comprehension and possible measures for improvement. Retrieved September 21, 2010 from http://www.aare.edu.au/05pap/guo05088.pdf
Gupta, A. F. (2005). Inter-accent and inter-cultural intelligibility: a study of listeners
in Singapore and Britain. In D. Deterding, A. Brown and E. L. Low (Eds.), English in Singapore: Phonetic research on a corpus (pp. 138-152). McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).
Gupta, A. F. (2010). Language varieties: Singapore colloquial English (Singlish). Retrieved November, 20, 2010 from http://www.hawaii.edu/satocenter/langnet/definitions/singlish.html
Honna, N. (2005). English as a multicultural language in Asia and intercultural literacy. Intercultural Communication Studies,14(2), 73-89.
Huang, H. L., & Radant, J. (2009). Chinese phonotactic patterns and the pronunciation difficulties of Mandarin-speaking EFL learners. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 11(4), 148-168.
Hughes, A., & Trudgill, P. (1996). English accents and dialects (3rd ed.). London: Arnold.
Ikeno, A., & Hansen, J. H. L. (2006). Perceptual recognition cues in native English accent variation: “Listener accent, perceived accent, and comprehension”. in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing(ICASSP ’06), 1, 401–404.
Ingram, J. C. L., & Park, S-G. (1997). Cross-language vowel perception and production by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 343 – 370.
Jacobs, L. B. (1991). Children as listeners. Teaching Pre K-8, 22(3), 118-119.
Jenkins. J. (2006). Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL QUARTERLY, 40(1), 157-181.
Jenkins. J. (2008). English as a lingua franca. Retrieved 30 March, from http://www.jacet.org/2008convention/JACET2008_keynote_jenkins.pdf
Kachru, B.B. (1992). The other language: English across cultures (2nd ED.). Chicago: University of Illinois.
Kachru, B. B., Kachru, Y., & Nelson, C. (2009). The handbook of world Englishes. Blackwell publishing, Ltd.
Katchen, J. E. (1996). Listening Journals: A way to enhance students’ listening strategies. In S. Y. Huang and C. L. Chern (Eds.), Papers from the twelfth conference on English language teaching and learning in the Republic of China (pp. 352-362). Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Kiany, G. R., & Shiramiry, E. (2002). The effect of frequent dictation on the listening comprehension ability of elementary EFL learners. TESL Canada Journal, 20(1), 57-63.
Kitahara, M. (2001). Category structure and function of pitch accent in Tokyo Japanese. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved November 20, from http://www.f.waseda.jp/kitahara/Paper/thesis-dist.pdf
Kondo, Y. (2010). Factors of listening comprehension evaluated by dictation. Retrieved December 30, from http://www.paaljapan.org/resources/proceedings/PAAL8/pdf/pdf021.pdf
Kortlandt, F. (1993). The origin of the Japanese and Korean accent systems. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 26,57-65.
Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Harlow: Longman.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2001). Techniques and principles in language teaching (2nd ed.). UK: Oxford University Press.
Lee, P-Y. (2009). Language policy in Taiwan: Age as a factor of second (Master’s Thesis). Retrieved from http://csuchico-dspace.calstate.edu/jspui/bitstream/10211.4/140/1/5%2025%2009%20Pei-Ying%20Lee.pdf
Leimgruber, J. R. E. (2011). Singapore English. Language and Linguistics Compass 5.1, 47-62.
Li, C-Y. (2004). Acoustic analysis of Taiwanese learners’ pronunciation in English vowels. Journal of Language and Learning. 2(2), 186-201.
Luk, J. C. M., & Lin, A. M. Y. (2008). Uncovering the sociopolitical situatedness of accents in the world Englishes paradigm. In R. Hughes (1st ed.), Spoken English, TESOL and applied linguistics: Challenges for theory and practice (pp. 3-22). NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Major, R.C., Fitzmaurice, S. M., Bunta, F., & Balasubramanian, C. (2005). Testing the effects of regional, ethnic, and international dialects of English on listening comprehension. Language Learning, 55(1), 37-69.
Major, R. C., Fitzmaurice, S. F., Bunta, F., &Balasubramanian, C. (2002). The effects of nonnative accents on listening comprehension: Implications for ESL assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 36(2), 173-190.
Matsuda, A. (2003). Incorporating world Englishes in teaching English as an international language. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 719-729.
Mayer, R. E., Sobko, K,. & Mautone, P. D. (2003). Social cues in multimedia
learning: Role of speaker’s voice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 419–425.
McArthur, T. (2003). English as an Asian language. ABD, 33(2), 1-4.
McMurray, D. (2001, November). Why should we teach the new Englishes of Asia? Paper presentation at PAC3 at JALT 2001, Kitakyushu, Japan.
Mimatsu, K. (2000). An essay on incorrect English pronunciation of text reading by Japanese college students. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from http://www.lingua.tsukuba.ac.jp/~ippan/JGL/2000/2000-Mimatsu.pdf
Ministry of Education. (2000). Grade 1-9 curriculum guidelines. Retrieved May 16, 2010, from http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC/index_new90.php
Munro, M. J. (2003). A primer on accent discrimination in the Canadian context. TESL CANADA Journal, 20(2), 38-51.
Munro, M.J., & Derwing, T. M. (1995). Processing time, accent, and comprehensibility in the perception of native and foreign-accented speech. Language and Speech, 38(3), 289-306.
Munro, J. M.,& Derwing, T. M. (1999). Foreign Accent, Comprehensibility, and Intelligibility in the Speech of Second Language Learners. Language Learning, 49, 285-310.
Murphy, J. M. (1991). Oral communication in TESOL: Integrating speaking, listening, and pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 25(1), 51-75.
National Immigration Agency. (2009). Entry persons by entry place. Retrieved from May 9, 2010, from http://www.immigration.gov.tw/aspcode/info9903.asp
O’Grady, W., Dobrovolsky, M., & Katamba, F. (1997). Contemporary linguistics: An introduction (3rd Ed). London: Longman.
Oh, K-Y. (2010). The phonological role in English pronunciation instruction. Retrieved November, 17, 2010, from http://www.paaljapan.org/resources/proceedings/PAAL9/pdf/OhKwanY.pdf
Ohata, K. (2004). Phonological differences between Japanese and English: Several potentially problematic areas of pronunciation for Japanese ESL/EFL learners. Asian EFL Journal, 6(4), 1-19.
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10(4), 418-437.
Ong, P. K., Liao, V., & Alimon, R. (2009). Effect of Speaker Accent on Students’ Learning and Speaker-Rating: A Replication. Philippine ESL Journal, 2, 51-69.
Patil, Z. N. (2006). On the nature and role of English in Asia. The Linguistic Journal, 1(2), 88-131.
Pickering, L. (2006). Current research on intelligibility in English as a lingua
franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistic, 26, 219-233.
Phoon, H. S., & Maclagan, M. (2009). The phonology of Malaysian English: A preliminary Study. Retrieved November, 20, 2010, from http://www.ell.nie.edu.sg/esea2008/proceedings/5.PhoonHooiSan%20_The_phonology_of_Malaysian_English_new.pdf
Richards, J. (2003). Current trends in teaching listening and speaking. The Language Teacher, 27 (7), 3-6
Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. (1998). Longman dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics. (1st ed. ). UK: Longman.
Ross, S., & Langille, J. (1997). Negotiated discourse and interlanguage accent effects on a second language listening test. In G. Brindley & G. Wigglesworth (1st ed.), Access: Issues in language test design and delivery (pp. 87-116). Sydney: Macquarie University.
Sandel, T. L. (2003). Linguistic capital in Taiwan: The KMT's Mandarin language policy and its perceived impact on language practices of bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi speakers. Language in Society, 32, 523-551.
Schmid, P. M., & Yeni-Komshian, G. H. (1999). The effects of speaker accent and target predictability on perception of mispronunciations. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42(1), 56-64.
Seidhofer, B. (2005). English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal,59(4), 1-3.
Sewell, H. D. (2005). Teaching implications of students' attitudes to differing English accents. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/documents/college-artslaw/cels/essays/sociolinguistics/SewellSocio.pdf
Sheils, J. (1988). Communication in the modern language classroom. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Sifakis , N. C., & Sougari, A. M. (2003). Facing the globalisation challenge in the realm of English language teaching. Language and Education, 17(1), 59-71.
Smith, L. E., & Bisazza, J. A. (1982).The comprehensibility of three varieties of English for college students in seven countries. Language Leaming, 32, 259-269
Steward, T.W., & Vaillette, N. (2001). Language files: Materials for an introduction to language & linguistics (8th Ed). Taipei: Bookman Books.
Suenobu, M., Kanzaki, K., & Yamane, S. (1992). An experimental study of intelligibility of Japanese English. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 30(2), 146-156.
Taniguchi, M. (2009). English phonetics: Japanese learners’ weak points in English pronunciation, rhythm and intonation. Retrieved November 20, 2010, from http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/syakai/school/pdf/taniguti.pdf
Taniguchi, M., & Shibata, Y. (2010). Japanese learners’ English pronunciation: How intelligible is it? (A pilot study). Retrieved November 21, 2010, from http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/ptlc/proceedings/ptlcpaper_27e.pdf
Tauroza, S. & Luk, J. (1996). Accent, listening comprehension and low proficiency ESL learners in Hong Kong. 111-134.
Tiuⁿ, 張學謙 (2002) 東是東,西是西,永遠BĒ相TÚ?台灣人對台語文字Ê態度研究. 載於張學謙(2003),《行向多文字 ê 台語文-文字態 kap 度 政策論文集》,57-86 頁。台東:睿煜出版社。
Thompson, I. (2001). Japanese speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds.), Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems (2nd ed., pp. 296-309). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ueyama, M. & S.-A. Jun. (1998). Focus realization in Japanese English and Korean
English intonation. Japanese and Korean Linguistics, 7,629-645.
Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: Acquiring successful strategies. ELT Journal, 53(3), 168-176. Retrieved February 10, 2011, from http://eltj.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/3/168.full.pdf+html
Wardhaugh, R. (1998). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Wee, L. (2006). Singapore English: Phonology. In R. Mesthrie (Eds.), Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia (pp. 259-277). Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Wharton, C. (2010). Adult Japanese learners’ ranking of six English accents. Asian EFL Journal, 42, 24-47.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top