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研究生:游德怡
研究生(外文):Teresa Te-yi Yu
論文名稱:瑪格麗特‧愛特伍德《人類生存之前》中自我演進在時空中之再現
論文名稱(外文):A SPATIOTEMPORAL REPRESENTATION OF SELF-REVOLUTION IN MARGARET ATWOOD’S LIFE BEFORE MAN
指導教授:劉雪珍劉雪珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cecilia C. H. Liu
口試委員:劉紀雯洪敏秀
口試委員(外文):Kate Chi-wen LiuRachel Min-hsiou Hung
口試日期:20110118
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:瑪格麗特‧愛特伍德時空體巴赫金自我再現
外文關鍵詞:Margaret AtwoodchronotopeBakhtinselfrepresentation
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本論文探討瑪格麗特‧愛特伍德在她第四部小說《人類生存之前》中,如何從三個迷失自我的角色出發,藉由描繪他們自我演進的過程,再現與真實世界不同的時空樣貌。作為一部家庭生活的寫實主義小說,《人類生存之前》的故事取景於當時的多倫多,表面上描述三個角色的日常生活,然而當他們無法在人際關係中找到自己的定位時,眼前真實世界的場景開始分崩離析,真實的空間隨著他們的迷失因此失真。本論文透過巴赫金的時空體理論來分析這些角色的時空經驗。在其時空體的觀念中,時間與空間是不可分割的兩元素。時間作為空間中的第四次元,使得空間由於回應了時間的流動性而重組。空間不再是單一的實際樣貌,而是隨著角色累積的時間經驗因此實體化為一時空體。時空體超越了實際的空間,連結了角色的過去、現在和未來,同時再現了他們自我演進的過程。
本論文分成導論、結論與三個章節,共五部分。導論討論三個主角薄弱的生存感並詳述巴赫金的時空性理論如何適用在分析主角的時空經驗。第一章著重在女主角伊麗莎白的身體時空體。她對於生存意義的不確定感源自於表裡不一的身體存在感。為了要維護她的尊嚴,伊麗莎白偽裝成強勢的女人,不願面對內心失落的自我。但是克里斯的死威脅了她自認完整的身體形象。藉由回溯她身體的時空經驗,伊麗莎白體悟到她偽裝背後的失落自我也是她身體存在的一部份。她的身體時空體再現了她自我演進的過程。第二章檢視男主角奈特的家時空體。由於無法面對懦弱的自我,奈特將家的時空劃分為屬於那些對他予取予求的女人的領地,例如籠罩著他母親意象的童年的家、和伊麗莎白居住的家,以及和蕾西亞生活的家。因為無法在真實世界中找到定位,奈特迷失了自我。家時空體概念顯示奈特在這些家的時空中不斷置換的經驗其實提供了他轉變的機會,也再現了奈特自我成長的過程。第三章闡明另一位女主角古生物學家蕾西亞對於史前世界的想像是她尋找自我的時空之旅。在真實世界中缺乏歸屬感的蕾西亞退居她想像的恐龍世界裡,想逃脫來自成人世界的壓力。然而當她遇到奈特,她開始和真實世界有了連結;從只是個旁觀者到成為參與其中的一份子,蕾西亞逐步地揭示了古生物學的價值。她想像的恐龍中生代場景呼應了她工作所在的博物館,彷彿她的想像時空再現於真實世界裡。她的幻想使得過去的時間起死回生,並且作為人類的借鏡,反映了人類的生存意義。博物館不僅紀錄逝去物種的存在,也是一彙集了異質性生命的時空體場域。結論中最後統整三個主角的時空再現經驗,並探討愛特伍德對於人類生存的關注在其後續作品中的發展。

The theme of human survival is one of the major concerns in Margaret Atwood’s works. This thesis investigates how Atwood gives a different representation of space in her fourth novel Life Before Man (1979) by means of providing the reconstructed images of space reinvented by the three characters. As a domestic realism, Life Before Man, on the one hand, with its setting in the contemporary Toronto, describes the domestic everyday life of Elizabeth, Nate and Lesje. On the other, when they fail to find their positions among the interpersonal relationships, the space in reality filtered through their experience become unrealistic. A real body becomes a dissolved shell; a home is turned into a Lego town; and, a museum is fantasized to a prehistoric wildland. With the help of Bakhtin’s concept of chronotope, this thesis argues that through the characters’ spatiotemporal experience, in which the flow of time unlocks the actuality of space, space becomes different chronotopes, which connect the characters’ past, present and future together. The chronotopes thus represent the three characters’ self-revolutions.
This thesis is divided into three chapters, apart from an introduction and a conclusion. In the introduction, I discuss the characters’ vulnerable feelings of self existence and expound how Bakhtin’s concept of chronotope fits into dealing with their problem of the spatiotemporal experience. The first chapter then focuses on Elizabeth’s body as a chronotope. Her uncertainty about her selfhood is due to her ambivalent state of body existence. Trying to maintain her dignity, Elizabeth pretends to be a competent woman so as to protect her dissolved self. Yet Chris’s death as a shock threatens her self- image as a complete body existence. By gradually reminiscing her spatiotemporal experience of the body, Elizabeth decides to face the fact that behind her pretension, her dissolved body image is part of her selfhood. Her body is substantiated as the body chronotope, which represents her self-revolution. The second chapter is the analysis of Nate’s home chronotope. Unable to face the wimpy self, Nate distributes his childhood home, marital house, and the new home into the territories of the women, whom he finds hard to gratify, such as his mother, Elizabeth, and Lesje. Failing to order space for himself, Nate feels disorientated in the different home spaces. The idea of the home chronotope manifests that Nate’s displacement is actually the constant change of his selfhood. The possible change offers him opportunities to transform into a better self. In the third chapter, I explain that Lesje’s fantasy of prehistory is her spatiotemporal journey to find her selfhood. Without a sense of belonging, Lesje regresses to the imaginative dinosaur world to escape from the adulthood. But, when she meets Nate, she begins to engage in a dialogue with reality. From a mere observer to a participant in reality, Lesje unfolds the value of paleontology meaningfully. Her imagination of the dinosaur world resurrects the past and serves as a mirror to reflect our human existence. The museum thus is not only a reservoir of the dead but also a chronotope which epitomizes the heterogeneous life. Finally, the conclusion ends with a reflection about the chronotopic reading of the text and some reference to Atwood’s contemplative concern with human survival in her later works.

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………1
Chapter One: Body Chronotope……………………………………………………….20
Chapter Two: Home Chronotope………………………………………………………43
Chapter Three: Museum Chronotope……………………………………………….....71
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………104
Work Cited……………………………………………………………………………109

Atwood, Margaret Eleanor. Life Before Man. Toronto: Seal, 1979.
---. Cat’s Eye. Toronto: Seal, 1988.
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Michael Holquist. Texas: U of Texas P, 1981.
Morris, Pam, ed. The Bakhtin Reader: Selected Writing of Bakhtin, Medvedev and
Voloshinov. London: Edward Arnold, 1994.
Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introductory to Literary and Cultural Theory. 2nd ed.
Manchester: Manchester UP, 2002.
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Stein, Karen. Margaret Atwood Revisited. Boston: Twayne, 1999.

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