(3.235.245.219) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/07 21:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:林雅琪
研究生(外文):Ya-Chi Lin
論文名稱(外文):Vowel Development of a 3-Year-Old Taiwanese Child
指導教授:蔡素娟蔡素娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jane Tsay
口試委員:蔡素娟郭怡君歐淑珍
口試日期:2011-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:母音發展聲學分析母音空間台語閩南語
外文關鍵詞:Vowel DevelopmentAcoustic AnalysisVowel SpaceTaiwaneseSouthern Min
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:222
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:48
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究的研究目的為分析台語兒童母音發展,針對一名以台語為第一習得語言的兒童一歲六個月以及三歲之可辨識的自發性語言做為研究語料,並針對台語中六個單母音 /i, e, a, ə, ɔ, u/ 做第一共振峰頻率 (F1) 以及第二共振峰頻率 (F2)在一歲六個月以及三歲的變化之聲學分析,並且以測得的數值繪製母音空間圖。語料來源取自於台灣兒童語料庫 (Tsay, 2007; Tsay, forthcoming),分析工具為軟體Praat (Boersma and Weenink, 2010)。文獻中,研究同年齡孩童母音發展有不同的分析結果。例如,Rvachew et al., (1996), Robb et al., (1997), Chen (2004; 2006) and Lee (2007) 都分析了零至二十四個月的發展;對於平均共振峰頻率來說,Rvachew et al., (1996) 發現平均第二共振峰頻率隨年齡增長而下降,但是 Robb et al., (1997), Chen (2004, 2006) 和 Lee (2007) 都發現平均第一/二共振峰頻率沒有顯著差異。
對於共振峰頻率的值域來說,Buhr (1980) 和 Rvachew et al., (1996) 都發現第一共振峰頻率的值域是穩定的,但是第二共振峰頻率的值域在四到十八個月有擴增的現象。然而Chen (2004; 2006) 發現第一/二共振峰頻率的值域在零到二十四個月皆有擴增的現象。
對於母音空間發展來說,文獻上有兩大主要發現。第一,母音在幼兒發展早期有大量的重疊 (Buhr, 1980; Lieberman, 1980; Sze, 2000; Chen, 2004; Chen, 2006; Lee 2007)。第二,母音的重疊會隨幼兒年齡增長降低並逐漸區分開來(Beers, 1995; Tse, 1991; Selby, Robb and Gilbert, 2000; Chen, 2004; Chen, 2006; Lee, 2007)。由於文獻上提供了不同的研究結果,為了能更清楚地理解兒童母音發展,本研究進行台語兒童母音發展的觀察。
本研究總共分析了一千七百四十一個單母音,分析平均共振峰頻率的結果顯示不同於文獻上的分析結果(Rvachew et al., 1996; Robb et al., 1997; Chen 2004, 2006; Lee 2007),此兒童的平均第一共振峰頻率 (mean F1) 以及平均第二共振峰頻率 (mean F2) 皆隨著年齡增加而變高。這意旨母音舌位的高度隨年齡下降,母音舌位的前後亦隨年齡往前。這個結果有可能是因為,當兒童的咽腔隨年齡增長而變長時,舌頭的移動性也隨之增高。
分析共振峰頻率值域的結果顯示,第一共振峰頻率值域(F1 range)和第二共振峰頻率值域(F2 range)皆隨年齡增長而擴大;這與Buhr (1980) 和Rvachew et al., (1996) 的分析結果一樣,但不同於Chen (2004; 2006)的分析結果。
分析母音空間的發展,我們發現:(1) 不同母音的分佈在十八個月大時有顯著的重疊情況,這與Buhr (1980),Lieberman (1980),Sze (2000),Chen (2004), Chen (2006)和Lee (2007)分析結果一樣,我們可以推測此時舌頭的活動性仍受限制;(2) 母音的分佈在十八個月大時聚集在空間圖上靠後的區域,這也可能是相同的因素所致。由以上的觀察結果,我們可以發現,母音的空間分布整體上是由後往前移動的,而母音與母音之間的區分也隨年齡增長而變得更清楚。

This study investigates the six single vowels /i, e, a, ə, ɔ, u/ of a child acquiring Taiwanese as his first language. Data analyzed in this study were syllables extracted from the sound files of Taiwanese Child Language Corpus (Tsay, 2007; Tsay, forthcoming). The goal of this study is to provide acoustic evidence of vowel development of the child at 18 and 36 months. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results around the same ages. Some studies found that mean F2 decreased during 0-24 months (Rvachew et al., 1996), while some found that mean F1 and mean F2 showed no difference around the same age (Robb et al., 1997; Chen 2004, 2006; Lee 2007). For the range of formant frequencies, Buhr (1980) and Rvachew et al., (1996) found F1 range stable, but F2 range increased at 4-18 months. However, Chen (2004; 2006) found that both F1 range and F2 range increased during 0 – 24 months. For vowel space development, there are two major findings. First, vowel categories in vowel space appeared to be highly overlapping in early stage (Buhr, 1980; Lieberman, 1980; Sze, 2000; Chen, 2004; Chen, 2006; Lee 2007). Second, wide distribution within a vowel category narrowed down with age (Beers, 1995; Tse, 1991; Selby, Robb and Gilbert, 2000; Chen, 2004; Chen, 2006; Lee, 2007). The different results of the previous studies inspired the current study on the vowel development of a Taiwanese child.
Regarding changes of formant frequency, the results of this study showed that mean F1 and mean F2 increased slightly with age, different from the previous studies (Rvachew et al., 1996; Robb et al., 1997; Chen 2004, 2006; Lee 2007). That is, vowel height became lower, and vowel backness became more front. A possible explanation comes from the physiological development of the child. That is, when the child’s pharyngeal cavity becomes longer, the tongue mobility increases. For changes of the range of formant frequencies, this study found that F1 range and F2 range both increased slightly with age. This is inconsistent with Buhr (1980) and Rvachew et al., (1996), but consistent with Chen (2004; 2006). With regard to the development of vowel space, the results showed that: (1) Overlapping among different vowel categories was more remarkable at 18 months than at 36 months, indicating that tongue movement was still constrained and vowel categories were not as distinct at 18 months. This is consistent with the results reported in Buhr (1980), Lieberman (1980), Sze (2000), Chen (2004), Chen (2006) and Lee 2007. (2) Vowels were mostly gathered in the back area at 18 months, which is probably due to the same physiological constraint of the tongue movement. In conclusion, the overall vowel space moved more front and vowel categories became more distinct with age.

Table of Content

Chapter 1 Introduction …………………………………………………………1
1.1 Background…………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Objective of this Thesis……………………………………………………4
1.3 Organization of this Thesis………………………………………………...7

Chapter 2 Literature Review…………………………………………………...9
2.1 Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels………………………………………..9
2.2 Previous Studies of Vowel Development………………………………….12
2.2.1 Changes in Formant Frequencies……………………………….12
2.2.2 Changes of the Range of Formant Frequencies…………………14
2.2.3 Changes in Vowel Space………………………………………. 15
2.2.4 Summary………………………………………………………..17
2.3 Physiological Development………………………………………………..18
2.4 Hypothesis and Predictions of this Thesis…………………………………20

Chapter 3 Methodology……………………………………………………...…21
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………..…21
3.2 Background………………………………………………………………..21
3.2.1 Vowel Inventory in Taiwanese………………………………….21
3.2.2 Consonant Inventory in Taiwanese……………………………22
3.2.3 Tone Inventory in Taiwanese……………………………………23
3.3 Taiwanese Child Language Corpus……………………………………..25
3.4 Methodology Specific to HYS…………………………………………….26
3.4.1 Data used in this study……………………………………….…27
3.4.2 Data Screening Following Lee (2007) ..…………………….28
3.4.3 Target Vowels…………………………………………………...29
3.4.4 Acoustic Measurements……………………………………...…33

Chapter 4 Results……………………………………………………………….41
4.1 Mean Formant Frequencies at Stage I…………………………………….41
4.2 Mean Formant Frequencies at Stage II……………………………………43
4.3 Comparison of Formant Frequencies between the Two Stages……………44
4.3.1 Vowel /i/……………………………………………………...…44
4.3.2 Vowel /e/………………………………………………………..45

4.3.3 Vowel /a/………………………………………………………..46
4.3.4 Vowel /ə/………………………………………………………..46
4.3.5 Vowel /ɔ/………………………………………………………..46
4.3.6 Vowel /u/………………………………………………………..47
4.3.7 Summary………………………………………………………..47
4.4 Range of Formant Frequencies at Stage I…………………………………48
4.5 Range of Formant Frequencies at Stage II………………………………...49
4.6 Comparison of the Range of Formant Frequencies between the Two Stages……………………………………………………………………49
4.6.1 Vowel /i/………………………………………………………...49
4.6.2 Vowel /e/………………………………………………………..50
4.6.3 Vowel /a/………………………………………………………..50
4.6.4 Vowel /ə/………………………………………………………..51
4.6.5 Vowel /ɔ/………………………………………………………..51
4.6.6 Vowel /u/………………………………………………………..52
4.6.7 Summary………………………………………………………..52
4.7 Vowel Space Development………………………………………………..53
4.7.1 Overall Vowel Development……………………………………53
4.7.2 Cardinal Vowels Development………………………………….55
4.7.3 High Vowels Development……………………………………...60
4.7.4 Front Vowels Development……………………………………..64
4.7.5 Back Vowels Development……………………………………...68
4.8 Summary…………………………………………………………………..72

Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion…………………………………………73
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………..73
5.2 Vowel Development in Taiwanese………………………………………...73
5.2.1 Changes in Formant Frequencies ……………………………………73
5.2.2 Changes of the Range of Formant Frequencies ……………………...73
5.2.3 Vowel Space Development …………………………………………..74
5.3 Comparison between this Study and Previous Studies……………………77
5.3.1 Comparison of Changes in Formant Frequencies between this Study and Gilbert et al., (1997) ………………………………...77
5.3.2 Comparison of Changes in Formant Frequencies between this Study and Lee (2007) …………………………………………..78
5.3.2.1 Comparison between the Two Children ……………..78
5.3.2.2 Comparison between HYS and the Adult in Lee (2007) ………………………………………….…..80

5.3.3 Comparison of Children Vowel Space Development between this Study and Lee (2007) …………………………………………..82
5.3.4 Summary………………………………………………………..85
5.4 Other Issues ……………………………………………………………….86
5.4.1 Adjacent Sounds and Vowel Production ……………………….86
5.4.2 Syllable Structure and Vowel Production ………………………88
5.4.3 Tonal Effect and Vowel Production …………………………….90
5.5 Conclusion………………………………………………………………...92

References…………………………………………………………………...………95


Beers, M. (1995). The Phonology of Normally Developing and Language-impaired Children. (Dordrecht, Holland: Institute for Functional Research into Language and Language Use).
Bennett, S. (1981). Vowel Formant Frequency Characteristics of Preadolescent Males and Females. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 69, 231-238.
Boersma, P. and D. Weenink. (2009). PRAAT: Doing Phonetics by Computer. Downloadable from http://fonsg3.hum.uva.nl/praat/.
Buhr, R. (1980). The Emergence of Vowels in an Infant. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 23, 73-79.
Busby, P. A. and Plant, G. L. (1995). Formant Frequency Values of Vowels produced by Preadolescent Boys and Girls. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 97, 2603-2606.
Callan, D. E., Kent, R. D., Guenther, F. H. and Vorperian, H. K. (2000). An Auditory-Feedback-Based Neural Network Model of Speech production That Is Robust to Developmental Changes in the Size and Shape of the Articulatory System. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. 43, 721-736.
Chao, Y.-R. (1930). A System of Tone Letters. Le Maitre Phonetique. 45, 24-27.
Chen, Li-mei. (2004). Prelinguistic Vocalic Production in the First Year of Life: The Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis. Proceedings of the 17th Symposium of the Acoustical Society of the Republic of China.
Chen, Li-mei. (2006). Developmental Changes in the Acoustic Vowel Space of Mandarin-learning Children before 2 Years of Age. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 119, 3421-3421.
Chen, Li-mei. (2007). Longitudinal Development of Vowels before 4 Years of Age. Proceedings of the 20th Symposium of the Acoustical society of the Republic of China.
Chung, R. F. (1996). The Segmental Phonology of Southern Min in Taiwan. Taipei: Crane.
Clement C. J. and Wijnen F. (1994). Acquisition of Vowel Contrast in Dutch. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 37, 83-89.
Clark, J. and Yallop, C. (1990). An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology. Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Davis, B. L. and MacNeilage, P. F. (1990). Acquisition of Correct Vowel Production: A Quantitative Case Study. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 33, 16-27.
Delattre, P.C. (1968). Divergence Entre la Nasalité Vocalique et Consonantique en Français. Word. 24, 67-72.
Disner, S. F. (1986). On Describing Vowel Quality. In J. Ohala and J. Jaeger (Eds), Experimental Phonology. London: Academic Press.
Eguchi, S. and Hirsh, I. J. (1969). Development of Speech Sounds in Children. Acta Oto-Laryngol. Suppl. 257. 1-51.
Fant, G. (1960). Acoustic Theory of Speech Production:With Calculations Based on X-ray Studies of Russian Articulations. (Mouton, The Hague)
Fitch , W.T., and Giedd, J. (1999). Morphology and Development of the Human Vocal Tract: A Study Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 106, 1511-1522.
Gilbert, H. R., Robb, M. P., and Yang Chen. (1997). Formant Frequency Development: 16 to 36 Months. Journal of Voice. 11 (3), 260-266.
Goldstein, U. G. (1980). An Articulatory Model for the Vocal Tracts of Growing Children. Ph. D. thesis. MIT, Cambridge, M.A.
Gordon, M. and Ladefoged, P. (2001). Phonation Types: A Cross-Linguistic Overview.
Harshman, R., Ladefoged, P., Goldstein, L. (1977). Factor analysis of tongue shapes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 62, 693-707.
Hawkins, S. and Stevens, K.N. (1985). Acoustic and Perceptual Correlates of the Non-nasal-nasal Distinction for Vowels. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 77, 1560-1575.
Kent, R. D., and Murray, A. D. (1982). Acoustic Features of Infant Vocalic Utterances at 3, 6, and 9 months. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 72, 353-365.
Kent, R. D. and Read C. (1992). The Acoustic Analysis of Speech. San Diego, Calif.: Singular Pub.
Kent, R. D. and Vorperian H. K. (1995). Anatomic Development of the Craniofacial-Oral-Laryngeal Systems: A Review. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology. 3, 145-190.
Jakobson, R. (1941/1968). Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals. The Hague: Mouton.
Ladefoged, P. (2001). A Course in Phonetics. 4th ed. Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Ladefoged, P., and Harshman, R. (1979). Formant Frequencies and Movements of the Tongue. In Frontiers of Speech Communication, ed. by Lindblom, B. and Öhman, S. 25-34. New York, Academic Press.
Ladefoged, P., Harshman, R., Goldstein, L., and Rice, L. (1978). Generating Vocal Tract Shapes from Formant Frequencies. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 64 (4), 1027-1035.
Lee, S., and Iverson, G. K. (2008). The Development of Monophthongal Vowels in Korean: Age and Sex Differences. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics. 22 (7), 523-536.
Lee, S., Potamianos, A. and Narayanan, S. (1999). Acoustics of Children’s Speech: Developmental Changes of Temporal and Spectral Parameters. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 105, 1455-1468.
Lee, Yun-wei. (2007). An Acoustic Study of Vowel Development in a Child Acquiring Taiwan Southern Min. M.A. thesis. National Chung Cheng University.
Levitt A. G. and Auydelott Utman J. G. (1992). From Babbling towards the Sound System of English and French: a Longitudinal Two-case Study. Journal of Child Language. 19, 19-49.
Lee, S. (2003) The Phonetic Basis of Early Speech Acquisition in Korean. PhD Dissertation. University of Texas at Austin.
Lieberman, P. (1980). On the Development of Vowel Production in Young Children. Production. Child phonology. Vol. 1. Production, by Yeni-komshian, G. H., Kavanagh, J. F. and Ferguson C. A. New York: Academic Press.
Lieberman, P. and Blumstein, S. (1988). Speech Physiology, Speech Perception, and Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindau, M., Norlin. K., and Svantesson, J. (1985). Cross-Linguistic Differences in Dipthongs. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 91, 40-44.
Lindblom, B. (1963a). On Vowel Reduction. Report no. 29, The Royal Institute of Technology, Speech Transmission Laboratory, Stockholm.
Lindblom, B. and Sundberg, E. F. (1971). Acoustical Consequences of Lip, Tongue and Larynx Movement. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 50, 1166-1179.
MacWhinney, B. and Snow C. (1990). The Child Language Data Exchange System: an update. 17, 457-472.
MacWhinney B. (2000). The CHILDES Project: Tools for analyzing talk, Vol 2: The database (3rd ed.) Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Maddieson, I. and Ladefoged, P. (1995). Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ménard, L., Schwartz, J-L., and Boë, L.-J. (2004). Role of Vocal Tract Morphology in the Speech Development: Perceptual Targets and Sensorimotor Maps for Synthesized French Vowels form Birth to Adulthood. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. 47, 1059-1080.
Otomo, K., and Stoel-Gammon, C. (1992). The Acquisition of Unrounded Vowels in English. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 35, 604-616.
Öhman, S. (1966). Coarticulations in VCV Utterances: Spectrographic Measurements. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 39, 151-168.
Öhman, S. (1967). Numerical Model of Coarticulation. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 41, 310-320.
Paschall, L. (1983). Development at 18 months. In Phonological Development in Children: 18 to 72 Months, ed. by J. V. Irwin and S. P. Wong. 27-54. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Perry, T. L., Ohde, R. N. and Ashmead, D. H. (2001). The Acoustic Bases for Gender Identification from Children’s Voices. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 109, 2988-2998.
Pollock, K. E., and Keiser, N. J., (1990). An Examination of Vowel errors in Phonologically Disordered Children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 4, 161-178.
Pye, C., Ingram, D., and List, H. (1987). A Comparison of Initial Consonant Acquisition in English and Quiche. In Children’s Language. 6, ed. by K. E. and A. Van Kleek. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reetz, H. and Jongman, A. (2009). Phonetics - Transcription, Production, Acoustics, and Perception. Chichester (UK): Wiley-Blackwell.
Rvachew, S., Mattock, K., Polka, L., and Ménard, L. (2006). Developmental and Cross-Linguistic Variation in the Infant Vowel Space: The Case of Canadian English and Canadian French. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 120 (4), 2250-2259.
Rvachew, S., Slawinski, E. B., Williams, M., and Green, C. L. (1996). Formant Frequencies of Vowels Produced by Infants with and without Early-Onset Otitis Media. Canadian Acoustics. 24, 19-28.
Robb, M. P., Chen, Y., and Gilbert H. R. (1997). Developmental Aspects of Formant Frequency and Bandwidth in Infants and Toddlers. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 49, 88-95.
Selby, J. C., Robb, M. P. and Gilbert, H. R. (2000). Normal Vowel Articulations between 15 and 36 Months of Age. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 14 (4), 255-265.
Stevens, K. N. (1972). Quantal Nature of Speech: Evidence from articulatory-acoustic data. In Human Communication: A Unified View, ed. by David E. E. and Denes P. B. 51-66. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stevens, K. N. (1989). On the Quantal Nature of Speech. Journal of Phonetics. 17, 3-45.
Stevens, K. N. and House, A. S. (1955). Development of a Quantitative Model of Vowel Articulation. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 27, 484-493.
Stoel-Gammon, C., (1983). Constraints on Consonant-Vowel Sequences in Early Words. Journal of Child Language. 10, 455-457.
Stoke, S. F., and Wong, I. M. (2002). Vowel and Diphthong Development in Cantonese-Speaking Children. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 16 (8), 597-617.
Sze C. P. (2000). The Development of Vowel Production in Cantonese-speaking Infants. Bachelor Thesis. University of Hong Kong.
Titze, I. R. (1989) Physiology and Acoustic Difference between Male and Female Voices. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 85, 1699-1707.
Tsay, Jane. (2007). Construction and Automatization of a Minnan Child Speech Corpus with Some Research Findings. Journal of Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing. 12(4), 411-442.
Tsay, Jane. (forthcoming). Phonological Corpus of L1 Acquisition of Taiwan Southern Min. In Handbook of Corpus Phonology, ed. by Jacques Durand, Ulrike Gut and Gjert Kristoffersen. Oxford University Press.
Tse, A.C.Y. (1991). The Acquisition Process of Cantonese Phonology: a case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hong Kong.
Tyler, A. (1996). Consonant-Vowel Interactions in Early Phonological Development. First Language, 16, 159-191.
Vorperian, H. K., Kent, R. D., Lindstrom, M. J., Kalina C. M., Gentry, L. R., and Yandell, B. S. (2005). Development of Vocal Tract Length during Early Childhood:A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Journal of Acoustical Society of America. 117, 338-350.
Whiteside, S. P. and Hodgson, C. (2000). Some Acoustic Characteristics in the Voices Of 6-to-10 Year-Old Children and Adults: A Comparative Sex and Developmental Perspective. Logopedics Phonatrics Vocology. 25, 122-132.
Yang, Hsiu-Fang. (1991). Taiwanese Southern Grammar (Taiwan Minnanyu Yuagao). Taipei: Da-an.
Zhang, Zhen-xing. (1993). A Concise Grammar on Taiwan Southern Min (Taiwan Minnan Fangyin Jilue). Taipei: Wenshizhe.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔