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研究生:蘇秀芬
研究生(外文):Su, Shiou-fen
論文名稱(外文):Modality Effects in Grammar and Discourse in Taiwan Sign Language
指導教授:戴浩一戴浩一引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tai, James H-Y.
口試委員:黃宣範蔡素娟張榮興林惠玲
口試委員(外文):Huang, ShuanfanTsay, JaneChang, Jung-hsingLin Huei-Ling
口試日期:2011-07-11
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:286
外文關鍵詞:Taiwan Sign LanguageEffects of modality and mediumMethods of signalingReferential and evaluative functions of languageGrounded mental space blendsTypology of event integration
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The dissertation investigates the effects of modality (Meier 2002) in grammar and discourse in Taiwan Sign Language (TSL). TSL is a signed language produced by hands, trunk, and face and perceived by eyes (visual-gestural modality), different from Mandarin Chinese and other spoken languages, produced by mouth and perceived by ears (auditory-vocal modality). With visual-gestural modality, information can be processed more iconically and simultaneously in signed languages. Whether the characteristics of iconicity and simultaneity shape the aspects of grammar and discourse differently is the main issue to be explored in this dissertation.
Clark (1996, 2003) and Clark and Gerrig (1990) propose three methods of signaling in communication: describing-as, indicating, and demonstrating. Corresponding to theory of signs proposed by Pierce (1955[1902]), signaling of describing-as is to create symbols, signaling of indicating is to create indices, and signaling of demonstrating is to create icons to represent the category of things or events. Like spoken languages, signed languages can create symbols to represent the category of things or events. In addition, with visual-gestural modality, signs or gestures can be produced or directed spatially to create indices or icons representing the world more iconically and simultaneously. What indices and icons create are grounded mental spaces (Liddell 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000a, 2003a, 2003b, Liddell and Metzger 1998). Blending with grounded mental space as one input space is to create a grounded blends in which referents are made conceptually present with physical reality about size and shape, action, motion, or location, etc. The category of noun and verb can be instantiated into nominal and clause, respectively (Langacker 1991, Rijkhoff 2002, Taylor 2002), with physical reality. Once established as referents with physical reality, making reference to them is achieved by deictics, not always by anaphors (Liddell 1995).
Like co-speech gestures, gestures in signed languages are produced to complement or additionally provide the imagistic content that linguistic elements may convey. With two-channel system (manual and nonmanual) and two independent articulators (right hand and left hand), gestures in signed languages are more easily and simultaneously integrated with linguistic elements to depict a more vivid message with images and details. These messages with iconic images and details create the scene more salient to encourage the audiences to take active roles in constructing the meaning, hence achieve the interpersonal involvement (Tannen 1989, 2007) of the narratives more effectively. The referential and evaluative functions of narrative (Labov 1972, Labov and Waletzky 1967) can be achieved by these simultaneously representations with physical reality more efficiently and informatively.
These aspects of grammar and discourse in TSL are investigated based on Frog Story narratives produced by native and near-native signers and hearing 2nd language learners, with the comparison of Frog Story narratives produced by Mandarin speakers. The issues of modality effects are examined on the phrase structure, the typology and the rhetorical styles of event integration, and the narrative performance. The result is that iconicity and simultaneity do play roles in these aspects of grammar and discourse. Linguistic resources of indications and demonstrations readily available in native and near-native signers do lead to certain tendencies in storytelling styles in TSL different from the styles in Mandarin, providing another evidence for thinking-for-speaking as proposed by Slobin (1996). The concept of thinking-for-speaking can be extended to thinking-for-signing. In addition, these readily available resources in TSL are not prevalently and appropriately used by 2nd language learners. This result is similar to the studies of co-speech gestures by Gullberg (2003, 2006, 2008), Gullberg, Hendriks and Hickmann (2008), Stam (2006, 2007), and others.

Chapter 1 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Introduction to Sign language ----------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 History of Taiwan Sign Language -----------------------------------------------------3
1.3 Theoretical background and main issues ---------------------------------------------5
1.3.1 Effects and non-effects of modality ----------------------------------------------5
1.3.1.1 Iconicity
1.3.1.2 Simultaneity
1.3.1.3 Extensive use of space and important role of gesture
1.3.2 Summary and main issues -------------------------------------------------------11
1.4 Database ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
1.4.1 Frog Story Narratives -------------------------------------------------------------14
1.4.2 Short narratives of pictures, comics or video clips ---------------------------15
1.4.3 Spontaneous narratives triggered -----------------------------------------------15
1.4.4 Free conversation -----------------------------------------------------------------15
1.5 Organization ----------------------------------------------------------------------------15

Chapter 2 A Sketch of TSL Grammar -------------------------------------------------19
2.1 Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2.2 Phonology -------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2.2.1 Phonemes and minimal pairs ----------------------------------------------------19
2.2.1.1 Contrast in handshape
2.2.1.2 Contrast in location
2.2.1.3 Contrast in movement
2.2.1.4 Contrast in orientation
2.2.2 Phonological processes and constraints ----------------------------------------21
2.2.2.1 Assimilation
2.2.2.2 Dominance constraint and symmetry constraint
2.3 Morphosyntax ---------------------------------------------------------------------------22
2.3.1 Inflectional morphology ----------------------------------------------------------23
2.3.1.1 Three classes of verbs
2.3.1.1.1 Plain verbs
2.3.1.1.2 Agreement verbs
2.3.1.1.3 Spatial-locative predicates
2.3.1.2 Agreement
2.3.1.2.1 Person agreement and location agreement
2.3.1.2.2 Reduplication as number agreement
2.3.1.2.3 Numeral incorporation as number agreement
2.3.1.3 Aspect
2.3.2 Types of sentences ---------------------------------------------------------------37
2.3.2.1 Simple declarative sentences
2.3.2.2 Sentences with modals
2.3.2.3 Interrogative sentences

Chapter 3 Iconicity and Simultaneity of Expressive Units -----------------------43
3.1 Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------43
3.2 Iconicity of expressive units ---------------------------------------------------------45
3.2.1 Signs and gestures with iconic motivation ---------------------------------45
3.2.1.1 Imagistic handshape
3.2.1.2 Imagistic movement
3.2.1.3 Imagistic location
3.2.1.4 Part-for-whole-representation
3.2.2 Depicting manual gestures and lexicalized depicting signs ------------50
3.2.3 Depicting body gestures and depicting body-part gestures ------------53
3.2.4 Gestures in face --------------------------------------------------------------56
3.2.4.1 Gestures expressing affections
3.2.4.2 Gestures in eyes and mouth
3.2.4.3 Nonmanual actions in eyes
3.2.4.4 Mouth actions
3.2.4.4.1 Echo phonology
3.2.4.4.2 Iconic gestures
3.2.4.4.3 Adverbials
3.2.4.4.4 Mouthing
3.3 Simultaneity of expressive units ----------------------------------------------------- 63
3.3.1 Lexicalized compound-like signs and depicting classifier constructions --64
3.3.2 Perseveration of expressive units -----------------------------------------------65
3.3.3 Dominance reversal ---------------------------------------------------------------66
3.3.4 Encoding and demonstrating of co-occurring events -------------------------67
3.3.5 Integration of language and gesture --------------------------------------------68
3.3.5.1 Language and gesture are produced with different channels
3.3.5.2 Modulation of parameters of manual actions
3.4 Conclusions -----------------------------------------------------------------------------70

Chapter 4 Methods of Signaling --------------------------------------------------------73
4.1 Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------------------73
4.2 Signaling of indicating ----------------------------------------------------------------74
4.2.1 Directing-to by index finger -----------------------------------------------------75
4.2.1.1 Pronominal demonstratives
4.2.1.2 Adnominal demonstrative
4.2.1.3 Adverbial demonstratives
4.2.1.4 Identificational demonstratives
4.2.2 Indicating of other manual expressions -------------------------------------85
4.2.2.1 Indicating of indicating signs
4.2.2.2 Indicating of non-locative signs and depicting classifier
constructions
4.2.2.3 Indicating of gestures and depicting classifier constructions
4.2.2.4 Modulation of location as agreement
4.2.3 Indicating of nonmanual expressions -------------------------------------------90
4.2.3.1 As demonstratives
4.2.3.2 Character viewpoint indicators
4.2.3.2.1 Constructed actions
4.2.3.2.2 Constructed emotions
4.2.3.2.3 Constructed dialogues
4.2.3.3 Discourse prominence indicators
4.2.4 Summary ---------------------------------------------------------------------------95
4.3 Signaling of demonstrating -----------------------------------------------------------95
4.3.1 Depicting size and shape of referents ------------------------------------------96
4.3.2 Depicting motion of referents ---------------------------------------------------97
4.3.3 Depicting motion and accidently caused motion ----------------------------101
4.3.4 Depicting location of referents -------------------------------------------------102
4.3.5 Depicting motion and location of referents ----------------------------------103
4.3.6 Depicting action of referents ---------------------------------------------------104
4.3.7 Depicting presence of referents ------------------------------------------------105
4.4 Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------107

Chapter 5 Modality Effects on Phrase Structure -----------------------------------109
5.1 Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------109
5.2 Simultaneous morphosyntax in sign language ------------------------------------109
5.2.1 General clause structure --------------------------------------------------------109
5.2.2 Modulation of parameters as gestures functioning as modifiers ----------110
5.3 Relative construction-like modifiers -----------------------------------------------112
5.3.1 Situating new referents ---------------------------------------------------------113
5.3.2 Re-identifying old referents ----------------------------------------------------117
5.4 Modulation of parameters as modifiers --------------------------------------------121
5.4.1 Qualifying modifier -------------------------------------------------------------121
5.4.2 Quantifying modifiers -----------------------------------------------------------125
5.4.3 Localizing modifiers ------------------------------------------------------------129
5.5 Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------132

Chapter 6 Modality Effects on Typology and Rhetorical Styles of Event
Integration -------------------------------------------------------------------135
6.1 Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------135
6.2 Typology of motion event in TSL --------------------------------------------------135
6.3 Simultaneity of macro-events in TSL ----------------------------------------------139
6.3.1. Simultaneity within a single hand --------------------------------------------139
6.3.1.1 Manner integration/incorporation/incorporated
6.3.1.2 Fulfillment or confirmation in the domain of realization
6.3.2 Simultaneity of both hands -----------------------------------------------------143
6.3.2.1 Path elaboration
6.3.2.2 Correlated actions or motions
6.3.2.3 Cause and effect
6.3.3 Simultaneity of manual and non-manual expressions ----------------------150
6.3.3.1 Change of state
6.3.3.2 Fulfillment and confirmation in the domain of realization
6.3.3.3 Additional conceptual elements and imagistic information encoded
6.3.3.4 Precise path demonstrating and inside perspective indicating
6.3.4 Summary -------------------------------------------------------------------------153
6.4 Impact of simultaneity ---------------------------------------------------------------154
6.4.1 Meaning of incorporated Manner is context-dependent -------------------154
6.4.2 Interpretation of volitionality is context-dependent ------------------------159
6.4.3 Interpretation of focus is context-dependent --------------------------------163
6.4.4 Saliency of linguistic forms and channeling of attention ------------------164
6.5 Conclusions ---------------------------------------------------------------------------166

Chapter 7 Grounded Mental Space Blends -----------------------------------------169
7.1 Mental space theory ------------------------------------------------------------------169
7.2 Grounded blends created by indications and demonstrations ------------------170
7.3 Functions of grounded blends ------------------------------------------------------172
7.3.1 As introducers of elements with physical reality into spaces--------------173
7.3.1.1 Set up tokens in token spaces
7.3.1.2 Set up surrogates in surrogate spaces
7.3.1.2.1 By demonstratives
7.3.1.2.2 Constructed actions
7.3.1.2.3 Constructed thoughts
7.3.1.2.4 Constructed dialogues
7.3.1.2.4.1 The dialogue spaces created by contrastive body
orientation
7.3.1.2.4.2 The dialogue spaces created by contrastive directions of
manual signs and non-manual expressions
7.3.2 Pointing as grammatical relation indicators ----------------------------------182
7.3.2.1 Directionality of indicating verbs
7.3.2.2 Directionality of depicting manual gestures
7.3.2.3 Directionality of depicting classifier constructions
7.3.2.4 Directionality of body and body-part gestures
7.3.3 Image and detail creators -------------------------------------------------------186
7.4 Constructing meaning through mental spaces blending -------------------------190
7.5 Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------191

Chapter 8 Modality Effects on Narrative Performance --------------------------193
8.1 Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------193
8.2 Cohesion -------------------------------------------------------------------------------194
8.2.1 Referential strategies in Mandarin --------------------------------------------194
8.2.2 Cohesion through indications and demonstrations in TSL -----------------197
8.2.2.1 Index and anaphor
8.2.2.2 Spatial mapping of demonatrations as repetition-like cohesive
device
8.2.2.3 Summary
8.2.3 Spatial contrast and conjunction ----------------------------------------------214
8.2.3.1 Spatial contrast to provide imagistic information of different
referents involving co-occurring events
8.2.3.2 Opposite construal of the spatial contrast to differentiate referents
among signers
8.2.3.3 Spatial contrast to provide imagistic information of different
referents involving co-relating events
8.2.3.4 Spatial contrast to indicate interlocutors’ alternation
8.3 Thematic coherence -----------------------------------------------------------------223
8.4 Evaluative functions of narrative --------------------------------------------------231
8.4.1 Signaling of describing-as, indicating, and demonstrating ---------------232
8.4.2 Encouragement of perspective shift -----------------------------------------236
8.4.3 Images and details in climax -------------------------------------------------237
8.4.3.1 Images and details created by constructed actions
8.4.3.2 Images and details created by depicting classifier constructions
8.4.4 Strategies for suspenseful/surprising effects in climax -------------------244
8.5 Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------246

Chapter 9 Conclusions and Directions for Future Research ---------------------249

Appendix I The contents of the 24 pictures of Frog Story ------------------------------253
Appendix II: TSL handshapes --------------------------------------------------------------254
Notational conventions ----------------------------------------------------------------------258
References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------260

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