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研究生:黃博偉
論文名稱:具主動箝位及同步整流之高效能順向式鉛酸電池充電器之研製
論文名稱(外文):Study and Implementation for High Efficiency Forward Lead-Acid Battery Charger with Active Clamp and Synchronous Rectification
指導教授:陳宣泰黃維澤
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:建國科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系暨研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:類比充電器CCCVIBCM主動箝位同步整流
外文關鍵詞:Analog chargerCCCVIBCMActive-ClampSynchronous Rectification
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摘要
傳統之鉛酸電池充電器,因為均為類比式之電路結構,故具缺乏彈性轉態與無偵錯能力之缺點且無法作充電時程管理與監控。因此常會產生因太早轉態而導致充電不足或過度充電而引起熱崩燒毀等嚴重之問題。針對此些缺失,本文乃整合CPU晶片及高效能高頻切換技術,提出一間歇式平衡充電模式(Intermittent Charge Balance Mode, IBCM)之概念,將傳統CC-CV之充電模式改為Deep Charge-CC1-IBCM1-CC2-IBCM2-CC3-IBCM3-CV1-IBCM4-CV2-IBCM5-Standby等12段之充電模式。可完全克服上述類比式之缺點且於充電過程可因IBCM作用而自然達到電池電壓之平衡,且架構非常簡單而便宜。此外,為提升整體之充電效率,本文並提出一具主動箝位與同步整流之順向式轉換器電路,並配合MC33341之CC∕CV控制IC,使整體充電效能大幅提升且充電電路更加簡化。文末並以廣隆公司之12V-36Ah密封型鉛酸電池作實際之充電實驗,結果顯示充電效率高達91.67%,且電池充電過程經IBCM均可達到均充平衡之效果。充電結束放置24小時後之電池電壓高達26.416V,此亦充分顯示本文所提充電器可完全將電池充滿。由上述之結果顯示,本文所提之充電器架構非常實用、穩定、價格便宜且又性能優越,實極適用於相關之充電應用。

關鍵字:類比充電器、CC、CV、IBCM、主動箝位、同步整流

Abstract
Because of analog circuit topology, the traditional lead-acid battery chargers have the shortcomings of the lack of flexiable transfer state from CC to CV and can not moniter and supervise the charging process. So often produce a result of inadequate charging due to transferring from CC to CV state too early, or excessive heat of overcharge causes the serious thermal runway problems. To improve these shorts, an intergrated CPU chip and high-frequency switching technology charging method has been proposed in this thesis. Instead of traditional CC-CV charging modes, the proposed method divides the charging modes into 12 sections, such as Deep Charge-CC1-IBCM1-CC2 - IBCM2 - CC3 - IBCM3 - CV1 - IBCM4 - CV2 - IBCM5 - Standby, by introducing an intermittent charge balance mode(IBCM)concept. By the charging modes, the shortcomings of analog chargers can be completely overcome and the individual battery voltage can be easily balanced by IBCM during charging process. The proposed charging topology is very simple and cheap. In addition, to imprve the overall charging efficiency and simplify the CC/CV control circuits, this thesis also proposes an active-clamp forward converter with synchronous rectification circuit topology and incorporates it with a MC33341 CC/CV control IC. As a resut, it greatly enchances the charging efficacy and simplifys the circuits. At the end of the thesis, the proposed charging topology and circuits are implemented and tested by charging two 12-36Ah sealed lead-acid batteries of Kung Long. Batteries Industrial Co., As demonstrated by the experimental results, the charging efficiency has been boosted up to 91.67% and battery equalization also has been achieved by IBCM during charging process. The experimental results also appear that the final voltage of battery string is up to 26.416V after 24 hours of finishing 12-section charging process. This fully demonstrates the batteries have been completely charged. To sum up the above results, the proposed charging method and circuits are very practical, stable, cheap, and excellent in performance, they are very suitable for related charging applications.

Keywords:Analog charger、CC、CV、IBCM、Active-Clamp、 Synchronous Rectification

目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
圖目錄 V
表目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機及目的 1
1.2 文獻探討 4
1.3 論文架構 10
第二章 鉛酸電池及充電器之簡介 11
2.1 前言 11
2.2 鉛酸電池之簡介 11
2.2.1 鉛酸電池內部結構及工作原理 12
2.2.2 鉛酸電池之充電特性 14
2.2.3 鉛酸電池之放電特性 16
2.2.4 鉛酸電池之溫度特性 17
2.2.5 鉛酸電池之使用壽命 18
2.3 鉛酸電池之充電方式 19
2.3.1 定電流(Constant Current, CC)充電法 20
2.3.2 定電壓(Constant Voltage, CV)充電法 20
2.3.3 混合式定電流∕定電壓(CC∕CV)充電法 21
2.3.4 階段式定電壓(Step-Wise Constant Current, CV)充電法 21
2.3.5 脈衝(Pulse Charging)充電法 22
2.4 鉛酸電池之充電器簡介 23
2.4.1 非隔離型之轉換器 24
2.4.2 隔離型之轉換器 26
第三章 具主動箝位及同步整流之高效能順向式轉換器 30
3.1 前言 30
3.2 硬性切換與柔性切換 30
3.3 順向式轉換器之電路 34
3.4 順向式轉換器之磁通重置機制 35
3.4.1 重置繞組之順向式轉換器 36
3.4.2 RCD磁通重置之順向式轉換器 37
3.4.3 主動箝位磁通重置之順向式轉換器 38
3.4.4 主動箝位之順向式轉換器電路分析 41
3.5 同步整流技術 53
3.5.1 順向式轉換器之同步整流開關驅動方式 53
3.6 順向式轉換器之實驗步驟說明 61
3.6.1高頻變壓器之設計 61
3.6.2輸出儲能電感之計算 67
3.6.3 PWM IC 69
3.7 順向式轉換器之實驗結果與討論 74
第四章 具主動箝位及同步整流之順向式鉛酸電池充電電路 100
4.1 前言 100
4.2 單晶片PIC16F84A簡介 100
4.3 本文所提主動箝位及順向式鉛酸電池之充電架構與說明 103
4.3.1 間歇式平衡充電模式(IBCM)之控制電路 112
4.3.2 MC33341簡介 113
4.3.3定電流與定電壓之控制電路 115
4.4 實驗結果與討論分析 122
第五章 結論與未來發展方向 130
5.1 結論 130
5.2 未來發展方向 131
參考文獻 132

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