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研究生:俞貞志
研究生(外文):Chen-Chih Yu
論文名稱:不同飲食型態和複方食材對於代謝症候群之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Various Diet Style and Food Formula on Metabolic Syndrome
指導教授:蔡敬民蔡敬民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jimmy Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:生物科技研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:代謝症候群腹部肥胖
外文關鍵詞:metabolic syndromeabdominal obese
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摘 要
代謝症候群是一種日漸普級因腹部肥胖造成代謝紊亂的疾病,其有五項指標,包括腹部肥胖、高血糖、高血壓、高三酸甘油酯及過低的高密度脂蛋白膽固醇 (HDL-C) 。本實驗目的是探討不同的飲食型態和複方食材對脂肪分佈與代謝症候群的影響。實驗分成二部分:
實驗I
本實驗以營養攝取角度切入,探討在不同飲食成分對大白鼠內臟脂肪組織與皮下脂肪組織分佈的影響?40隻7週大的SD鼠,隨機均分為五組,第一組:控制組,攝取AIN-93的飼料。另外四組分別以AIN-93飼料加以修飾,第二組:高精緻醣(35%蔗糖+30%果糖)組;第三組:高奶油(25%)組;第四組:高玉米油(25%)組;第五組:高玉米油+高精緻醣組,實驗動物皆在給予實驗飼料12週後犧牲進行生化分析。
結果顯示控制組雖然攝食量最高,但在各項生化分析皆無明顯高於其它組別。高精緻醣組與各組比較,發現血液中三酸甘油酯含量最高,而血液中Adiponectin濃度明顯降低。高奶油組的肝臟總膽固醇含量最高,血液中的Leptin濃度明顯升高,且有顯著性胰島素阻抗。高玉米油組血液中LDL-C/HDL-C比值較高,Leptin濃度也明顯升高,並增加胰島素阻抗。高玉米油+高精緻醣組則是血液中膽固醇含量最高,LDL-C/HDL-C比值也明顯較高,而血液中Adiponectin濃度明顯降低,也有胰島素阻抗現象。雖然各組內臟脂肪與皮下脂肪比例無明顯差異,但利用迴歸分析發現,五組Leptin含量皆與內臟脂肪有顯著的正相關性。有高油的三組其Leptin含量皆與皮下脂肪有顯著性的正相關性,但在高澱粉組Leptin含量則與皮下脂肪無相關性,於高精緻醣組Leptin含量則與皮下脂肪有較弱相關性。這可能意味著內臟脂肪與皮下脂肪對於不同飲食配方具有差異性敏感度,但有待進一步研究。
實驗II
本實驗以保健角度切入,透過本實驗室先前已建立之代謝症候群倉鼠模式,評估不同複方食材對預防誘發代謝症候群倉鼠動物模式之功效。動物先施打30 mg /kg BW/day NA + 10 mg /kg BW/day STZ,並給予高油脂(22%)高蔗糖(27.95%)高果糖(20%)之飼料,誘發肥胖與代謝症候群。本實驗目的在於攝取保健食品是否能有效預防或減緩代謝症候群的發生?實驗組一開始即餵予預期能預防或改善代謝症候群的不同複方食材,包括有5Mix(苦瓜、紅麴、大豆、綠藻及甘草)、4Mix(綠藻、兒茶素、鰹魚粉、豆豉萃取物)或3Mix(大豆粗萃物、兒茶素、紅麴),每組有8隻倉鼠,飼養12週後犧牲,進行生化分析。本實驗結果顯示以苦瓜、紅麴、大豆、綠藻及甘草之複方食材之整體預防效果最好,能有效降低胰島素阻抗現象和減少腹部脂肪質量。另外,飲食中添加兒茶素在預防血脂異常方面有較好的表現。

Abstract
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a phenomenon of metabolic disorder that could be induced from the abdominal obese. The 5 parameters of MS include abdominal obesity, high blood glucose, pressure, triacylglycerol (TG) and low HDL-C goals of the study were to explore the various diet and combinatorial foods in fat distribution and internal impact of metabolic syndrome. The study includes 2 trials:
Trail I:
Purpose of this trial was to compare the various diet styles on visceral and subcutaneous fat distribution. Forty 7 weeks old SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed an AIN-93 diet as a control group or a modified diet that contained high fined sugars (35% sucrose + 30% fructose), high butter (25%), high corn oil (25%) or high corn oil with high fined sugars. All rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks feeding.
Among groups, the control group was showed the highest food intake, but all biochemical analyses are not higher than the other groups. It was noticed that the high fined sugars group had a highest plasma triacyglycerol and a lowest blood adiponectin. The results demonstrated that the high butter group had the highest liver cholesterol, and increased blood leptin and insulin resistance. However, the high corn oil group was found having a relatively higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, plasma leptin and insulin resistance. The data also showed that the high corn oil with fined sugar group had the highest plasma cholesterol, higher plasma LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and insulin resistance, and lower the concentration of plasma adiponectin. The proportion of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat was not different significantly among the groups. However, a positive correlation between visceral fat and plasma leptin levels was noticed after a regression analysis among the 5 groups. Results also revealed that there was a positive correlation between plasma leptin and subcutaneous fat among the 3 high oil groups, a weak correlation in the fined sugars group and no correlation in the high starch control group. Does it reveal that the distributions of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat can be affected by diet formulas? It might still need future studies.
Trail II:
Purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various functional food formulas to prevent or reduce the cause of MS. After many pre-tests, it was found that an AIN-93 diet modified with 22% fat, 27.95% sucrose and 20% fructose as a “MS inducing diet” plus giving 30 mg /kg BW/day nicotinamide (NA) + 10 mg /kg BW/day streptozotocin (STZ) could successfully induce MS in hamsters. Three various formulas including a 3-Mix with red mold rice, soy extract and catechin, a 4-Mix with green algae, catechin, katsuobushi oligopeptide and touchi extract, and a 5-Mix with bitter melon, licorice, green algae, red mold rice and soy protein were added respectively into the MS inducing diet to reduce one or more MS risk parameters in the study. The animals in each group were fed one of the test diets for 12 weeks, then sacrificed. The results of the study demonstrated that all three functional food formulas could reduce various degrees of MS risk parameters. However, it was observed that the 5-Mix formula was the most effectively to reduce insulin resistance and decrease abdominal fat. It was also noticed that the diets adding catechin had better effect on the prevention of blood dyslipidoses.

目錄
摘 要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
圖次 VIII
表次 IX
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 2
第一節代謝症候群 2
一、何謂代謝症候群 2
二、代謝症候群之發展與判斷 2
三、代謝症候群致病機制 7
第二節肥胖 11
一、脂肪的種類 11
二、內臟脂肪和皮下脂肪的差異 11
第三節 第2型糖尿病與胰島素阻抗 13
一、第2型糖尿病的原理與特徵 13
二、胰島素阻抗 14
第四節STZ誘發高血糖之動物模式 16
一、以STZ誘發第1型糖尿病 16
二、以NA+ STZ誘發第2型糖尿病 17
第五節過氧小體增生活化受體 20
一、PPARα 20
二、PPARβ/δ 21
三、PPARγ 21
第六節選用食材介紹 22
一、苦瓜 22
二、甘草 23
三、綠藻 23
四、紅麴 24
五、大豆 24
六、鰹魚 25
七、兒茶素 25
八、豆豉萃取物 26
第三章 實驗目的與材料方法 27
第一節 實驗目的 27
第二節 實驗架構 28
一、實驗I:不同飲食型態對大鼠脂肪分佈位置之影響 28
二、實驗II:不同複方食材對倉鼠誘發代謝症候群之影響 28
第三節 材料與方法 32
二、實驗方法 36
第四章 結果與討論 48
第一節、實驗I結果與討論 48
一、體重、攝食量、飼料攝食效率及飼料熱量效率 48
二、皮下脂肪與內臟脂肪堆積情形 48
三、血漿血脂分析 49
五、肝臟重量和肝臟脂質 51
六、血液中Adiponectin 濃度 52
七、血液中Leptin濃度 53
八、綜合實驗I結果討論 53
第二節 實驗II結果與討論 55
一、體重與攝食量 55
二、血漿血脂濃度之變化 56
三、飼養期間血漿葡萄糖和胰島素變化 59
四、肝臟重量和肝臟脂質含量 64
五、腹部脂肪重量 65
六、綜合實驗II結果討論 65
第五章 參考文獻 91


圖次
圖2.1、肌肉細胞中過多的游離脂肪酸產生胰島素抗性原因(Shulman, 2000) 9
圖2.2、血清中游離脂肪酸產生胰島素阻抗的原因(Shulman, 2000) 10
圖2.3、STZ致糖尿病的反應路徑(Szkudelski, 2001) 19
圖3.1、實驗I架構 30
圖3.2、實驗II架構 31
圖I-1、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週禁食血清 Adiponectin 濃度 69
圖I-2、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週禁食血清 Leptin 濃度 69
圖II-3、各實驗組倉鼠飼養12週之禁食血漿膽固醇濃度 72
圖II-4、各實驗組倉鼠飼養12週之禁食血漿高密度脂蛋白濃度 73
圖II-5、各實驗組倉鼠飼養12週之禁食血漿HDL-C/TC變化 74
圖II-6、倉鼠飼養12週後禁食犧牲血清LDL-C濃度 75
圖II-7、實驗期間倉鼠禁食血漿葡萄糖(A)和胰島素(B)濃度變化 76
圖II-8、實驗期倉鼠非禁食餐後240分鐘之血漿葡萄糖(A)和胰島素(B)濃度變化 77
圖II-9、實驗第4週之口服葡萄糖耐受性試驗血漿葡萄糖(A)和胰島素(B)濃度變化 78
圖II-10、實驗第8週之口服葡萄糖耐受性試驗血漿葡萄糖(A)和胰島素(B)濃度變化 79
圖II-11、實驗第12週之口服葡萄糖耐受性試驗血漿葡萄糖(A)和胰島素(B)濃度變化 80

表次
表2.1、代謝症候群名稱一覽 4
表2.2、不同國際組織代謝症候群診斷標準 5
表3.1、AIN-93G(Growth)組成配方表(依需要變更比例) 42
表3.2、AIN-93M(Mineral mix)的配方表 43
表3.3、AIN-93V(Vitamin mix)的配方表 44
表3.4、Laboratory rodent diet 5001的組成配方 45
表3.5、實驗I飼料配方 46
表3.6、實驗II飼料配方 47
表I-1、各實驗組大白鼠每日之攝食量、體重變化量、飼料攝食效率及熱量效率 81
表I-2、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週後皮下脂肪、內臟脂肪及總脂肪重量 82
表I-3、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週後內臟脂肪絕對重量和相對重量 83
表I-4、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週之禁食血漿三酸甘油酯、膽固醇、高密度脂蛋白及低密度脂蛋白濃度 84
表I-5、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週之禁食血漿葡萄糖、胰島素濃度及HOMA-IR值 85
表I-6、各實驗組大白鼠飼養12週後之肝臟組織重量、肝臟膽固醇、肝臟三酸甘油酯濃度 86
表II-1、各實驗組倉鼠平均攝食量 87
表II-2、倉鼠於4、8及12週進行口服葡萄糖耐受性試驗血漿葡萄糖和胰島素濃度曲線下面積及HOMA-IR值。 88
表II-3、倉鼠飼養12週後禁食犧牲取臟器組織重量。 89
表II-4、倉鼠飼養12週後禁食犧牲肝臟組織脂質濃度。 90
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