(44.192.112.123) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/08 15:19
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:金凱儀
研究生(外文):Kai-Yi Chin
論文名稱:支援電腦輔助學習之IDML為基礎動畫及實體教學代理人
論文名稱(外文):IDML-based Animated and Physical Pedagogical Agents for Computer-Assisted Learning
指導教授:林志敏林志敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jim-Min Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:資訊工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:動畫型教學代理人(APA)實體型教學代理人電腦輔助教學系統數位教材製作工具互動式劇本標記語言
外文關鍵詞:Animated pedagogical agents (APAs)Physical pedagogical agentsComputer-assisted learning (CAL)Digital curriculum authoring toolInteractive drama markup language
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:436
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:71
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近年來,採用動畫型教學代理人(Animated Pedagogical Agent, APA)技術支援電腦輔助教學的應用已經越來越成熟並受到重視。在現今的電腦輔助教學環境中,這類型的代理人通常都會被設計成人類教學者或夥伴的角色,以便協助學生從事學習的活動,進而促進學生的學習興趣與效果。然而,目前的教學代理人輔助教學系統,大多是由老師提供教材內容或構想,再另外委請動畫師或程式設計師依教學內容製作多媒體教材與代理人動畫。然而,對一個沒有程式或動畫設計背景的老師而言,將一份教學內容轉換成數位化的學習教材是一件相當困難的工作。因此,若能夠提供一個專供老師使用的數位教材製作工具,讓老師雖然沒有軟體開發的能力,也能將教學代理人整合到數位教材中,進而製作出一個自己的電腦輔助教學系統,如此將可創造出更多的發展性與應用性於數位學習的研究領域。
本研究主要針對上述的議題,提出一套以互動式劇本標記語言(Interactive Drama Markup Language, IDML)為基礎的數位教材製作工具,本系統包含三個重點發展部份:IDML為基礎的課程描述語言、課程編寫工具以及互動性多媒體學習系統。本研究使用IDML為基礎的課程描述語言做為中間媒介資料的角色,而老師可利用課程編寫工具來編寫一份課程描述文件,並且透過互動式多媒體學習系統來解譯此課程描述文件,老師的數位教材即可播放給學生進行學習活動。
此外,為了增加教學型代理人的吸引性與有趣性,本研究亦納入機器人來做為教學型代理人的一種表現方式,我們稱之為實體型教學代理人。這類型的代理人因為具有實際的身體與肢體動作,更能吸引學生的注意力,並提高學生的學習興趣,達到更有效率的學習交流。因此,本研究的數位教材製作工具,不僅可支援老師以2D動畫型代理人方式來呈現數位教材,亦能於3D空間來操控實體型代理人與學生互動,來指導學生課程內容。
為了驗證本研究的教學成效與使用滿意度,我們將數位教材製作工具實際應用於三所國民小學,並利用考試、問卷調查或面談的方式,取得實驗成效與相關數據資料,進行統計分析與結果探討。透過這三所小學的實驗成果,可確實驗証本研究所提出的數位教材製作工具的確能夠支援老師的課堂教學活動,並且幫助學生課後從事學習行為。
Current researches on using animated pedagogical agents (APAs) to support Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) are becoming mature and practical. Most of them use APAs to represent different human instructional roles, such as experts, tutors, mentors and learning companions, in a CAL environment. They thought that APAs can support students to engage in learning activities and have a positive impact on the cognitive and affective development of students. However, the existing CAL systems that integrate APAs and multimedia materials usually are implemented by professional programmers or animators. For teachers, they do not have programming knowledge and lack of the capability of using the animation parameters to integrate their instructional content into digital learning materials. Therefore, an appropriate solution to handle this issue is to provide a CAL development tool that enables teachers to create their own multimedia teaching materials and design APAs without complicated computer and animation knowledge.
In order to investigate the above issues, this thesis purposes an IDML (Interactive Drama Markup Language)-based curriculum script for teachers to create their own learning systems with animated/physical pedagogical agent. We also provide an IDML-based learning material authoring tool for teachers to generate their own IDML-based curriculum scripts without programming skills in a curriculum document. Then, these scripts are interpreted by the IDML-based learning system for presenting multimedia materials to students.
In addition, in order to produce the most effective communication, this study also combined the multimodal presentation markup language IDML with the APA and the physical pedagogical agent. The physical pedagogical agent has an anthropomorphic body to attract students’ attention and interact with them in a natural manner through physical body and actions. Such agent can create an interactive and engaging learning experience for students. Thus, our IDML-based curriculum scripts and IDML tools not only provide the APA presentation on 2D display freely, but also support the physical pedagogical agent presentation in 3D space.
Finally, in order to evaluate the teaching efficacy of IDML tools and examine the satisfaction level of using our learning system, we have conducted three versions of learning system in three target elementary schools respectively. By using statistical techniques to analyze three experiment results, we can understand the development direction of IDML tools, and further prove this study is useful to support effective teachers’ teaching and students’ learning.
誌 謝 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Related Work 8
2.1 A survey to animated pedagogical agents using in a computer-assisted environment 8
2.2 A survey to physical pedagogical agents using in a computer-assisted environment 13
Chapter 3 Interactive Drama Markup Language 17
3.1. Tutor script 19
3.2. Segment script 24
3.3. Lesson script 28
Chapter 4 IDML Tools with Animated/Physical Pedagogical Agent 34
4.1. IDML-based learning material authoring tool 37
4.2. Client-side IDML-based learning system 43
4.2.1. IDML-based learning system with animated pedagogical agent 43
4.2.2. IDML-based learning system with physical pedagogical agent 46
Chapter 5 Evaluation 48
5.1. Teaching and learning experience in the IDML tools 48
5.1.1. participants 50
5.1.2. materials and procedure 50
5.1.3. results 51
5.1.4. commentary 61
5.2. Teaching efficiency in the learning system with animated pedagogical agent 62
5.2.1. participants 63
5.2.1. materials and procedure 64
5.2.3. results 67
5.2.4. commentary 70
5.3. Teaching efficiency in the learning system with physical pedagogical agent 73
5.3.1. participants 74
5.3.2. materials and procedure 74
5.3.3. results 77
5.3.4. commentary 79
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Work 82
6.1 Conclusion 82
6.2 Future work 84
References 85
Appendix-A: Example IDML Scripts for Science and Technology 98
Appendix-B: Questionnaires for teachers’ and students’ attitudes and perceptions toward the IDML tools 100
VITA 103
[1] W. Lewis Johnson, Jeff W. Rickel and James C. Lester, "Animated pedagogical agents: face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments," International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Vol. 11, pp. 47-78, 2000.
[2] Agneta Gulz, "Benefits of Virtual Characters in Computer Based Learning Environments: Claims and Evidence," International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Vol. 14, No. 3-4, pp. 313-334, December 2004.
[3] Yanghee Kim, Amy L. Baylor and PALS Group, "Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: The Role of Agent Competency and Type of Interaction," Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 54(3), pp. 223-243, December 2006.
[4] Edward M. Sims, "Reusable, lifelike virtual humans for mentoring and role-playing," Computers & Education, Vol. 49(1), pp. 75-92, August 2007.
[5] Robert K. Atkinson, "Optimizing learning from examples using animated pedagogical agents," Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 94(2), No.2, pp. 416-427, 2002.
[6] Maria Moundridou and Maria Virvou, "Evaluating the persona effect of an interface agent in a tutoring system," Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol. 18(3), pp. 253-261, September 2002.
[7] Yanghee Kim and Amy L. Baylor, "A Social-Cognitive Framework for Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions," Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 569-596, December 2006.
[8] Qi Dunsworth and Robert K. Atkinson, "Fostering multimedia learning of science: Exploring the role of an animated agent''s image," Computers & Education, Vol. 49(3), pp. 677–690, November 2007.
[9] Silvia Schiaffino, Patricio Garcia and Analia Amandi, "eTeacher: Providing personalized assistance to e-learning students," Computers & Education, Vol. 51(4), pp. 1744-1754, December 2008.
[10] Andrew Marriott and John Stallo, "VHML – Uncertainties and Problems. A discussion," In Proceedings of AAMAS-02 Workshop on Embodied Conversational Agents - Let''s Specify and Evaluate Them! , Bologna, Italy, July 2002.
[11] Yasmine Arafa and Abe Mamdani, "Scripting Embodied Agents Behaviour with CML: Character Markup Language," In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, ACM Press, pp. 313-316, Miami, Florida, January 2003.
[12] Sumedha Kshirsagar, Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Anthony Guye-Vuillème, Daniel Thalmann, Kaveh Kamyab and Ebrahim Mamdani, "Avatar markup language," EGVE’02: In Proceedings of the Workshop on Virtual Environments, Barcelona, Spain, May 2002.
[13] Helmut Prendinger, Junichiro Mori and Mitsuru Ishizuka, "Using human physiology to evaluate subtle expressivity of a virtual quizmaster in a mathematical game," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 62(2), pp. 231-245, February 2005.
[14] Toru Takahashi, Christoph Bartneck, Yasuhiro Katagiri and Noriko H. Arai, "TelMeA-Expressive avatars in asynchronous communications," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 62(2), pp. 193-209, February 2005.
[15] Maria Virvou and Eythimios Alepis, "Mobile educational features in authoring tools for personalised tutoring," Computers & Education, Vol. 44(1), pp. 53-68, January 2005.
[16] Wenli Tsou, Weichung Wang and Hung-yi Li, "How computers facilitate English foreign language learners acquire English abstract words," Computers & Education, Vol. 39(4), pp. 415-428, December 2002.
[17] Donald Brutzman, Michael Zyda, J. Mark Pullen and Katherine L. Morse, "Extensible Modeling and Simulation Framework (XMSF): Challenges for Web-Based Modeling and Simulation," Findings and Recommendations Report of the XMSF Technical Challenges Workshop and Strategic Opportunities Symposium, October 2002, from http://www.movesinstitute.org/xmsf/XmsfWorkshopSymposiumReportOctober2002.pdf.
[18] Tai-Hong Chen, Jim-Min Lin, Kai-Yi Chin and Zeng-Wei Hong, "Design of an IDML-based Interactive Agent Drama Authoring Tool," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA 2008), pp. 67-72, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, November 2008.
[19] Kai-Yi Chin, Yen-Lin Chen, Jong-Shin Chen, Zeng-Wei Hong and Jim-Min Lin, "Exploring the efficiency of multimedia with an animated agent in Web-based learning systems," IEICE on Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol. E94-D, No.4, March 2011.
[20] Kai-Yi Chin, Guo-Ming Fang, Zeng-Wei Hong, Jim-Min Lin and Arthur J. Lin, "Framework and Applications of an Interactive Scenario-Based Agent System," International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 13-25, May 2010.
[21] Kai-Yi Chin, Chih-Wei Lin, Zeng-Wei Hong, Jim-Min Lin and Arthur J. Lin, "A Framework for An Internet Marketing Multi-Agent System with Mediate Personal Agent," In Proceedings of 2005 International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE''2005), pp.181-186, Taipei, Taiwan, July 2005.
[22] Kai-Yi Chin, Jim-Min Lin, Zeng-Wei Hong, Chih-Wei Lin and Arthur J. Lin, "An Architecture for an Internet Marketing Multi-Agent System using AUML," International Journal of Multi-Agent and Grid Systems, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 413-433, September 2006.
[23] Kai-Yi Chin, Jim-Min Lin, Zeng-Wei Hong, Kun-Ta Lin and Wei-Tsong Lee, "Developing an IDML-based Embodied Pedagogical Agent System for Multimedia Learning," In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS-2009), pp. 35-41, Shenyang, China, August 2009.
[24] Guo-Ming Fang, Kai-Yi Chin, Xui-Hui Yan, Jim-Min Lin and Arthur Lin, "A Framework for Interactive Scenario-Based Multi-Agent Systems," System and Information Sciences Notes, Vol. 1/2, pp. 159-164, July 2007.
[25] Zeng-Wei Hong, Kai-Yi Chin and Jim-Min Lin, "Developing embodied agent-based user interface by using Interactive drama markup language," In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication (ICUIMC-2009), Suwon, Korea, January 2009.
[26] Zeng-Wei Hong, Cheng-Hung Chuang, Chin-Hsien Wu, Kai-Yi Chin, Jim-Min Lin and Yen-Lin Chen, "Scripting Animated Conversational Agents in an Internet Multi-Agent Advertising System," JCIT: Journal of Convergence Information Technology, 2010.
[27] Jim-Min Lin, Kai-Yi Chin, Zeng-Wei Hong and Arthur Jing Lin, "An Agent Scenario Mechanism Supporting Human/Agent Interaction," In Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering (IKE''06), pp.203-207, Las Vegas, USA, June 2006.
[28] Roxana Moreno and Richard E. Mayer, "A learner-centered approach to multimedia explanations: deriving instructional design principles from cognitive theory," Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer Enhanced Learning, pp. 1-6, Retrieved March 22, 2005, from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/index.asp, 2000.
[29] Chris Evans and Khaled Sabry, "Evaluation of the interactivity of web-based learning systems: principles and process," Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Vol. 40(1), pp. 89-99, May 2003.
[30] Michael G. Moore, "Three types of interaction," The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 3(2), pp. 1-6, November, 1989.
[31] Chien Chou, "Interactivity and interactive functions in web-based learning systems: a technical framework for designers," British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 34(3), pp. 265-279, June 2003.
[32] Chris Evans and Nicola J. Gibbons, "The interactivity effect in multimedia learning," Computers & Education, Vol. 49(4), pp. 1147-1160, December 2007.
[33] Hillman Daniel C.A., Willis Deborah J. and Gunawardena Charlotte N., "Learner-interface interaction in distance education: an extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners," The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 30-42, 1994.
[34] Rod Sims, "Interactivity: a forgotten art?" Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 13(2), pp. 157-180, May 1997.
[35] Yasubumi Nozawa, Hiroshi Dohi, Hitoshi Iba and Mitsuru Ishizuka, "Humanoid Robot Presentation Controlled by Multimodal Presentation Markup Language MPML," In Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN2004), pp. 153-158, Kurashiki, Japan, September 2004.
[36] Kazuhiko Shinozawa, Futoshi Naya, Junji Yamato and Kiyoshi Kogure, "Differences in effect of robot and screen agent recommendations on human decision-making," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 62(2), pp. 267-279, February 2005.
[37] Kwan Min Lee, Younbo Jung, Jaywoo Kim and Sang Ryong Kim, "Are physically embodied social agents better than disembodied social agents? The effects of physical embodiment, tactile interaction, and people''s loneliness in human-robot interaction," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 64(10), pp. 962-973, October 2006.
[38] Yoshitaka Nishimura, Kazutaka Kushida, Hiroshi Dohi and Mitsuru Ishizuka, "Development of multimodal presentation markup language MPML-HR for humanoid robots and its psychological evaluation," International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, Vol. 4(1), pp. 1-20, March 2007.
[39] Takayuki Kanda, Takayuki Hirano, Daniel Eaton and Hiroshi Ishiguro., "Interactive Robots as Social Partners and Peer Tutors for Children: A Field Trial," Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 19(1), pp. 61-84, June 2004.
[40] Jeonghye Han and Dongho Kim, "r-Learning Services for Elementary School Students with a Teaching Assistant Robot," In Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, pp. 255–256, New York, 2009.
[41] Jeonghye Han, Miheon Jo, Sungju Park, Sungho Kim, "The Educational Use of Home Robots for Children," In Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 378-383 Roman, August 2005.
[42] Eun Kyoung Lee, Young Jun Lee, "A Pilot Study of Intelligent Robot Aided Education," In Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Computers in Education, pp. 595-596, Taipei, Taiwan, September 2008.
[43] Eun.-ja Hyun So-yeon Kim, Siekyung Jang, Sungju Park, "Comparative study of effects of language instruction program using intelligence robot and multimedia on linguistic ability of young children," In Proceedings of the 17th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 187-192 Munich, August 2008.
[44] Zhen-Jia You, Chi-Yuh Shen, Chih-Wei Chang, Baw-Jhiune Liu and Gwo-Dong Chen, "A Robot as a Teaching Assistant in an English Class," In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, pp. 87-91, Kerkrade, July 2006.
[45] Ying-Tsuan Lu, Chih-Wei Chang and Gwo-Dong Chen, "Using a Programmable Storytelling Robot to Motivate Learning Second Language," In Proceedings of Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007), pp. 841-844, Niigata, July 2007.
[46] Chao-Fen Shih, Chih-Wei Chang and Gwo-Dong Chen, "Robot as a Storytelling Partner in the English Classroom - Preliminary Discussion," In Proceedings of Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007), pp. 678-682 Niigata, July 2007.
[47] Chun-Cheng Wu, Chih-Wei Chang, Baw-Jhiune Liu and Gwo-Dong Chen, "Improving Vocabulary Acquisition By Designing A Storytelling Robot," In Proceedings of Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), pp. 498-500, Santander, Cantabria, July 2008.
[48] Jean Ecalle, Annie Magnana and Caroline Calmusa, "Lasting effects on literacy skills with a computer-assisted learning using syllabic units in low-progress readers," Computers & Education, Vol. 52(3), pp. 554-561, April 2008.
[49] H. Blok, R. Oostdam, M. Otter and M. Overmaat, "Computer-assisted instruction in support of beginning reading instruction: A review," Review of Education Research, Vol. 72(1), pp. 101-130, Spring, 2002.
[50] Melek Yaman, Claudia Nerdel and Horst Bayrhuber, "The effects of instructional support and learner interests when learning using computer simulations," Computers & Education, Vol. 51(4), pp. 1784-1794, December 2008.
[51] Marc Cavazza, Fred Charles and Steven J. Mead, "Character-Based Interactive Storytelling," IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 17(4), pp. 17-24, July 2002.
[52] N. M. Sgouros, G. Papakonstantinou and P. Tsanakas, "A Framework for Plot Control in Interactive Story Systems," In Proceedings of AAAI’96, AAAI Press, Portland, 1996.
[53] Ryohei Nakatsu and Naoko Tosa, "Interactive Movies," CRC Press and IEEE Press, Boca Raton, FL, April 1999.
[54] R. Michael Young, "Creating Interactive Narrative Structures: The Potential for AI Approaches," In Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium in Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment, AAAI Press, Stanford, CA, March 2000.
[55] Fred Charles, Steven J. Mead and Marc Cavazza, "Character-driven Story Generation in Interactive Storytelling," In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM’01), October 2001.
[56] Tzung-Yi Lee, Chih-Wei Chang and Gwo-Dong Chen, "Building an Interactive Caring Agent for Students in Computer-based Learning Environments," In Proceedings of Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007), pp. 300-304, July 2007.
[57] Hye-Seung Kang and Hee-Dong Yang, "The visual characteristics of avatars in computer-mediated communication: Comparison of Internet Relay Chat and Instant Messenger as of 2003," International Journal of Human - Computer Studies, Vol. 64(12), pp. 1173-1183, December 2006.
[58] C. Lisetti, F. Nasoz, C. LeRouge, O. Ozyer and K. Alvarez, "Developing multimodal intelligent affective interfaces for tele-home health care," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 59(1-2), pp. 245-255, July 2003.
[59] Clifford Nass, B. J. Fogg and Youngme Moon, "Can computers be teammates?" International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 45(6), pp. 669-678, December 1996.
[60] Dianne C. Berry, Laurie T. Butler and Fiorella de Rosis, "Evaluating a realistic agent in an advice-giving task," International Journal of Human - Computer Studies, Vol. 63(3), pp. 304-327, September 2005.
[61] Robert K. Atkinson, Richard E. Mayer and Mary Margaret Merrill, "Fostering social agency in multimedia learning: Examining the impact of an animated agent’s voice," Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 30, pp. 117-139, January 2005.
[62] Roxana Moreno, Richard E. Mayer, Hiller A. Spires and James C. Lester, "The case for social agency in computer-based teaching: Do students learn more deeply when they interact with animated pedagogical agents?" Cognition and Instruction, Vol. 19(2), pp. 177-213, June 2001.
[63] James C. Lester and Brian A. Stone, "Increasing believability in animated pedagogical agents," AGENTS’97: In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, ACM Press, pp. 16-21, New York, February 1997.
[64] Helmut Prendinger, Sylvain Descamps and Mitsuru Ishizuka, "MPML: a markup language for controlling the behavior of life-like characters," Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Vol. 15(2), pp. 183-203, April 2004.
[65] Liang-Yi Li, Chih-Wei Chang and Gwo-Dong Chen, "Researches on Using Robots in Education," In Proceedings of 4th International Conference on E-Learning and Games, Edutainment pp. 479-482, Banff, Canada, August 2009.
[66] YunYoung Hur and Jeonghye Han, "Analysis on Children’s Tolerance to Weak Recognition of Storytelling Robots," Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 103-109, September 2009.
[67] Chih-Wei Chang, Jih-Hsien Lee, Po-Yao Chao and Gwo-Dong Chen, "Exploring the possibility of using humanoid robots as instructional tools for teaching a second language in primary school," Educational Technology & Society (IFETS), Vol. 13(2), pp. 13–24, January 2010.
[68] Kazuo Hirai, Masato Hirose, Yuji Haikawa and Toru Takenaka, "The development of the Honda humanoid robot," In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, New York: IEEE, May 1998.
[69] Masahiro Fujita, "AIBO: Towards the era of digital creatures," International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 20, pp. 781-794, July 2001.
[70] Cynthia Breazeal and Brian Scassellati, "A context-dependent attention system for a social robot," In Proceedings of International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence., CA: Kaufmann, San Francisco, 1999.
[71] Seymour Papert, "The Children''s Machine," Basic Books, New York. 1993.
[72] Martyn Cooper, David Keating, William Harwin and Kerstin Dautenhahn, "Robots in the Classroom-Tools for Accessible Education," IOS Press, Christian Buhler and Harry Knops, 1999.
[73] Nicolas Szilas, "IDtension: a narrative engine for Interactive Drama," In Proceedings of Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment (TIDSE''03), pp. 187-203, Darmstadt, Germany, March 2003.
[74] Brian Magerko, "A proposal for an Interactive Drama Architecture," AAAI Spring Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Entertainment AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA, March 2002.
[75] Richard E. Mayer, "The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning," New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. August 2005.
[76] Altova XMLSpy, website from http://www.altova.com/, 2005
[77] R. E. Mayer, "Multimedia learning," New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 2001.
[78] Xing Shusong and Zhou Huanyun, "Behavior enhanced instant messaging using desktop robots," In Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, pp. 988 - 993, September 2008.
[79] Zeynel Kablan and Munire Erden, "Instructional efficiency of integrated and separated text with animated presentations in computer-based science instruction," Computers & Education, Vol. 51(2), pp. 660-668. September 2008.
[80] A. Jones, E. Scanlon, C. Tosunoglu, E. Morris, S. Ross, P. Butcher and J. Greenberg, "Contexts for evaluating educational software," Interacting with Computers, Vol. 11(5), pp. 499-516, May 1999.
[81] Dominic Massaro Michael, Michael M. Cohen, Jonas Beskow, Sharon Daniel and Ronald A. Cole, "Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents," In Proceedings of First Workshop on Embodied Conversational Characters (WECC) Granlibakken Resort & Conference Center, November 1998.
[82] Bryon Reeves, Clifford Nass, "The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Televisions and New Media Like Real People and Places," Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998.
[83] Timothy Bickmore, "Social Dialogue is Serious Business," In Proceedings of the CHI 2002 Workshop on Socially Adept Technologies, 2002.
[84] Shu-chiao Tsai, "Courseware development for semiconductor technology and its application into instruction," Computers & Education, Vol. 52(4), pp. 834-847, May 2009.
[85] Jennifer M. Apperson, Eric. L. Laws and James. A. Scepansky, "An assessment of student preferences for PowerPoint presentation structure in undergraduate courses," Computers & Education, Vol. 50(1), pp. 148-153, January 2008.
[86] Joshua E. Susskind, "Limits of PowerPoint’s Power: Enhancing students’ self-efficacy and attitudes but not their behavior," Computers & Education, Vol. 50(4), pp. 1228-1239, May 2008.
[87] Attila Szabo and Nigel Hastings, "Using IT in the undergraduate classroom: should we replace the blackboard with PowerPoint?" Computers & Education, Vol. 35(3), pp. 175-187, November 2000.
[88] April Savoy, Robert W. Proctor and Gavriel Salvendy, "Information retention from PowerPoint and traditional lectures," Computers & Education, Vol. 52(4), pp. 858-867, May 2009.
[89] J. Cohen, "Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.), " Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.
[90] Kyoko Ariyasu, Ichiro Yamada, Hideki Sumiyoshi, Masahiro Shibata and Nobuyuki Yagi, "Visualization of Text-Based Dialog in a Virtual Classroom for e-Learning," IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol. E88-D, No.5, pp. 836-842, May 2005.
[91] Richard E. Mayer and Paul Chandler, "When learning is just a click away: does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of multimedia messages?" Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 93(2), pp. 806-813, June 2001.
[92] Lesley Xie, Alissa N. Antle and Nima Motamedi, "Are tangibles more fun?: comparing children''s enjoyment and engagement using physical, graphical and tangible user interfaces," In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction, pp. 191-198, Bonn, Germany, February 18-20, 2008.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔