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研究生:陳宜欣
研究生(外文):Chen, Yihsin
論文名稱:讀者劇場對九年級低成就學生英語朗讀流暢度及閱讀動機影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Readers Theater on English Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Motivation of Ninth Grade Low-achievers
指導教授:陳月妙陳月妙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Yuehmiao
口試委員:陳秋蘭王啟琳
口試委員(外文):Chern, ChioulanWang, Chilin
口試日期:2011-07-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:讀者劇場口語流暢度閱讀動機低成就學生
外文關鍵詞:Readers TheaterEnglish oral reading fluencyreading motivationlow-achievers
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本研究的目的在探討讀者劇場對國中九年級低成就學生英語朗讀流暢度及閱讀動機的實施成效。研究對象是嘉義縣某國中二十九位九年級英語低成就學生(14名女生及15名男生)。 此29位學生共參與五回的讀者劇場。而本研究之劇本以學校教科書內容改編而成。學生們在實驗前接受閱讀動機問卷前測及口語流暢度前測,每回讀者劇場結束後再接受一次口語流暢度測驗,五回合的讀者劇場結束後再接受一次閱讀動機後測。讀者劇場以每週二節課,三週完成一回方式實施。全部實驗共15周,三十節課。
資料收集的方式包括朗讀流暢度前測、五次英語口語測驗成績、研究動機前後測、以及學生的回饋單。資料分析包括量化與質化分析。量性資料以成對樣本T檢定來分析,主要比較各次口語測驗間以及前、後測問卷間是否有顯著差異,進而瞭解學生的口語流暢度及學生閱讀動機是否因為讀者劇場的實施而有所進步。學生的回饋單以內容分析法分析,用以了解學生對讀者劇場的反應。
研究結果發現: 讀者劇場教學活動對於學生的口語流暢度有顯著幫助,尤其是速度及正確性。在閱讀動機方面,讀者劇場實施後學生的閱讀動機明顯提升,特別是在促進人際互動方面。學生回饋單也反映出他們對讀者劇場的喜好與英語學習的幫助,讀者劇場在人際互動的促進尤其受到學生推崇。此研究證實讀者劇場對於學生口語流暢度以及閱讀動機確有幫助。
此研究提供幾項教學上的影響。一、此研究證實讀者劇場不只在國小,甚至在國中都是有效的教學方式。二、讀者劇場確實對低成就學生的口語流暢度及閱讀動機有提升效果。三、測驗中的些微改變很可能造成低成就學生學習上的挫折或失敗。四、以課程為基礎的讀者劇場(Curriculum-based Readers Theater)在國中也許是一個既能符合課程要求又能實踐讀者劇場的教學法。
此實驗有幾項缺失:一、參與此次讀者劇場的學生數量不大。二、此研究時間亦不夠長。三、 雖然研究證實讀者劇場確實能提升低成就學生英語朗讀流暢度以及閱讀動機,但此研究缺乏直接證據可證實讀者劇場對學生的英語學習成績亦有正面影響。四、 此次實驗中所提供的發音教學不夠充足。五、對學生而言,此研究中所使用的劇本似乎不夠有趣。研究最後,筆者針對以上缺失提出了幾項建言,希望對往後研究有所助益。

This study aims to investigate the effects of Readers Theater on English oral reading fluency and reading motivation for junior high school low-achievers in Taiwan. The participants in the study were 29 ninth grade low achievers (14 girls and 15 boys) from a rural junior high school in Chia-yi County, Taiwan. The students participated in 5 Readers Theater (RT) circles. Each circle took three weeks, with two sessions per week. The scripts used in this study were Curriculum-based Readers Theater (CBRT) scripts which the researcher adapted from the English textbook to create the five RT scripts.
The data collected in this study consists of the students’ English oral reading fluency tests (the pre-test and the other five oral reading tests), the pre- and post-study questionnaires, and the students reflections. The results of the oral reading fluency tests were transferred into Curriculum-based Measurement (CBM) scores and MFS (Multidimensional Fluency Scale) scores. The CBM scores give exact representations of the students’ reading rate and accuracy, and the MFS scores reveal the students overall oral reading fluency, especially in prosody (expressive reading). Changes in students’ reading motivation was determined from the results of the pre- and post-study questionnaires and the students’ reflections—written right after the RT activity in each session. A paired-sample t-test was adopted to detect whether there were significant differences among the pre-test and the other five oral reading tests. The data collected by pre-and post-study questionnaires were also analyzed by a paired-sample t-test. As for the qualitative data, the students’ reflections, they were analyzed using the content analysis method.
The results of this study show that RT improved the students’ oral reading fluency in rate and accuracy. However, the students’ initial sharp rise in reading fluency flattened out by the fourth and fifth tests. As for the students’ reading motivation, the results showed that RT promoted the students’ reading motivation in all of the three aspects: self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and social domain, with the social domain area receiving particularly high marks.
This study provides some pedagogical implications. First of all, Readers Theater has proven to be a viable and effective way to teach English, not only in elementary schools but also in junior high schools. Secondly, Readers Theater works well at fostering lower achieving students’ oral reading fluency and their reading motivation. Thirdly, teachers should always bear in mind that a slightly change in test text might cause low-achieving students’ learning frustration and failure. Therefore, this should be treated with caution. The fourth implication is that Curriculum-based Readers Theater (CBRT) might be a practical solution to fulfill both the curriculum requirements and implementation of Readers Theater, especially in junior high schools.
Some limitations of this study are also displayed as followed. First, the number of the participants of this study is small. Second, the duration of the RT intervention is short. Third, although the CBRT scripts used proved beneficial to both oral reading fluency and motivation stimulation, there is no direct evidence for its advantages for students’ academic performance. The fourth limitation is that the phonics instruction in the mini-lesson was insufficient for some of the participants, whose phonic knowledge was minimal. The fifth limitation is that the CBRT scripts are not interesting enough for the students. With regard to these limitations, some suggestions are also provided in this study.

ABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF CHARTS xii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study and Research Questions 4
1.3 Significance of the study 7
1.4 Definitions of Terms 8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Components Contributing to Fluent Reading 10
2.2 Reading Fluency 14
2.2.1 The Definition of Reading Fluency 14
2.2.2 The Importance of Reading Fluency 17
2.3 Oral Reading Fluency 18
2.3.1 Oral Reading versus Silent Reading 18
2.3.2 The Definition of Oral Reading Fluency 19
2.3.3 The Importance of Oral Reading Fluency 19
2.3.3.1 Oral Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Competence 20
2.3.3.2 Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of School Performance 20
2.3.3.3 Oral Reading Fluency as a Tool for Training or Assessing
Students’ Reading Capacity 21
2.3.4 Oral Reading Fluency Assessment 22
2.3.4.1 Accuracy 23
2.3.4.2 Rate 24
2.3.4.3 Prosody 28
2.3.5 Methods for Developing Oral Reading Fluency 29
2.3.5.1 Repeated Reading 30
2.3.5.2 Assisted Reading 31
2.4 Reading Motivation 31
2.4.1 The Importance of Reading Motivation 32
2.4.2 Elements of Reading Motivation 33
2.5 Readers Theater 35
2.5.1 The Definition of Readers Theater 36
2.5.2 The Benefits of Readers Theater 36
2.5.2.1 RT Promotes Students’ Oral Reading Fluency 37
2.5.2.2 RT Promotes Students’ Social Interaction 38
2.5.2.3 RT Promotes Students Learning Motivation 38
2.5.3 Curriculum-based Readers Theater 39
2.5.4 The Procedure of Readers Theater Implementation 40
2.5.4.1 Preparation: Selecting a Suitable Script and Grouping Students 40
2.5.4.2 Teacher’s Modeling 42
2.5.4.3 Rehearsals: Oral Reading Practices 42
2.5.4.4 Performance 44
2.6 Taiwan Studies on Readers Theater 45

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 51
3.1 Setting 51
3.2 Participants 52
3.3 Research design 55
3.3.1 Procedure 55
3.3.2 Material Used in the RT Implementation 57
3.3.3 The Schedule of the RT Implementation 61
3.3.4 The Procedure of Each RT Circle 63
3.3.4.1 Teacher’s Modeling and Mini-lessons 64
3.3.4.2 Echo Reading and Practice 65
3.3.4.3 Choral Reading and Practice 66
3.3.4.4 Group Practice and Rehearsal 67
3.3.4.5 Performance and Evaluation 67
3.3.4.6 Oral Reading Fluency Test 68
3.4 Instruments of the Study 68
3.4.1 Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) & Multidimensional Fluency
Scale (MFS) 69
3.4.2 Pre-study & post-study questionnaires and RT refection sheets 72
3.5 Data collection 73
3.5.1 Phase 1: Pre-study Questionnaire & the Pre-test 73
3.5.2 Phase 2: RT Reflection Sheets & Five Oral Reading Tests 74
3.5.3 Phase 3: Post-study Questionnaire 77
3.6 Data Analysis 77
CHPATER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 79
4.1 Results 79
4.1.1Curriculum-based Measurement 79
4.1.1.1 Rate 80
4.1.1.2 Accuracy 83
4.1.2 Multidimensional Fluency Scale 88
4.1.2.1 MFS Total scores 88
4.1.2.2 Expression and volume 94
4.1.2.3 Phrasing 98
4.1.2.4 Smoothness 101
4.1.2.5 Pace 105
4.1.3 Questionnaires to Motivation for reading & Students’ Reflection
Sheets 109
4.1.3.1 The Results of the Pre-study and Post-study Questionnaires 109
4.1.3.2 The results of the students’ reflection sheets 111
4.1.3.3 The Comparison of the Questionnaire Results and the
Students’ Reflection Sheets 114
4.2 Discussion 115

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 122
5.1 Findings 122
5.2 Pedagogical Implication 124
5.3 Limitations of This Study 127
5.4 Suggestions for Future Studies 129

REFERENCES 133

APPENDICES
1 Multidimensional Fluency Scale 142
2 RT Script 1 143
3 RT Script 2 145
4 RT Script 3 147
5 RT Script 4 149
6 RT Script 5 151
7 Oral Reading Fluency Test 1 153
8 Oral Reading Fluency Test 2 154
9 Oral Reading Fluency Test 3 155
10 Oral Reading Fluency Test 4 156
11 Oral Reading Fluency Test 5 157
12 Pre- and Post-study Questionnaire (English version) 158
13 Pre-and Post-study Questionnaire (Chinese version) 160
14 An example of a Student’s Reflection Sheet 162
15 Examples of Students’ reflection (Chinese version) 163

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洪蘭 (Hong, L.) (2005)。 走出學習的迷霧。載於蘇妙慧(主編)英語工廠編輯小組,英語教學七堂課(8-12頁)。 台北市:台灣東西圖書。
林麗菊, (Lin, L. C.) (2005)。 童言童語 話說從頭。載於蘇妙慧(主編)英語工廠編輯小組,英語教學七堂課(13-18頁)。 台北市:台灣東西圖書。
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張錦弘 (Zhang, J. H.) (民國99年8月10日)。 2010台 灣TOEFL iBT
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曾惠蘭(Zhang, H. L.)(民國96年8月13日)。在教室中實施讀者劇場【部落格文字資料】。
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