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研究生:龔祺修
研究生(外文):Kung,Chi-Hisu
論文名稱:汽車噴漆勞工有機溶劑暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):Exposure Assessment to Organic Solvents Among Car Painters
指導教授:許憲呈
指導教授(外文):Sheu, Shiann-Cherng
口試委員:陳美如吳俊德
口試日期:2011-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長榮大學
系所名稱:職業安全與衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:汽車噴漆勞工有機溶劑空氣暴露測定尿液樣本
外文關鍵詞:handicraft car paintersorganic solventsair exposure measurementurinary samples
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中文摘要
本研究針對汽車工廠噴漆勞工進行有機溶劑(甲苯、乙酸正丁酯、二甲苯)暴露偵測及尿液樣本測定,主要研究目的為:(1)瞭解汽車噴漆勞工在作業時有機溶劑的暴露量,並與相關法規做比較;(2) 空氣與尿液暴露測定值的平均濃度和變異情形的差異比較;(3) 探討汽車噴漆勞工上班前和下班後尿液中有機溶劑變化;(4) 探討尿液與空氣暴露測定值的相關性。本研究針對汽車工廠噴漆勞工6名(暴露組)與行政人員5名(非暴露組),隨機選取7個工作天,進行個人及區域空氣暴露採樣及上班前和下班後尿液樣本的收集。合計空氣個人樣本為42個、尿液樣本為54個,完整的資料測定包括:(1)以活性碳管採集個人8小時時量加權平均空氣暴露濃度;(2)工廠區域採樣空氣濃度;(3)上班前和下班後尿液樣本暴露測定濃度。所收集到的空氣樣本以氣相層析火焰離子偵測器分析,尿液樣本以氣相層析質譜儀(GC/MS)頂空氣體進樣分析。暴露測定數據分析結果發現:所收集到的空氣樣本均低於法規暴露濃度容許濃度值(甲苯100ppm、乙酸正丁酯150ppm、二甲苯100ppm)。在甲苯空氣濃度與上、下班尿液濃度均呈現正相關(R2=0.66、R2=0.53);乙酸正丁酯空氣濃度與上、下班尿液濃度均呈現正相關(R2=0.53、R2=0.58);二甲苯空氣濃度與上班尿液濃度則呈現低相關(R2=0.13),下班後的尿液濃度則未達顯著差異,因此尿液樣本甲苯和乙酸正丁酯暴露濃度可以反映空氣暴露濃度。區域採樣方面,原物料放置區不管是A區或B區有機溶劑的暴露量都遠高於作業區域與行政區域,可見有機溶劑的暴露來源主要是來自原物料放置區A和原物料放置區B。利用獨立樣本t檢定檢驗暴露組與非暴露組上班前和下班後甲苯、乙酸正丁酯、二甲苯平均值是否存在顯著差異,結果顯示:甲苯和乙酸正丁酯在上、下班裡尿液濃度平均值都呈現統計上顯著差異,但在二甲苯方面在上班前(P=0.11)和下班後(P=0.17)尿液濃度平均值未呈現統計上顯著差異。

Abstract
This study conducted continuous air monitoring of toluene 、n-butylacetate and xylene exposure and measured the amount of these chemical substances in urinary samples for the baking finish workers in the automobile maintenance factory. The objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze the organic solvents exposure measurements of the workers when they were baking finish﹐and compared the results with the related laws; (2) to compare the difference with variability estimated based on urinary samples and real-time air samples; and (3) to analyze the organic solvents exposure measurements variability the pre- and post-shift; and (4) to evaluate the association of urinary samples and real-time air samples. This study recruited 6 baking finish workers(exposure)and 5 staffs(non- exposure)of the automobile maintenance factory, and randomly selected 7 workdays to collect the samples of airborne exposure and biological specimens(urine)were collected two more workdays. A total of 42 person-day airborne exposure and 54 person-day urinary samples were collected. The complete exposure data included: (1) the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure concentrations measured by activated carbon tube; (2) the collection of air concentration in the automobile maintenance factory; (3) the exposure measurements from the pre- and post-shift urinary samples. The air and urinary samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector, and urinary samples were analyzed by using gas chromatograhy/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a headspace system. The results of exposure data analysis showed the concentrations were lower than the statutory standard(toluene 100ppm、n-butylacetate 150ppm、zylene100ppm). The toluene air concentrations of the pre- and post-shift were positive (R2=0.66、R2=0.53)﹔the n-butylacetate air concentrations of the pre- and post-shift were positive (R2=0.53、R2=0.58) ﹔the zylene air concentrations of the pre- and post-shift were low associated (R2=0.13). The air concentrations of the post-shift did not show significant variability. So the exposure concentrations of the urinary samples(toluene、n-butylacetate) could reveal the air exposure concentrations. About the sample collection of the working area, the organic solvents exposure measurements of the A or B raw materials area were all higher than the working and administrative areas. So the sources of the organic solvents exposure were from the A and B raw materials area. Use the independent sample t to check the pre- and post-shift toluene、n-butylacetate and zylene exposure mean of whether the exposure or non- exposure workers show significant variability. The results of the non-serial 9 days exposure sample collection showed the toluene、n-butylacetate concentrations mean of the pre- and post-shift urine significant differences without supposing variance equal. But the zylene concentrations mean of the pre- (P=0.11) and post-shift (P=0.17) urine showed unapparent differences.

目錄
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
前言 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 3
1.3研究架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 汽車表面塗裝流程 6
2.2揮發性有機溶劑代謝和健康效應 8
2.2.1 揮發性有機溶劑的健康效應 8
2.2.2 有機溶劑的代謝 11
2.3 生物偵測 13
2.4有機溶劑之容許暴露限值 14
第三章 材料與方法 16
3.1 採樣策略 16
3.1.1 研究對象 17
3.1.2 空氣暴露採樣測定 17
3.1.3 尿液樣本採樣 18
3.1.4現場工作狀況紀錄 18
3.2 分析儀器 18
3.2.1 空氣樣本分析方法 19
3.2.2尿液樣本分析方法 20
3.3 空氣、尿液樣本分析的品保保管規範 20
3.3.1 檢量線建立 20
3.3.2 樣品脫附 21
3.3.3回收率測試 21
3.3.4精確度測試 21
3.3.5分析品保確定 22
3.3.6方法偵測下限測試 22
3.3.7空白分析 22
3.4 資料分析 23
第四章 結果與討論 24
4.1 實驗室分析方法與結果 24
4.1.1 分析條件測試 24
4.1.2 檢量線結果 24
4.1.3脫附效率結果 29
4.1.4精確度結果 30
4.1.5 方法偵測下限測試結果 31
4.1.6 QC/QA測試結果 31
4.2 汽車工廠及工廠介紹 33
4.3 採樣勞工人口資料 35
4.3.1勞工人口學資料 35
4.4暴露組空氣樣本測定 38
4.4.1暴露組個人空氣採樣測定結果 38
4.4.2暴露組個人尿液採樣測定結果 41
4.4.3空氣與尿液樣本暴露測定結果探討 43
4.4.4區域採樣空氣測定結果探討 47
4.4.5 暴露組與非暴露組尿液經肌酸酐調整測定結果探討 52
第五章 結論與建議 58
5.1結論 58
參考文獻 60
附件一 採樣紀錄表 65


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