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研究生:彭玉君
研究生(外文):Yu-Chun Peng
論文名稱:中級華語學生閱讀策略調查與策略教學成效之個案研究—以越南學生為例
論文名稱(外文):A Case Study of the Survey of Reading Strategies and Effects on TeachingReading Strategies in the Intermediate Level Chinese Classes
指導教授:黃麗儀黃麗儀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Yi Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:應用華語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:策略教學有聲思考閱讀理解閱讀策略中級華語學習者
外文關鍵詞:reading strategiesintermediate learnersteachingreading comprehension
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閱讀不同於說和寫,很難從學生的輸出表現中了解他們的語言能力。又中文閱讀
不僅是漢字認讀,更要具備句子和篇章的理解能力。當學習者的閱讀技能不足時,尌
會限制他們學習的空間,也會影響學習的效率。因此,若能了解學習者進行閱讀時使
用的閱讀策略,便能夠從中思考學習者的理解過程,對於教師的教學也能有所啟發及
助益。故本論文之目的在於研究中級華語學習者閱讀中文文章時使用閱讀策略的情
況。探討中級學生使用閱讀策略的頻率以及常用和不常用的閱讀策略類型,分析學習
者在不同策略類型中的表現情形,並藉由策略教學的進行,了解策略教學在課堂實施
中的成效。
鑒於以上研究動機與目的,本研究以四位越南學生為研究對象。研究分為兩個階
段,第一階段採用問卷、有聲思考及個別訪談等方式調查中級學習者的閱讀策略。第
二階段筆者挑選10 個閱讀策略,進行40 個小時的策略教學,於教學實施後,以有聲
思考和回饋性問卷進行教學成效分析。
研究結果發現,中級學生「經常使用」閱讀策略。在一般性閱讀策略中,最常使
用「解決問題策略」,最少使用「支持策略」。依漢語語言結構來分,最常使用「句的
策略」。根據研究結果,本論文提出中級閱讀能力的分級建議並於每個級別中提出合適
的閱讀教學策略。經教學研究證實,策略教學可有效提升學習者的閱讀理解能力。
本論文期望藉由分析學習者閱讀策略的使用情況以及策略教學的研究,提升學習
者的中文閱讀理解。本研究亦提出策略教學建議和日後研究方向供後續研究者參考。
Reading is different from speaking and writing. It is very difficult to measure the
student’s language proficiency from the reading output. Moreover, reading a Chinese text
does not only demand reader’s understanding on Chinese characters, but also syntactic and
whole passage comprehension. As a result, a poor reading proficiency will affect the learning
efficiency, thus resulted the learning output. Therefore, understanding the reading strategies
used by the learners, thus comprehending their learning process could benefit the teacher in
developing the teaching methodology. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reading
strategy used by the intermediate level of Chinese learner, by understanding the efficiency of
each reading strategy, determining the strategies which are mostly and rarely used by the
learners, thus analyzing the output of different reading strategies. To better understanding the
effect of teaching strategies on TCSL, the researcher designed a class by implementing
certain teaching strategy.
The object of this research is four Chinese learners of Vietnamese origin. The
methodology used in this research could be divided into two parts, the first part is by using
the questionnaire, think-aloud and interview to analyze the learners’ reading strategy. In the
second part, the researcher select 10reading strategies, this implementing 40 hours reading
strategy, and later used the opened and closed style questionnaire to analyze the teaching
output.
The results showed that intermediate level learners usually have their own reading
strategies. In general, the reading strategy which is mostly used is the “problem solving
strategies”, the “supporting strategies”is less used.Based on the researcher being done,
whereas the writer supports different teaching strategy for different level language learner,
and thus found put that teaching strategy could promote reading proficiency.
By analyzing the reading strategies used by the intermediate level Chinese learners, the
III
aim of this thesis is to aid the Chinese learners in constructing the reading comprehension
methodology and enhancing the reading proficiency. The teaching strategy and suggestion
for future research are also mentioned.
摘要 ..........................................................................................................................................I
Abstract ................................................................................................................................. II
誌謝辭 ...................................................................................................................................IV
目錄 ........................................................................................................................................V
表目錄 ...................................................................................................................................IX
圖目錄 ...................................................................................................................................XI
第一章緒論 ............................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究動機與目的.............................................................................................................1
1.2 研究問題.........................................................................................................................2
1.3 相關名詞釋義.................................................................................................................3
1.3.1 中級華語學習者.....................................................................................................3
1.3.2 閱讀策略..................................................................................................................3
1.3.3 策略教學..................................................................................................................3
1.3.4 有聲思考..................................................................................................................4
1.3.5 漢越詞......................................................................................................................4
1.4 論文架構.........................................................................................................................4
第二章 文獻探討....................................................................................................................5
2.1 中文閱讀理解的認知歷程.............................................................................................5
2.1.1 字彙辨識..................................................................................................................5
2.1.2 基模理論..................................................................................................................6
2.1.3 後設認知..................................................................................................................7
2.1.4 閱讀模式理論..........................................................................................................8
2.1.5 小結........................................................................................................................10
2.2 閱讀策略......................................................................................................................11
VI
2.2.1 一般性閱讀策略....................................................................................................12
2.2.2 華語文閱讀策略....................................................................................................14
2.2.3 閱讀方法................................................................................................................17
2.3 策略教學訓練..............................................................................................................18
2.3.1 策略訓練的三種類型............................................................................................19
2.3.2 策略訓練的模型....................................................................................................19
2.3.3 閱讀理解教學.......................................................................................................22
2.4 閱讀理解的相關研究回顧...........................................................................................23
2.4.1 Ke & Everson(1997) ...............................................................................................23
2.4.2 Chern(1995) ............................................................................................................24
2.4.3 Kletzien(1991) ........................................................................................................24
2.4.4 張蔓蓀(2006).........................................................................................................25
2.5 小結..............................................................................................................................25
第三章 研究方法...................................................................................................................27
3.1 研究方法的選用..........................................................................................................27
3.2 研究場域與對象...........................................................................................................28
3.2.1 研究場域................................................................................................................29
3.2.2 研究對象................................................................................................................29
3.3 研究工具......................................................................................................................31
3.3.1 問卷調查...............................................................................................................31
3.3.2 有聲思考................................................................................................................34
3.3.3 訪談........................................................................................................................35
3.3.4 課堂錄影................................................................................................................36
3.4 研究步驟......................................................................................................................37
第四章 分析與討論...............................................................................................................41
4.1 問卷調查結果分析......................................................................................................41
4.1.1 四位越南中級學習者使用閱讀策略的頻率........................................................42
4.1.2 受詴者最常使用和最不常使用的閱讀策略........................................................44
VII
4.1.3 小結........................................................................................................................53
4.2 有聲思考調查結果分析..............................................................................................53
4.2.1 資料分析工具........................................................................................................54
4.2.2 結果分析................................................................................................................56
4.2.3 結果討論................................................................................................................62
4.2.4 中級學生的分級討論與策略建議.......................................................................71
4.2.5 小結.......................................................................................................................73
4.3 訪談結果分析...............................................................................................................74
4.3.1 訪談記錄一...........................................................................................................74
4.3.2 訪談記錄二...........................................................................................................75
4.4 總結..............................................................................................................................76
第五章 教學設計實施..........................................................................................................79
5.1 教學目標......................................................................................................................79
5.2 課程設計流程與教學內容...........................................................................................79
5.2.1 課程設計流程........................................................................................................80
5.2.2 策略教學內容安排...............................................................................................81
5.3 課程教學實施..............................................................................................................84
5.3.1 將策略導入課堂...................................................................................................85
5.3.2 進行步驟...............................................................................................................86
5.4 策略教學評量檢測與討論...........................................................................................87
5.4.1 有聲思考檢測.......................................................................................................87
5.4.2 回饋性問卷...........................................................................................................93
5.4.3 小結.....................................................................................................................100
第六章 結論 ........................................................................................................................103
6.1 總結............................................................................................................................103
6.1.1 中級學生閱讀策略使用情況..............................................................................103
6.1.2 策略教學的成效..................................................................................................105
6.2 研究限制....................................................................................................................106
VIII
6.3 未來研究建議.............................................................................................................106
參考文獻...............................................................................................................................107
中文部分...........................................................................................................................107
英文部分...........................................................................................................................108
【附錄一】閱讀策略問卷中英文參照表...........................................................................111
【附錄二】中級學生閱讀策略調查問卷...........................................................................113
【附錄三】有聲思考測驗文章...........................................................................................117
【附錄四】SORS 填答記分表............................................................................................119
【附錄五】有聲思考逐字記錄...........................................................................................121
【附錄六】訪談內容...........................................................................................................129
IX
表目錄
表 2-1 Block(1986)閱讀策略分類表..................................................................................12
表 2-2 Barnett(1988)閱讀策略分類....................................................................................13
表 2-3 葉德明與陳純音(1998)閱讀策略分類表.................................................................14
表 2-4 信世昌(2001)閱讀策略分類表.................................................................................15
表 2-5 策略訓練模型步驟....................................................................................................20
表 3-1 研究場域說明表........................................................................................................29
表 3-2 學習者基本背景資料表............................................................................................30
表 3-3 問卷題目修改列表....................................................................................................32
表 3-4 問卷策略類別及題數分配總表................................................................................33
表 3-5 第一次的訪談題目....................................................................................................35
表 3-6 第二次的訪談題目....................................................................................................36
表 4-1 問卷量表的數值結果概要表....................................................................................42
表 4-2 問卷策略使用頻率初步結果總表............................................................................43
表 4-3 總體性策略使用統計表............................................................................................44
表 4-4 解決問題策略使用統計表........................................................................................47
表 4-5 支持策略使用統計表................................................................................................49
表 4-6 最常使用的閱讀策略統計表....................................................................................51
表 4-7 最不常使用的閱讀策略統計表................................................................................52
表 4-8 華語文閱讀策略分類表............................................................................................54
表 4-9 受詴者整體閱讀策略次數總計表............................................................................57
表 4-10 篇章策略使用統計表..............................................................................................58
表 4-11 句的策略使用統計表..............................................................................................60
表 4-12 詞的策略使用統計表..............................................................................................61
X
表4-13 認字策略使用統計表..............................................................................................62
表 4-14 問卷調查及有聲思考分析之閱讀策略整理總表..................................................68
表 5-1 S1 閱讀策略次數變化表.........................................................................................90
表 5-2 S2 閱讀策略次數變化表.........................................................................................91
表 5-3 S3 閱讀策略次數變化表.........................................................................................92
表 5-4 S4 閱讀策略次數變化表.........................................................................................93
表 5-5 策略教學調查總表..................................................................................................94
表 5-6 策略教學分類表......................................................................................................95
表 5-7 回饋評量表--閱讀策略概念類..................................................................................97
表 5-8 回饋評量表--閱讀策略的幫助類..............................................................................97
表 5-9 回饋評量表--教學方式類..........................................................................................98
表 5-10 回饋評量表--課程建議類........................................................................................99
表 5-11 回饋評量表—課程心得類....................................................................................100
XI
圖目錄
圖 2-1 有聲思考圖示 ............................................................................................................ 17
圖4-1 受詴者分類策略的使用頻率 .................................................................................... 43
圖4-2 各項總體性策略的使用頻率 .................................................................................... 46
圖4-3 各項解決問題策略的使用頻率 ................................................................................ 48
圖4-4 各項支持問題策略的使用頻率 ................................................................................ 50
圖4-5 問卷與有聲思考的閱讀策略呈現結果 .................................................................... 58
圖4-6 越南中級學生閱讀策略使用頻率 ............................................................................ 62
圖4-7 篇章策略的使用比例 ................................................................................................ 63
圖4-8 句的策略的使用比例 ................................................................................................ 64
圖4-9 詞的策略的使用比例 ................................................................................................ 66
圖4-10 認字策略的使用比例 .............................................................................................. 67
圖5-1 策略教學步驟流程圖 ................................................................................................ 80
圖5-2 閱讀理解策略教學課程圖 ........................................................................................ 81
圖5-3 策略教學前的學習者閱讀策略運用情形 ................................................................ 88
圖5-4 策略教學中期的學習者閱讀策略運用情形 ............................................................ 88
圖5-5 策略教學後期的學習者閱讀策略運用情形 ............................................................ 89
圖5-6 教學過程的策略運用曲線圖 .................................................................................... 89
圖5-7 S1 閱讀策略使用次數變化圖 .................................................................................... 90
圖5-8 S2 閱讀策略使用次數變化圖 .................................................................................... 91
圖5-9 S3 閱讀策略使用次數變化圖 .................................................................................... 92
圖5-10 S4 閱讀策略使用次數變化圖 .................................................................................. 93
XII
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